c hapte r 16
Computer System
 Organisation
INPUT OUTPUT AND MEMORY
          DEVICES
 INPUT DEVICES
 – KEY BOARD
 – MOUSE
 – JOYSTICK
   PRINTERS
   SPEAKERS
PRINTERS
IMPACT PRINTERS
– THERE IS MECHANICAL CONTACT
  BETWEEN THE PRINT HEAD AND PAPER
NON IMPACT PRINTERS
– THERE IS N...
IMPACT PRINTERS EXAMPLE
1. LINE PRINTERS
 – DRUM PRINTER
    CONSIST OF CYLINDRICAL DRUM ON
    WHICH CHARACTERS ARE EMBOS...
DRUM PRINTERS
CHAIN PRINTERS
2. CHARACTER
PRINTERS(SERIAL PRINTER)
– CHARACTER PRINTER PRINTS ONE
  CHARACTER AT A TIME, WITH THE
  PRINT HEAD MOVING A...
Dot matrix printers
LETTER QUALITY PRINTERS
– This type of printer will print full
  characters not as the character made of
  dots.
This lesson includes the following sections:
      • Overview of Printers
      • Dot Matrix Printers
      • Ink Jet Prin...
Overview of Printers
•   Categorizing Printers

•   Evaluating Printers
Overview of Printers - Categorizing Printers
Printers fall into two categories:

• Impact printers use a device to strike ...
Overview of Printers - Evaluating Printers

When evaluating printers, consider four criteria:

•   Image quality – Measure...
Dot Matrix Printers

•   How Do Dot Matrix Printers Work?

•   Performance
Dot Matrix Printers -
How Do Dot Matrix Printers Work?

•   Dot matrix printers are a common type of impact
    printer.

...
Dot Matrix Printers - Performance

• Lower-resolution dot matrix printers use nine pins.
  Higher-resolution models have 2...
Ink Jet Printers

• How Do Ink Jet Printers Work?

• Performance
Ink Jet Printers –
How Do Ink Jet Printers Work?

• Ink jet printers are an example of non-impact
  printers.

• The print...
Ink Jet Printers - Performance

• Ink jet printers offer speeds of (2 – 4 pages per
  minute ppm) and resolution (300 – 60...
Laser Printers

•   How Do Laser Printers Work?

•   Performance
Laser Printers –
How Do Laser Printers Work?

•   Laser printers are non-impact printers.

•   They use heat and pressure ...
Laser Printers - Performance
• Laser printers provide resolutions from 300 – 1200
  dpi and higher.

• Black-and-white las...
Snapshot Printers

•   Snapshot printers are specialized, small-format
    printers that print digital photographs.

•   S...
Snapshot printers are popular among
       digital camera users
Other High-Quality Printers
Print shops and publishers use these printers to create
high-quality color images:

•   Therma...
Plotters use mechanical, ink jet, or thermal technology
to create large-format images for architectural or
engineering use...
Re vie w
    •   List the three most commonly used types of printers.

    •   List the four criteria you should consider ...
   AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF EVERY COMPUTER IS ITS
    MEMORY
   EACH AND EVERY WORD IS ASSIGNED AN ADDRESS IN THE
    M...
   THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF RAM
       DYNAMIC RAM (DRAM)
       STATIC RAM(SRAM)
   DRAM CONSISTS OF A TRANSISTOR AND CAPACITOR.
   CAPACITOR THAT’S CAPABLE OF STORING AN ELECTRIC
    CHARGE DEPENDING ...
   DRAM CONTAINS TWO ELEMENTS
       MOSFET (METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR
        FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR)
       CAPACITO...
   THE AMOUNT OF TIME TAKEN TO
    PRODUCE DATA REQUIRED FROM
    MEMORY, FROM THE START OF ACCESS
    UNTIL THE AVAILABL...
   DRAM CELL CONSISTS OF ONLY ONE
    TRANSISTOR AND CAPACITOR PER BIT
   GENERALLY DRAM CHIPS ARE
    AVAILABLE WITH 12...
   THE PROBLEM OF CAPACITOR IS THAT IT
    STARTS LOSING THE CHARGE OVER A
    PERIOD OF TIME
   THEREFORE THE MEMORY CO...
   EDO DRAM
   Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access
    Memory, a type of DRAM that is faster than
    conventional D...
   BECAUSE OF NUMBER OF WIRES IN A SINGLE
    CABLE(MULTIPLEXING) , EDO DRAM CHIPS CANNOT
    OPERATE IN LOCK AND STEP IN...
   THIS RAM IS FAIRLY FAST, AND IT WIL TRIED TO ADDRESS
    SOME OF THE COMPLEX ELECTRICAL AND PHYSICAL
    PROBLEMS INVO...
   SDRAM WIL SUPPORTS ONE OPERATION IN EACH CLOCK
    CYCLE,
   BUT DDR SDRAM CAN DO TWO OPERATION PER CLOCK
    CYCLE
...
   IT IS ALSO A VOLATILE BUT AS LONG AS
    THEY ARE SUPPLIED WITH POWER.
   THAT MEANS IF POWER GOES MEANS IT
    WILL ...
Chapter16
Chapter16
Chapter16
Chapter16
Chapter16
Chapter16
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter16

