Drum Liners for the Petroleum Industry


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History of drum liners, benefits of using drum liners, break down of typical drum liner markets, styles of drum liners, typical liner manufacturing processes.

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Drum Liners for the Petroleum Industry

  1. 1. www.cdf1.com 800.443.1920 Presented by Joseph Sullivan Drum Liners for the Petroleum Industry 1
  2. 2. History of Drum Liners  Industrial drum liners as we know them today, evolved from what once was a mandatory component of type 2U packages.  Type 2U packages were the package of choice prior to the development of the plastic drum for certain chemicals and foodstuffs.  The liners were specified by the DOT to be a minimum of .020 thick as they were the primary source of containing the product.  These open-head 2U liners were mostly vacuum-formed. 2
  3. 3. History of Drum Liners cont.  In the mid to late 70’s a problem/ opportunity arose. Many companies that were filling adhesives, paints and other products that were hard to clean out began having trouble getting rid of their drums.  There was also an opportunity to help companies re-use their drums internally.  It was the combination of the technology used to make the 2U liners and these new opportunities that spawned the lighter weight industrial liners that are used fairly extensively today. 3
  4. 4. Benefits of Using Drum Liners  Provides product protection for new and reconditioned drums  Offers source and waste reduction  Reduces time and expense of cleaning and/or replacing drums  Promotes reuse of your drum internally, which keeps drums out of the waste stream  The above two reduces use of fuel and greenhouse gas emissions  Provides an after market value to either reconditioning network or recyclers for steel drums  Recyclable – most liners are HDPE 2 and LDPE 4  Ships flat or nested for economical storage and shipping 4
  5. 5. Typical Drum Liner Markets  Chemical (petroleum related products, adhesives, automotive, coatings, detergent, ink, paint, sealants, soap)  Cosmetic (conditioner, cream, liquid makeup, lotion, shampoo)  Food & Beverage (dairy, flavoring, fats, oils, spices)  Pharmaceutical  Powder 5
  6. 6. Styles of Drum Liners  Flat Seamed  Round Bottom  Straight-Sided  Accordion  Combination  Vented  Anti-stat 6
  7. 7. Flat Seamed Drum Bags Flat seamed bags are an economical solution, however they are not recommended when mixing blades or follower plates are used. 7
  8. 8. Round Bottom Drum Liners Liners provide an economic solution for protecting your products. These liners are designed for easy installation and can be simply twisted and tied off to protect contents. 8
  9. 9. Straight-Sided Drum Liners Liners fit smoothly into new drums and are ideal when using a follower plate. 9
  10. 10. Accordion Drum Liners Liners have flexible, pleated, side walls originally designed to accommodate variations in reconditioned drum heights and also ship economically . 10
  11. 11. Combination Drum Liners Liners combine a straight-sided design with a band of accordion pleats to accommodate both drum height variations and follower-plate use. 11
  12. 12. Vented Drum Liners Liners have four holes near the top to vent trapped air during a fill, allowing drums to be filled with the lid on. Only recommended for high viscosity products. 12
  13. 13. Anti-stat Drum Liners Anti-stat acts as a dissipater of an electrical charge. Anti-stat liners have an anti-static additive made of low- molecular-weight materials that attract water from the environment, forming a thin film on the surface of the plastic. The anti-stat additive continuously blooms to the surface with a typical shelf life of 12 months. Typical industry standards meet NFPA-99 and MIL-B-81705C. Anti-stat liners should not be used as the sole means to dissipate any charge. They only act to reduce the charge in the polyethylene liner itself. 13
  14. 14. Anti-stat Industry Standards  MIL-B-81705C standards require static decay and surface resistivity testing as follows: first the material must be conditioned for 24 hours at 12% +/- 3% relative humidity. The material must meet the 2.0 seconds or less static decay time at 12 +/- 3% relative humidity at a temperature of 73°F +/- 5°F and a surface resistivity of 1012 or less according to ASTM D257.  NFPA-99 (National Fire Protection Association) standards require the material to be conditioned for 24 hours at 50% +/- 2% relative humidity prior to testing and then must meet the static decay time of 0.50 seconds or less at 50% +/- 2% relative humidity at a temperature of 23+/- 1°C./p>. 14
