Introduction – Human trafficking is a group of crimes involving the exploitation of
men, women and children for financial gains which is violation of fundamental human
rights. Millions of men, women and children are victims of human trafficking for sexual,
forced labor and other forms of exploitation worldwide. The human and economic costs
of this take an immense toll on individuals and communities.
Trafficking in human beings, especially women and girls, is not new. Historically it
has taken many forms, but in the context of globalization, has acquired shocking new
dimensions. It is a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon involving multiple stakeholders
at the institutional and commercial level. It is a demand-driven global business with a
huge market for cheap labour and commercial sex confronting often insufficient or
unexercised policy frameworks or trained personnel to prevent it.
Human trafficking is a part of the larger problem of slavery, and one of the most
common ways people end up in slavery. In essence, human trafficking is when people
are transported, by force or deception, to become enslaved. And by transported, we are
typically talking between countries, but people can become trafficked within their own
country as well.
Trafficking in humans is a revived form of slavery affecting virtually all regions of the
world, which has grown steadily since the 1980s to become one of the most lucrative
businesses of international criminal organizations. A recent estimate indicates that
trafficking engulfs between one and two million people each year worldwide, especially
women and children, generating billions of dollars in profits to the criminal networks that
The issue of trafficking in human beings, and especially in women and children is
increasingly of concern in India. India serves both as a source and destination country
for trafficked persons. It is also a transit country. Many women and girls arriving in India
are intended for forced labour and sexual exploitation. The Indian NGO establishment,
which is involved in trafficking issues, is extremely energetic and active.
The UN definition of trafficking in persons identifies several key elements of
trafficking: recruitment and facilitated movement of a person within or across national
frontiers by means of coercion, threats or deception for the purpose of exploitation.
UNODC explains that “the crime of trafficking be defined through a combination of the
three constituent elements and not the individual components, though in some cases
threes individual elements will constitute criminal offences independently.”
Human trafficking is a process of people being recruited in their community and country
of origin and transported to the destination where they are being exploited for purposes
of forced labor, prostitution, domestic servitude, and other forms of exploitation.
Purposes of Human Trafficking
Throughout the process of human trafficking (recruitment, transportation, transfer,
harbouring, or/and receipt of persons), traffickers play particular roles. Traffickers in this
note indicate “recruiters, transporters, those who exercise control over trafficked
persons, those who transfer and/or maintain trafficked persons in exploitative situations,
those involved in related crimes, those who profit either directly or indirectly from
trafficking, its component acts and related offences.”
Forms of Human trafficking
1. Forced Labor
2. Sex Trafficking
3. Bonded Labor
4. Debt Bondage Among Migrant Laborers
5. Involuntary Domestic Servitude
6. Forced Child Labor
7. Child Soldiers
8. Child Sex Trafficking
Causes of Human trafficking
Poverty is the main cause of exploitation. Poverty combined with destabilization of
families particularly due to rural-urban migration, armed conflict and global economic
policies that are placing many people in developing countries, including Uganda at the
risk of exploitation.
The culture of consumer values in the context of structural adjustment programmes in
rural area and Africa have been combined with open market policies has placed low
income families at risk of exploitation and adults tempted by financial considerations.
Traditional family values of child care seem to be breaking down. Children themselves
are becoming attracted to consumer culture. In that context tourism is becoming a link
to sexual exploitation of women in general and children particularly. Promotion of
tourism has became a goal to attract foreigners at any cost. The demand for exotic
locations creates an urgent demand for such services.
Although there is now allocation of more resources for education universal primary
education (UPE), it is not enough for education and other aspects of human
development. Tertiary/ University education is still expensive and out of the reach to
many. The culture of emphasizing male child education over female child education is
still very much with us. The women‟s literacy levels are still lower than the males.
Leaving the women with less skills and training for employment in the formal sector and
vulnerable to exploitation. Global economic trends have created an environment in
which trafficking is flourishing and the women especially do not have access to
education and their families to employment or alternative methods of income
The low status of women / girls in the family and community has contributed to
trafficking and exploitation of women / girls . Local customs and values which put
emphasis on male power has given legitimacy to manipulation of social practices
for example women can not inherit land.
Poor parents are forced or duped into giving their own daughters to strangers as
brides or workers and the girls have no exercise over personal choice. The
permissive attitude to domestic violence against women and girls also results in
sexual abuse in the family or in the domestic service , so the victims of
violence are drown into prostitution.
Perpetrators of human trafficking include a wide range of participants, including
international and national organized crime syndicates, less well-organized local
networks and family members. Parents have been identified as being involved in
trafficking or colluding with traffickers, sometimes as a result of their ignorance of a
trafficker‟s intention or sometimes with knowledge that their child will be exploited.
Men make up the majority of traffickers, whether through transnational crime
syndicates or looser local networks. While globally, women are heavily involved in
human trafficking, this study found that women‟s role is more commonly that of
intermediaries rather than primary perpetrators.
Human trafficking by the numbers
Adults and children in forced labor, bonded labor, and forced prostitution around
the world: 12.3 million
Successful trafficking prosecutions in 2009: 4,166
Successful prosecutions related to forced labor: 335
Victims identified: 49,105
Ratio of convicted offenders to victims identified, as a percentage: 8.5
Ratio of victims identified to estimated victims, as a percentage: 0.4
Countries that have yet to convict a trafficker under laws in compliance with the
Palermo Protocol: 62
Countries without laws, policies, or regulations to prevent victims‟ deportation:
Prevalence of trafficking victims in the world: 1.8 per 1,000 inhabitants
Prevalence of trafficking victims in Asia and the Pacific: 3 per 1,000 inhabitants
There are many Provisions and laws for human trafficking.
According to Indian Penal Code, 1860 (i) Procuration of minor girls (section 366-A IPC)
(ii) Importation of girls ((Sec. 366-B IPC) (referred in the past as „Eve-Teasing')
(iii) Selling of girls for prostitution (Section-372 IPC)
(iv) Buying of girls for prostitution (Section -373 IPC
Other Special law are also there (i) Bonded Labour (System) Abolition Act 1976
(ii) Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000
(iii) Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986
(iv) Human Organ Transplant Act 1994.
Twenty-seven million slaves exist in theworld today
Two hundred thousand people are currentlyenslaved in the US
Up to 17,500 new victims are trafficked across US borders each year
30,000 slaves are transported through the US to other destinations
800,000 to 900,000 human beings are bought, sold, or forced across the world‟s
borders each year
The FBI estimates that the slave trade generates
Trafficking in human beings, especially children, is a form of modern day slavery and
requires a holistic, multi-sectoral approach to address the complex dimension of the
problem. It is a problem that violates the rights and dignity of the victims and therefore
requires essentially a child rights perspective while working on its eradication.
In the fight against trafficking government organizations, non-governmental
organizations, civil society, pressure groups, international bodies, all have to play an
important role. Law can not be the only instrument to take care of all problems.
Human Trafficking is Organized Crime
Around the world and around the corner, ordinary people are helping to abolish this
form of modern-day slavery. You can be one of them.
Human trafficking is the fastest growing form of international crime.
It's the second highest grossing illegal industry in the world.
Only illegal drugs bring in more money.
Traffickers can sell a drug once, but they can sell a child over and over again.
27 million men, women and children are slaves today.
Each year, more than 1 million children are exploited in the global commercial
sex trade. That's in addition to the children already enslaved.
Human trafficking is a $32 billion a year industry.
In the US, 100,000 children and young women are enslaved today. Their
average age? 11
“Human trafficking is, without a doubt, a major branch of organized crime.”