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Chapter16
 

Chapter16

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It is for basic learning for class XI

It is for basic learning for class XI

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    Chapter16 Chapter16 Presentation Transcript

    • c hapte r 16 Computer System Organisation
    • INPUT OUTPUT AND MEMORY DEVICES  INPUT DEVICES – KEY BOARD – MOUSE – JOYSTICK
    •  PRINTERS  SPEAKERS
    • PRINTERS IMPACT PRINTERS – THERE IS MECHANICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE PRINT HEAD AND PAPER NON IMPACT PRINTERS – THERE IS NO MECHANICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE PRINT HEAD AND PAPER, PRINTING WILL TAKE PLACE AS DIFFERENT WAYS
    • IMPACT PRINTERS EXAMPLE 1. LINE PRINTERS – DRUM PRINTER CONSIST OF CYLINDRICAL DRUM ON WHICH CHARACTERS ARE EMBOSSED – CHAIN PRINTER CONSISTS OF A STEEL BAND ON WHICH ON WHICH THE CHARACTERS ARE EMBOSSED
    • DRUM PRINTERS
    • CHAIN PRINTERS
    • 2. CHARACTER PRINTERS(SERIAL PRINTER) – CHARACTER PRINTER PRINTS ONE CHARACTER AT A TIME, WITH THE PRINT HEAD MOVING ACROSS A LINE, NORMALLY PRINT 30 TO 300 CHARACTERS PER SECOND.. – THERE ARE TWO TYPES DOT MATRIX PRINTERS – Printing haead contains a vertical group (array) of pins. – There are 9 pins in the print head, bottom 2 used to lower case, others for
    • Dot matrix printers
    • LETTER QUALITY PRINTERS – This type of printer will print full characters not as the character made of dots.
    • This lesson includes the following sections: • Overview of Printers • Dot Matrix Printers • Ink Jet Printers • Laser Printers • Snapshot Printers • Other High-Quality Printers
    • Overview of Printers • Categorizing Printers • Evaluating Printers
    • Overview of Printers - Categorizing Printers Printers fall into two categories: • Impact printers use a device to strike an inked ribbon, pressing ink from the ribbon onto the paper. • Non-impact printers use different methods to place ink (or another substance) on the page.
    • Overview of Printers - Evaluating Printers When evaluating printers, consider four criteria: • Image quality – Measured in dots per inch (dpi). Most printers produce 300 – 600 dpi. • Speed – Measured in pages per minute (ppm) or characters per second (cps). • Initial cost – Consumer printers cost $250 or less, but professional printers can cost thousands of dollars. • Cost of operation – This refers to the cost of supplies used by the printer.
    • Dot Matrix Printers • How Do Dot Matrix Printers Work? • Performance
    • Dot Matrix Printers - How Do Dot Matrix Printers Work? • Dot matrix printers are a common type of impact printer. • A dot matrix printer's print head contains a cluster of pins. The printer can push the pins out to form patterns in rapid sequence. • The pins press an inked ribbon against the paper, creating an image.
    • Dot Matrix Printers - Performance • Lower-resolution dot matrix printers use nine pins. Higher-resolution models have 24 pins. • Speed is measured in characters per second (cps). Some dot matrix printers print 500 cps.
    • Ink Jet Printers • How Do Ink Jet Printers Work? • Performance
    • Ink Jet Printers – How Do Ink Jet Printers Work? • Ink jet printers are an example of non-impact printers. • The printer sprays tiny droplets of ink onto the paper. • Ink jet printers are available for color and black-and- white printing.
    • Ink Jet Printers - Performance • Ink jet printers offer speeds of (2 – 4 pages per minute ppm) and resolution (300 – 600 dots per inch dpi), comparable to low-end laser printers. • Ink jet printers are inexpensive and have low operating costs.
    • Laser Printers • How Do Laser Printers Work? • Performance
    • Laser Printers – How Do Laser Printers Work? • Laser printers are non-impact printers. • They use heat and pressure to bond particles of toner to paper. • Laser printers are available for color and black- and-white printing.
    • Laser Printers - Performance • Laser printers provide resolutions from 300 – 1200 dpi and higher. • Black-and-white laser printers usually produce 4 – 16 ppm. • Laser printers produce higher-quality print than ink jet printers, but are more expensive.
