Applying Human Factors
Principles
Chapter 10
Section B
Aeronautical Decision
Making
Risk Elements


Pilot – fitness, competency, currency, experience



Aircraft – performance, limits, equipment,
airworth...
Decision-making Process







D – detect
E – estimate
C – choose
I – identify
D – do
E – evaluate

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Accidents – Incidents


Accident –
–



An occurrence in which any person on board the
aircraft suffers death or serious...
NTSB


National Transportation Safety Board
–
–
–
–
–

Investigates every U. S. civil aviation accident
Issues safety rec...
Poor Judgment Chain


aka error chain



Accidents and incidents rarely, if ever, are the
result of a single cause



U...
Risk


Flight activities where accidents are most
likely to occur

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When do aviation accidents happen?

57.2% of GA accidents occur during 6% of flight time
Takeoff/initial climb, Approach, ...
PIC Responsibility


Read top half of page 10-28



Judgment
–

Learned




–

From your mistakes
From other experien...
Stressors


Three categories
–

–
–



Physical stress
Physiological stress
Psychological stress

Personal checklist

Do...
Stress

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Improving Judgment








Anticipate decisions
Train and practice in critical areas
Match individual skills with t...
Hazardous Attitudes

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Communication



Sending
Listening
Feedback



Good ATC radio procedures help




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Communication
When the rear-seat pilot of a dual-piloted T-33
aircraft attempted to adjust his position, he
inadvertently ...
Communication, continued
Meanwhile, the back seater found and
deployed the raft deflation tool. The front
seater, trying t...
Communication, continued
As the haze cleared in the back, the back
seater noticed the apparent engine flameout
and ejected...
Barriers to Sending









Poor choice of words
Silence
Assumptions
Tone
Over load
Volume

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Barriers to Listening







Boredom
Complacency
Distractions
Impatience
Anger

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Feedback









Ask for clarification until you understand
Acknowledge
Restate
Confirm
Observe
Question
Disagree...
Double Check When You Hear . . .









Probably
Possibly
I think so
I hope so
Maybe
Should

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Internal Barriers to Communication






Rank
Attitude
Choice of words
Misinterpretation
Hearback
–
–

Hear what you ...
External Barriers to Communications







High noise
Uncomfortable temperatures
High workload
Uncertain of policies/...
Resources


Internal – in the cockpit during flight



External – outside of the cockpit during flight

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Workload Management




Plan
Prepare
Prioritize

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Overload

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Compare

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Situational Awareness


An accurate perception of the operational
and environmental factors which affect the
aircraft, pi...
ADM Works!



United Flight 232
Captain Al Haynes
–

“We had 103 Years of flying experience in that
cockpit . . . but no...
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Human Factors Training in Aviation

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Human Factors Training: There's nothing that can't go wrong. This simple insight forms the foundation of human factors training for pilots. In special courses, pilots are prepared for any possible emergency situation and action strategies. Crews learn to analyze and evaluate their own behavior and that of those around them more effectively. Training leads to more efficient work processes, a functioning error management culture, and increased safety. This is a general prsentation and human factors management in aviation training.

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Transcript of "Human Factors Training in Aviation"

  1. 1. Applying Human Factors Principles Chapter 10 Section B Aeronautical Decision Making
  2. 2. Risk Elements  Pilot – fitness, competency, currency, experience  Aircraft – performance, limits, equipment, airworthiness  Environment – wx., airport conditions, ATC svcs.  Operation – purpose of flight  Situation – situational awareness of all above Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  3. 3. Decision-making Process       D – detect E – estimate C – choose I – identify D – do E – evaluate Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  4. 4. Accidents – Incidents  Accident – –  An occurrence in which any person on board the aircraft suffers death or serious injury, or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage Incident – – An occurrence other than an accident which affects the safety of operations Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  5. 5. NTSB  National Transportation Safety Board – – – – – Investigates every U. S. civil aviation accident Issues safety recommendations Maintains database Conducts research on safety issues www.ntsb.gov Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  6. 6. Poor Judgment Chain  aka error chain  Accidents and incidents rarely, if ever, are the result of a single cause  Usually a series of errors occurs which lead to the accident or incident  Break one link in the chain and sequence of events would be stopped Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  7. 7. Risk  Flight activities where accidents are most likely to occur Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  8. 8. When do aviation accidents happen? 57.2% of GA accidents occur during 6% of flight time Takeoff/initial climb, Approach, Landing Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  9. 9. PIC Responsibility  Read top half of page 10-28  Judgment – Learned    – From your mistakes From other experiences From the experiences of others Ability to exercise good judgment affected by  Stressors Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  10. 10. Stressors  Three categories – – –  Physical stress Physiological stress Psychological stress Personal checklist Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  11. 11. Stress Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  12. 12. Improving Judgment        Anticipate decisions Train and practice in critical areas Match individual skills with the job Standardize whenever possible Maintain positive attitudes Practice effective communications Be deliberate in decision making Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  13. 13. Hazardous Attitudes Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  14. 14. Communication  Sending Listening Feedback  Good ATC radio procedures help   Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  15. 15. Communication When the rear-seat pilot of a dual-piloted T-33 aircraft attempted to adjust his position, he inadvertently deployed the life raft in the seat bucket survival kit. As the raft inflated, it pushed the stick forward, which caused the aircraft to pitch nose down. The front seat pilot attempted to correct the dive, but met resistance when he pulled the stick back. Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  16. 16. Communication, continued Meanwhile, the back seater found and deployed the raft deflation tool. The front seater, trying to solve the control problem, heard an explosion as the cockpit filled with talcum powder from inside the raft, which looked very much like smoke. He identified the problem as an engine failure, closed the throttle and secured the engine. Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  17. 17. Communication, continued As the haze cleared in the back, the back seater noticed the apparent engine flameout and ejected. The front seater then deadsticked the aircraft into a field. Throughout this entire sequence, not a word was spoken. Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  18. 18. Barriers to Sending       Poor choice of words Silence Assumptions Tone Over load Volume Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  19. 19. Barriers to Listening      Boredom Complacency Distractions Impatience Anger Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  20. 20. Feedback         Ask for clarification until you understand Acknowledge Restate Confirm Observe Question Disagree Answer Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  21. 21. Double Check When You Hear . . .       Probably Possibly I think so I hope so Maybe Should Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  22. 22. Internal Barriers to Communication      Rank Attitude Choice of words Misinterpretation Hearback – – Hear what you want to hear or are expecting Mixing/switching numbers 200-220, 120,210 Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  23. 23. External Barriers to Communications      High noise Uncomfortable temperatures High workload Uncertain of policies/procedures Unable to see the other person Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  24. 24. Resources  Internal – in the cockpit during flight  External – outside of the cockpit during flight Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  25. 25. Workload Management    Plan Prepare Prioritize Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  26. 26. Overload Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  27. 27. Compare Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  28. 28. Situational Awareness  An accurate perception of the operational and environmental factors which affect the aircraft, pilot, and passengers during a specific period of time.  Fixating on one thing  Complacency Downloaded from www.avhf.com
  29. 29. ADM Works!   United Flight 232 Captain Al Haynes – “We had 103 Years of flying experience in that cockpit . . . but not one minute of that 103 years had been spent operating an airplane the way we were trying to fly it. If we had not worked together, with everybody coming up with ideas and discussing what we should do next and how we were going to do it, I do not think we would have made it to Sioux City.” Downloaded from www.avhf.com

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