Basis Of Human Behaviour 1sem 1 in obPresentation Transcript
Basis Of Human Behaviour
Schools of Psychological Thought
Primitive Biological Drives
Constructive drives or the libido as opposed to Destructive drives
Operates on pleasure principle
Concerned only with immediate gratification
Unconcerned with reality or moral considerations
c) Cannot undertake direct action towards meeting instinctual demands
a) Primary purpose is to meet ID demands but in such a way as to ensure well-being and survival of the individual
b) Requires the use of reason and other intellectual resources in dealing with the external world as well as exercise of control ID demands
c) Operates on the reality principle
Outgrowth of learning the taboos and moral values of society.
Referred to as conscience: concerned with right and wrong.
Inner control system to cope with uninhibited desires of the ID.
Operates through the EGO system and strives to compel the ego to inhibit desires that are considered wrong or immoral.
Relation of ID, EGO and SUPER EGO In The Psychoanalytic Model Of Man SUPER EGO Demands
The central integrating core of the personality
Mediates between inner demands and the environment
Action Reality Demands ID Demands
Personality Structure: Freudian Theory External World EGO (The General Manager): Working to reconcile the unconscious motivational demands of the ID, the partially conscious moral demands of the super-EGO, and the reality constraints imposed by the external world. Super Ego Ego ID UNCONSCIOUS PRECONSCIOUS CONSCIOUS
Levels of Consciousness: The Mental Iceberg Perception Thoughts Conscious Level Memories Stored Knowledge Preconscious Level Immoral Urges Selfish Needs Fears Unacceptable sexual desires Irrational wishes Shameful Experiences Violent Motives Unconscious Level Three Levels of Consciousness Conscious (Tip) : Visible above the surface Preconscious : Can be glimpsed from time to time Unconscious (Largest Portion) : Hidden from view in the dark recesses of the mind
Types Of Anxiety Reality Anxiety When the individual is confronted by dangers or threats in the external world Neurotic Anxiety When the individuals ID impulses threaten to break through EGO control and result in behaviour that will lead to punishment Moral Anxiety When the individual does something or even contemplates doing something in conflict with Super Ego or moral values and arouses feelings of guilt
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACH The Hypothesis that man is not free is essential to the application of scientific method to the study of human behaviour. The practice of looking inside the organism for an explanation of behaviour has tended to obscure the variables which are immediately available for a scientific analysis.These variables lie outside the organism, in its immediate environment and in its environmental history. - B F Skinner (1953) An interesting facet of the Beh Model is the view that man is completely at the mercy of previous conditioning and present environment. Although the person he is controls what he does, the person he is has been determined by past conditioning.
Process Based On Elaboration and Discrimination
MAN-A HUMANISTIC VIEW
Each individual exists in a private world in which the I, Me or Myself is the c entral theme
The most basic striving of the individual is towards the maintenance, enhancement and actualization of the Self
The individual reacts to situations in terms of unique perceptions of himself and his world---he reacts to reality as he perceives it and in ways consistent with his Self-Concept
Perceived threat to the self is followed by defence-including narrowing and rigidification of behaviour and the introduction of Self-Defence Mechanisms
The individuals inner tendencies are towards health and wholeness and under normal conditions he behaves in rational and constructive ways and chooses pathways towards personal growth and self-actualization
- Carl Rogers
One of the most revolutionary concepts to grow out of our clinical experience is the growing recognition that the innermost core of man’s nature, the deepest layers of his personality, the base of his animal nature, is positive in nature – is basically socialized, forward moving, rational and realistic. Carl Rogers (1961)
Man: The Architect Of His Own Life
I am a choosing agent unable to avoid choosing my way through life.
I am a free agent, absolutely free to set the goals of my own life.
I am a responsible agent, personally accountable for my free choice as they are revealed in how I live my life.
--M G Morris (1966)
Complementary needs are resolved or aggravated.
Reciprocal patterns of activity are developed, or disintegrated.
Foresight of satisfaction or rebuff of similar needs is facilitated.
Differing views of Man’s Basic Nature The views of the interpersonal and existential model are not so easily categorized. The existential model is similar to the humanistic model but represents a less optimistic view of man and places more emphasis on the irrational trends in man’s nature. Free Rational Good Humanistic Model Determined Depends on Learning Neutral Behaviouristic Model Determined Irrational Evil Psychoanalytic Model Free / Determined Rational / Irrational Good / Evil
TRAITS OF A HEALTHY PERSON TRAITS OF A HEALTHY PERSON Attitudes toward Self Emphasizing self-acceptance, adequate self-identity, realistic appraisal of ones assets and liabilities. Perception of reality A realistic view of oneself and the surrounding world of people and things. Integration Unity of personality, freedom from disabling inner conflicts, good stress tolerance. Competencies Development of essential physical, intellectual, emotional and social competencies for coping with life problems. Autonomy Adequate self-reliance, responsibility, and self – direction together with sufficient independence of social influences Growth, Self- Emphasizing trends towards maturity, development Actualization of potentialities and self-fulfillment as a person