    • Snapshot Printers • Snapshot printers are specialized, small-format printers that print digital photographs. • Snapshot printers are fairly slow, and can be more expensive to operate
    • Snapshot printers are popular among digital camera users
    • Other High-Quality Printers Print shops and publishers use these printers to create high-quality color images: • Thermal-wax • Dye-sublimation • Fiery • IRIS • Plotters
    • Plotters use mechanical, ink jet, or thermal technology to create large-format images for architectural or engineering uses.
    • Re vie w • List the three most commonly used types of printers. • List the four criteria you should consider when   evaluating printers. • Describe how a dot matrix printer creates an image on a page. • Explain the process by which a laser printer operates. • List five types of high-quality printing devices commonly used in business.
    •  AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF EVERY COMPUTER IS ITS MEMORY  EACH AND EVERY WORD IS ASSIGNED AN ADDRESS IN THE MEMORY.  EACH WORD CONSISTS OF SAME BITS IS CALLED WORD LENGTH.  MEMORIES CAN BE READ FROM OR WRITTEN INTO  MEMORIES THAT CAN BE BOTH READ FROM AND WRITTEN INTO ARE CALLED READ-WRITE MOMORIES.  SOME MEMORIES HAVE PROGRAM OR DATA PERMANENTLY STORED AND ARE CALLED READ ONLY MEMORY.  THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MEMORY DEVICE  PRIMARY MEMORY (RAM, ROM)  SECONDARY MEMORY (HARD DISK, FLOPPY, CD, PEN DRIVE)
    •  THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF RAM  DYNAMIC RAM (DRAM)  STATIC RAM(SRAM)
    •  DRAM CONSISTS OF A TRANSISTOR AND CAPACITOR.  CAPACITOR THAT’S CAPABLE OF STORING AN ELECTRIC CHARGE DEPENDING ON THE SWITCHING ACTION OF THE TRANSISTOR.  CAPACITOR EITHER CONTAIN NO CHARGE (0 BIT) OR DOES HOLD A CHARGE (1BIT)  DRAM PROVIDES VOLATILE STORAGE IT MEANS IF POWER FAILURE MEANS IT WILL LOST ITS MEMORY
    •  DRAM CONTAINS TWO ELEMENTS  MOSFET (METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR)  CAPACITOR  EACH CHIP WILL HAVE THE STORAGE CAPACITY OF 64 BIT.
    •  THE AMOUNT OF TIME TAKEN TO PRODUCE DATA REQUIRED FROM MEMORY, FROM THE START OF ACCESS UNTIL THE AVAILABLILITY OF DATA IS CALLED MEMORY ACCESS TIME.  DRAM CHIPS HAVE ACCESS TIME RANGING FROM BELOW 7 TO 70 NANOSECONDS.
    •  DRAM CELL CONSISTS OF ONLY ONE TRANSISTOR AND CAPACITOR PER BIT  GENERALLY DRAM CHIPS ARE AVAILABLE WITH 128 BIT OR 256 BIT DENSITIES OR MORE
    •  THE PROBLEM OF CAPACITOR IS THAT IT STARTS LOSING THE CHARGE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME  THEREFORE THE MEMORY CONTROLLER NEEDS TO REFRESH THE MEMORY CONTENTS AS MANY AS THOUSAND TIMES A SECOND, WHICH IS CALLED MEMORY REFRESHING.
    •  EDO DRAM  Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory, a type of DRAM that is faster than conventional DRAM. Unlike conventional DRAM which can only access one block of data at a time, EDO RAM can start fetching the next block of memory at the same time that it sends the previous block to the CPU.  It has a dual pipeline architecture
    •  BECAUSE OF NUMBER OF WIRES IN A SINGLE CABLE(MULTIPLEXING) , EDO DRAM CHIPS CANNOT OPERATE IN LOCK AND STEP INTO THEIR HOST MICROPROCESSORS.  THIS IS CALLED ASYNCHRONOUS MEMORY PERFORMANCES  THIS WILL KEEP THE MEMORY BUS SPEED LIMITED TO 66MHz.  TO REDUCE THIS PROBLEM, IT WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY REDESIGNING THE BASIC MEMORY CHIP INTERFACE CALLED SYNCHRONISED DRAM  RAMBUS DRAM  DOUBLE DATA RATE (DDR) SDRAM
    •  THIS RAM IS FAIRLY FAST, AND IT WIL TRIED TO ADDRESS SOME OF THE COMPLEX ELECTRICAL AND PHYSICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVED WITH MEMORY.  RDRAM IS NOT MULTIPLEXING, RATHER THAN IT CREATES INDEPENDENT CONTROL.
    •  SDRAM WIL SUPPORTS ONE OPERATION IN EACH CLOCK CYCLE,  BUT DDR SDRAM CAN DO TWO OPERATION PER CLOCK CYCLE  SO THAT IT HAS DOUBLING THE MEMORY BANDWITDTH
    •  IT IS ALSO A VOLATILE BUT AS LONG AS THEY ARE SUPPLIED WITH POWER.  THAT MEANS IF POWER GOES MEANS IT WILL STORE THE BINARY FORMAT OF CONTENTS, IT WILL REMAINS TO THE SYSTEM WHEN POWER IS APPLIED TO THE SYSTEM.