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Case pp t n






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    Case pp t n Case pp t n Presentation Transcript

    • CASE PPT
      How homologation norms are the significant barriers for the international market .
      Despite India’s superiority in developing technology homologation norms are acting as a international market.
      *standardization vsAdaptaion
      The automobile market is growing all around the market with a equally.
      Homologation is a standardized process accepted across the Globe rather than adapted .
      Homologation - Automotive companies must obtain permission
      from the applicable governmental bodies to sell vehicles in a given
      market. Obtaining permission often requires the company to:
      – Document expected performance and offer such documentation for
      governmental review.
      – Submit sample of their products for testing prior to sale.
      – Demonstrate compliance usually through testing of prototypes
      representative of production.
      – Prove capability to consistently build identical, regulatory-compliant
      components/ vehicles (Conformity of Production).
      Homologation: can be classified into 2 principal
      systems as:
      1. Type Approval - Manufacturer proves that all
      applicable regulations are satisfied before the vehicle is
      allowed to be offered for sale. Whole type approval refers
      to obtaining type approval for a vehicle in its entirety, as
      opposed to obtaining approval for selected components or
      2. Self-Certification - Manufacturer proves that a
      vehicle meets the applicable regulations, but witnessed
      testing prior to sale is not necessary.
    • Q1.Homologation requirements
      AEA 2008
      Assessment of policy options for the regulation on CO2 emission reduction for lightcommercial
      vehicles carried out by ASPEN, TNO, CE DELFT, OKO INSTITUT,
      Framework contract No. ENV/C.5/FRA/2006/0071, December 2008
      2. AEA 2009
      Assessment with respect to long term CO2 emission targets for passenger cars and vans
      carried out by ASPEN, TNO, CE DELFT, OKO INSTITUT, Framework contract No.
      ENV/C.5/FRA/2006/0071, July 2009
      FLEETS 2008
      European Database of Vehicle Stock for the Calculation and Forecast of Pollutant and
      Greenhouse Gases Emissions with TREMOVE and COPERT, Contract No
      070501/2006/451259/MAR/C5, Final report, 2008
      TNO 2004
      Service Contract on the Policies for reducing CO2 emissions from light commercial
      vehicles, carried out by TNO, IEEP and LAT on behalf of the European Commission
      (DG Environment) in 2003-2004
      TNO 2006
      Emissions Certification
      • In the U.S., the process of emissions certification
      are included:
      (1) testing vehicles to certify that vehicles will pass
      emission requirements,
      (2) packaging and submitting the resulting data for
      review by governmental authorities, and
      (3) otherwise proving compliance with legal emission
    • CONT…
      Conformity of Production (COP) element
      COP requirements are based
      around established quality systems principles and, in general, certification to ISO 9001 may be an acceptable basis. The
      current car type approval legislations can be streamlined to focus on the key safety and environmental issues which have
      been recognised over the years. These topics come under the following headings:
      ♦ Environment
      ♦ Active Safety
      ♦ Passive Safety
      ♦ Lighting Equipment
      ♦ Miscellaneous
      In the U.S., an automotive company is
      required to test vehicles for the purpose of
      (a) certifying the vehicle for emissions and
      (b) determining the fuel economy
      Before performing emissions test, total road load
      horsepower (TRLHP) is determined for each vehicle
      model type through test track coastdown testing.
      • The TRLHPs are then simulated on chassis
      dynamometers so that laboratory testing of emissions
      and fuel economy vehicles may be conducted
      EU: Representative of the contractor39 Richard Smokers gave an introductory presentation on
      the main elements and findings of the report on the Assessment of options for the
      legislation of CO2 emissions from light commercial vehicles. The main conclusions of
      the report were:
      • 175 g/km target can be reached in 2012/15
      – at around 10% retail price increase
      • 160 g/km target not feasible for 2015
      – based on static cost curves for 2012-15 period with conservative safety
      margin for assessing total reduction potential for combined measures
      – assessment of a long-term target for 2020 still on-going
      – analysis will include additional technological options and cost
      reduction as function of cumulative production due to learning
      • mass-based limit function with slope ≥ 80% preferred due to:
      – lowest average costs per vehicle for meeting target
      – most equal distribution of efforts among manufacturers
      – limited chance of perverse effects compared to M1
      • non-zero AMI has strong impacts on costs
      impacts on CO2 corrected by adjusting the limit curve
    • USA
      US: The general process these vehicles undergo is as follows:
      1. Vehicles are checked in at 0 mile to ensure that the vehicle is
      representative of production and that the results of an initial
      emissions test do not imply any problems.
