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Presentation chapter 9



Urinary tract Abbreviations Slideshow

Urinary tract Abbreviations Slideshow



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    Presentation chapter 9 Presentation chapter 9 Presentation Transcript

    • The Urinary System and Abbreviations By: Annabella Vidal-Ruiz
    • Abbreviations
      • BNO- Bladder Neck Obstruction
      • ESWL- Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
      • cath- Catherization
      • UA, U/A- Urinalysis
      • UTI- Urinary Tract Infection
    • Bladder Neck Obstruction
      • A condition where the bladder neck does not open enough during voiding (urination)
      • Symptoms: Frequency, urgency, urge, incontinence, nocturia, decreased force of stream, hesitancy, and incomplete emptying
      • Causes: structural changes at the bladder neck (fibrous narrowing or hyperplasia), abnormal arrangement of muscles at the bladder neck opening, abnormalities of the striated urethral sphincter
      • Diagnostic Procedures: low-flow urination, X-ray of the obstruction
      • Treatment: Alpha blockers, Terazosin, Surgery (incision at bladder neck)
    • Bladder Neck Obstruction
      • An anatomical drawing of the bladder neck
    • Bladder Neck Obstruction
      • An X-ray of a bladder with an obstruction
    • Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
      • Non-invasive treatment of kidney stones
      • Procedure that attempts to break up stones with an externally-applied, focused, high-intensity acoustic pulse
      • Uses direct shearing forces and cavitation bubbles, which fragment the stones in to smaller pieces until they can pass through the ureters or cystic duct
      • Works best with stones between 4 mm and 2 cm in diameter that are still located in the kidney
      • Can lead to capillary damage, renal failure, hypertension
      • Procedure takes about an hour
    • Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
      • Passed fragments of a 1 cm stone that was smashed with Lithotripsy
    • Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
      • A patient undergoing Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
    • Catherization
      • A procedure where a catheter (or plastic tube) is slid into the patients bladder via the urethra
      • Sex Differences: In males, the catheter is placed through the urinary tract in the Penis. In females, the catheter is placed through urethral meatus
      • Common sizes: 10 F to 28F (sized by French Catheter Scales)
      • Possible long term complications: Urinary tract infections, blood infections, bladder stones, hematuria, skin breakdown, and urethral injury
    • Catherization
      • Catherization of a female
    • Urinalysis
      • an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis
      • Includes: Description, Specific Gravity, pH, Ketone Bodies, Proteins, Albustix Test, Nitrites, Urobilinogen, Bilirubin,Icotest, Glucose, Benedict’s Test, Hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, hCG
      • Can also include a microscopic examination
    • Urinary Tract Infection
      • A bacterial infection that infects any part of the urinary tract
      • Most common type of UTI is acute cystitis
      • Symptoms: frequent feeling, need to urinate, pain during urination, and cloudy urine
      • Risk Factors: sexual activity, more prevalent in women, urinary catheters, genetics, etc. (diabetics, sickle-cell disease
      • Diagnostic Procedures: Usually based on symptoms alone, Urinalysis, Urine microscopy, urine culture
      • Treatment: Short course of antibiotics
    • Urinary Tract Infection
      • Anatomical Picture of the Urinary System (Places where UTIs can occur)
    • Urinary Tract Infection
      • A magnification of the bacteria that causes UTIs
    • References
      • BNO- Bladder Neck Obstruction
        • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1477631/
      • ESWL-Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
        • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extracorporeal_shock_wave_lithotripsy
      • cath- Catherization
        • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_catheterization
      • UA, U/A- Urinalysis
        • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinalysis
      • UTI- Urinary Tract Infection
        • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/urinary-tract-infection/DS00286