1,397

Published on

It is for basic learning for class XI

Published in: Education, Sports
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,397
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
34
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter16

  1. 1. c hapte r 16 Computer System Organisation
  2. 2. INPUT OUTPUT AND MEMORY DEVICES  INPUT DEVICES – KEY BOARD – MOUSE – JOYSTICK
  3. 3.  PRINTERS  SPEAKERS
  4. 4. PRINTERS IMPACT PRINTERS – THERE IS MECHANICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE PRINT HEAD AND PAPER NON IMPACT PRINTERS – THERE IS NO MECHANICAL CONTACT BETWEEN THE PRINT HEAD AND PAPER, PRINTING WILL TAKE PLACE AS DIFFERENT WAYS
  5. 5. IMPACT PRINTERS EXAMPLE 1. LINE PRINTERS – DRUM PRINTER CONSIST OF CYLINDRICAL DRUM ON WHICH CHARACTERS ARE EMBOSSED – CHAIN PRINTER CONSISTS OF A STEEL BAND ON WHICH ON WHICH THE CHARACTERS ARE EMBOSSED
  6. 6. DRUM PRINTERS
  7. 7. CHAIN PRINTERS
  8. 8. 2. CHARACTER PRINTERS(SERIAL PRINTER) – CHARACTER PRINTER PRINTS ONE CHARACTER AT A TIME, WITH THE PRINT HEAD MOVING ACROSS A LINE, NORMALLY PRINT 30 TO 300 CHARACTERS PER SECOND.. – THERE ARE TWO TYPES DOT MATRIX PRINTERS – Printing haead contains a vertical group (array) of pins. – There are 9 pins in the print head, bottom 2 used to lower case, others for
  9. 9. Dot matrix printers
  10. 10. LETTER QUALITY PRINTERS – This type of printer will print full characters not as the character made of dots.
  11. 11. This lesson includes the following sections: • Overview of Printers • Dot Matrix Printers • Ink Jet Printers • Laser Printers • Snapshot Printers • Other High-Quality Printers
  12. 12. Overview of Printers • Categorizing Printers • Evaluating Printers
  13. 13. Overview of Printers - Categorizing Printers Printers fall into two categories: • Impact printers use a device to strike an inked ribbon, pressing ink from the ribbon onto the paper. • Non-impact printers use different methods to place ink (or another substance) on the page.
  14. 14. Overview of Printers - Evaluating Printers When evaluating printers, consider four criteria: • Image quality – Measured in dots per inch (dpi). Most printers produce 300 – 600 dpi. • Speed – Measured in pages per minute (ppm) or characters per second (cps). • Initial cost – Consumer printers cost $250 or less, but professional printers can cost thousands of dollars. • Cost of operation – This refers to the cost of supplies used by the printer.
  15. 15. Dot Matrix Printers • How Do Dot Matrix Printers Work? • Performance
  16. 16. Dot Matrix Printers - How Do Dot Matrix Printers Work? • Dot matrix printers are a common type of impact printer. • A dot matrix printer's print head contains a cluster of pins. The printer can push the pins out to form patterns in rapid sequence. • The pins press an inked ribbon against the paper, creating an image.
  17. 17. Dot Matrix Printers - Performance • Lower-resolution dot matrix printers use nine pins. Higher-resolution models have 24 pins. • Speed is measured in characters per second (cps). Some dot matrix printers print 500 cps.
  18. 18. Ink Jet Printers • How Do Ink Jet Printers Work? • Performance
  19. 19. Ink Jet Printers – How Do Ink Jet Printers Work? • Ink jet printers are an example of non-impact printers. • The printer sprays tiny droplets of ink onto the paper. • Ink jet printers are available for color and black-and- white printing.
  20. 20. Ink Jet Printers - Performance • Ink jet printers offer speeds of (2 – 4 pages per minute ppm) and resolution (300 – 600 dots per inch dpi), comparable to low-end laser printers. • Ink jet printers are inexpensive and have low operating costs.
  21. 21. Laser Printers • How Do Laser Printers Work? • Performance
  22. 22. Laser Printers – How Do Laser Printers Work? • Laser printers are non-impact printers. • They use heat and pressure to bond particles of toner to paper. • Laser printers are available for color and black- and-white printing.
  23. 23. Laser Printers - Performance • Laser printers provide resolutions from 300 – 1200 dpi and higher. • Black-and-white laser printers usually produce 4 – 16 ppm. • Laser printers produce higher-quality print than ink jet printers, but are more expensive.