      2. Vehicles undergo mileage accumulation and are tested at
      appropriate intervals. The mileage accumulation and frequency of
      testing vary with fleet type.
      3. Test data and vehicle characteristic data are collected and inserted
      into a certification application, which is then submitted to EPA
      and/or CARB for approval.
      4. Additional vehicle testing is required to satisfy EPA fuel economy
      requirements (Fuel Economy Label and CAFE).
    • EU
      Certification and Homologation
      For final type approval testing, Certification and Homologation, an independent , can offer project
      management of the homologation process at any stage be it in terms of liaison with the appropriate Type Approval Body
      (for example VCA, RDW, KBA), organising the testing, formulating the paperwork and preparing the final certification
      documentation for either whole vehicles or component level.
      As an internationally-recognised test & development centre with
    • EU NORMS
    • EU
      Environmental Impacts
      5.4.1. Overall impacts in terms of emissions
      The overall CO2 abatement in two alternatives is presented in Table 15 and Table 16 (in
      the Annex). The estimated emission reduction for the 2010-2020 in option 1 amounts to
      67-77 million tonnes (100% slope). However, the variation in savings between the
      different slopes is not very large, it may occur because of slight shift in vehicle sales.
      The CO2 abatement in option 2 is at least 60 million tonnes. The difference between the
      options is caused by the fact that the target of 175 g/km will be achieved at the most 3
      years later that in option 1.
      According to TREMOVE modelling37:
      • The reduction in the GHG emissions in period from 2010 to 2020 (Table 15 in the
      Annex) corresponds roughly to 10% of the reductions calculated in the impact
      assessment for CO2 in cars, which is in line with the proportion of the vehicle fleet
      sizes of the vehicle fleet in the covered categories (the number of newly registered
      LCVs in 2005 was 12% of the number of passenger cars).
    • USA
      Fuel Economy Data Vehicles (FEDVs)
      • Fuel Economy Data Vehicles are tested to establish
      fuel economy values for
      – (1) fuel economy labels, and
      – (2) CAFE requirements.
      • Vehicles are tested in groups based on their
    • USA
      IndiaAdvantage and business opportunities
      Attractiveness of the Indian automotive industry
      Export Potential
      • Increased outsourcing has led to a large potential to export components and vehicles to other markets
      Large and growing domestic demand
      • Demand growth expected to be around 10 % CAGR making India one of the fastest growing markets
      Proven product Development capabilities
      • Capabilities to develop complete vehicles and systems
      • More than 125 Fortune 500 (including large auto companies) have R&D centres in India
      • Companies can leverage India’s acknowledged leadership in the IT industry
      High quality standards
      • 12 Indian component manufacturers have won the Deming Prize for quality
      • Most leading component manufacturers are QS and ISO certified
      Indian Auto
      Competitive manufacturing cost
      • Implementation of VAT, has positioned India as one of the leading low cost manufacturing sources
      Stable economic policies
      • Continuity in reforms and policies
      • India targets to emerge as the “manufacturing hub”for small cars
    • Opportunities in the Indian automotive sector
      Domestic Opportunities
      • Participate in domestic growth opportunities
      • Exports of vehicles
      • Exports of components
      • Engineering and Design Services
      IndiaAdvantage and business opportunities
      Global outsourcing Opportunities
      • Potential investors can capitalise on opportunities both in the domestic
      and export oriented segments
      • Investment potential of upto USD 35 - 40 bn in this sector over the next 10 years
      • Investments in the Indian automotive industry can be in various forms
      • 100 % subsidiary - 100 % FDI through automatic route allowed in this sector
      • JVs with local firms
      • Technology support or sharing agreements
    • Q4. PRODUCT DEVELOMENT APPROACHhttp://www.b2binternational.com/library/whitepapers/product_development_market_research.php
      Using Market Research In Product Development
      Applications For Market Research
    • The Innovation Adoption Curve
    • Maturity – Improving Product Performance
       Improving The Customer Value Proposition
    •  Rejuvenation Of The Product Life Cycle
      Product development research is used at all stages of the product life cycle, from the conceptual stage through to maturity.  It serves a host of purposes, such as establishing (unmet) needs, estimating likely demand, setting prices, shaping the specification of the product or determining optimal price points, to name but a few examples.  What’s more, market research can unleash potential opportunities for new products, as well as rejuvenate existing products, perhaps by incorporating new features or finding new markets.  Given the costs involved in innovation, research and development, and commercialization, as well as the costs incurred in maintaining an aging weak product, product development research provides a high return on investment.