  24. 24. Snapshot Printers • Snapshot printers are specialized, small-format printers that print digital photographs. • Snapshot printers are fairly slow, and can be more expensive to operate
  25. 25. Snapshot printers are popular among digital camera users
  26. 26. Other High-Quality Printers Print shops and publishers use these printers to create high-quality color images: • Thermal-wax • Dye-sublimation • Fiery • IRIS • Plotters
  27. 27. Plotters use mechanical, ink jet, or thermal technology to create large-format images for architectural or engineering uses.
  28. 28. Re vie w • List the three most commonly used types of printers. • List the four criteria you should consider when   evaluating printers. • Describe how a dot matrix printer creates an image on a page. • Explain the process by which a laser printer operates. • List five types of high-quality printing devices commonly used in business.
  29. 29.  AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF EVERY COMPUTER IS ITS MEMORY  EACH AND EVERY WORD IS ASSIGNED AN ADDRESS IN THE MEMORY.  EACH WORD CONSISTS OF SAME BITS IS CALLED WORD LENGTH.  MEMORIES CAN BE READ FROM OR WRITTEN INTO  MEMORIES THAT CAN BE BOTH READ FROM AND WRITTEN INTO ARE CALLED READ-WRITE MOMORIES.  SOME MEMORIES HAVE PROGRAM OR DATA PERMANENTLY STORED AND ARE CALLED READ ONLY MEMORY.  THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MEMORY DEVICE  PRIMARY MEMORY (RAM, ROM)  SECONDARY MEMORY (HARD DISK, FLOPPY, CD, PEN DRIVE)
  30. 30.  THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF RAM  DYNAMIC RAM (DRAM)  STATIC RAM(SRAM)
  31. 31.  DRAM CONSISTS OF A TRANSISTOR AND CAPACITOR.  CAPACITOR THAT’S CAPABLE OF STORING AN ELECTRIC CHARGE DEPENDING ON THE SWITCHING ACTION OF THE TRANSISTOR.  CAPACITOR EITHER CONTAIN NO CHARGE (0 BIT) OR DOES HOLD A CHARGE (1BIT)  DRAM PROVIDES VOLATILE STORAGE IT MEANS IF POWER FAILURE MEANS IT WILL LOST ITS MEMORY
  32. 32.  DRAM CONTAINS TWO ELEMENTS  MOSFET (METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR)  CAPACITOR  EACH CHIP WILL HAVE THE STORAGE CAPACITY OF 64 BIT.
  33. 33.  THE AMOUNT OF TIME TAKEN TO PRODUCE DATA REQUIRED FROM MEMORY, FROM THE START OF ACCESS UNTIL THE AVAILABLILITY OF DATA IS CALLED MEMORY ACCESS TIME.  DRAM CHIPS HAVE ACCESS TIME RANGING FROM BELOW 7 TO 70 NANOSECONDS.
  34. 34.  DRAM CELL CONSISTS OF ONLY ONE TRANSISTOR AND CAPACITOR PER BIT  GENERALLY DRAM CHIPS ARE AVAILABLE WITH 128 BIT OR 256 BIT DENSITIES OR MORE
  35. 35.  THE PROBLEM OF CAPACITOR IS THAT IT STARTS LOSING THE CHARGE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME  THEREFORE THE MEMORY CONTROLLER NEEDS TO REFRESH THE MEMORY CONTENTS AS MANY AS THOUSAND TIMES A SECOND, WHICH IS CALLED MEMORY REFRESHING.
  36. 36.  EDO DRAM  Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory, a type of DRAM that is faster than conventional DRAM. Unlike conventional DRAM which can only access one block of data at a time, EDO RAM can start fetching the next block of memory at the same time that it sends the previous block to the CPU.  It has a dual pipeline architecture
  37. 37.  BECAUSE OF NUMBER OF WIRES IN A SINGLE CABLE(MULTIPLEXING) , EDO DRAM CHIPS CANNOT OPERATE IN LOCK AND STEP INTO THEIR HOST MICROPROCESSORS.  THIS IS CALLED ASYNCHRONOUS MEMORY PERFORMANCES  THIS WILL KEEP THE MEMORY BUS SPEED LIMITED TO 66MHz.  TO REDUCE THIS PROBLEM, IT WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY REDESIGNING THE BASIC MEMORY CHIP INTERFACE CALLED SYNCHRONISED DRAM  RAMBUS DRAM  DOUBLE DATA RATE (DDR) SDRAM
  38. 38.  THIS RAM IS FAIRLY FAST, AND IT WIL TRIED TO ADDRESS SOME OF THE COMPLEX ELECTRICAL AND PHYSICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVED WITH MEMORY.  RDRAM IS NOT MULTIPLEXING, RATHER THAN IT CREATES INDEPENDENT CONTROL.
  39. 39.  SDRAM WIL SUPPORTS ONE OPERATION IN EACH CLOCK CYCLE,  BUT DDR SDRAM CAN DO TWO OPERATION PER CLOCK CYCLE  SO THAT IT HAS DOUBLING THE MEMORY BANDWITDTH
  40. 40.  IT IS ALSO A VOLATILE BUT AS LONG AS THEY ARE SUPPLIED WITH POWER.  THAT MEANS IF POWER GOES MEANS IT WILL STORE THE BINARY FORMAT OF CONTENTS, IT WILL REMAINS TO THE SYSTEM WHEN POWER IS APPLIED TO THE SYSTEM.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×