  15. 15. Drum Liner Technical Considerations 15
  16. 16. Typical Manufacturing Processes  Blown Film  Thermoforming  Blow Molding 16
  17. 17. Blown Film Liners  Inexpensive  Least rugged  Very thin- typically 3, 4, 8 & 10 mil  Seams  Barrier films can be used (high temperature above 180ºF, oxygen and moisture barrier commonly used)  Folds  Typically not recommended when follower plates, mixing blades and fill and dispense wands are used. 17
  18. 18. Heat Sealing Heat Seal technology is used to produce flat seam and round bottom liners. Films that can be heat sealed:  Polyethylene (LDPE & HDPE)  Metallized polyester and foil laminates for moisture protection  Conductive laminates and anti-static films for volatile materials  Nylon and co-extruded films for chemical resistance  Polypropylene for high-temperature requirements 18
  19. 19. How Heat Sealing Works In heat sealing, a thin clear thermoplastic film is bonded by heat, time and pressure to form a closure. Heat sealing technology is simple in concept and provides cost-effective products, but the process is not trivial. Tight tolerances, proven materials, precise timing and temperature control all play key roles in providing products that meet demanding customer requirements. 19
  20. 20. Thermoformed Liners  No seams  Uniformity of wall thickness  Flexibility vs. Strength vs. Price  Straight side or Accordion  Vented 20
  21. 21. Thermoforming Thermoforming or vacuum forming, produces strong, semi-flexible, seamless (leak-proof) liners in a range of thicknesses designed to withstand the rigors of most demanding applications. In deep-draw thermoforming liners up to 40" deep can be produced in a variety of shapes (cylindrical, tapered or rectangular). Can be run with multi-cavity tools. 21
  22. 22. How Thermoforming Works In thermoforming, extruded sheets of plastic are carefully heated to soften the material. The sheets are then pressed into a mold and a vacuum is drawn to force the plastic into the shape of the mold. It is critical to maintain an even distribution of material during this process. Sheets that can be thermoformed:  LDPE  HDPE  Polypropylene for high temperature resistance  Anti-static polyethylene for use with volatile materials  EVOH for oxygen resistance 22
  23. 23. Thermoforming Animation 23
  24. 24. Thin and Thick Gauge Thermoforming There are two general thermoforming process categories. Sheet thicknesses less than 0.038 inches are usually delivered to the thermoforming press in rolls. Sheet thicknesses from 0.038 inches through 0.120 inches typically come in sheets cut to final dimensions and stacked on pallets. These thin-gauge thermoforming applications are dominated by rigid or semi-rigid disposable packaging. Sheet thicknesses greater than 0.120 inches are considered heavy- or thick-gauge, cut sheet thermoforming applications, which are primarily used as permanent structural components. 24
  25. 25. Blow Molded Liners  No seams  Very rugged  Very precise gauge control  Thinner lip  Used with mixer, follower plate  Agitator  Typically produced one at a time 25
  26. 26. Blow Molding Blow molding technology provides extra performance in maintaining package integrity and durability. Wall thickness and lip design can be carefully controlled. With this technology drum liners are typically cylindrical, but square or rectangular shapes can be made. 26
  27. 27. How Extrusion Blow Molding Works In Extrusion Blow Molding (EBM), plastic is melted and extruded into a hollow tube (a parison). This parison is then captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is then blown into the parison, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, container or part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected. EBM processes may be either continuous (constant extrusion of the parison) or intermittent. Compared to injection molding, blow molding is a low pressure process, with typical blow air pressures of 25 to 150 psi. This low pressure process allows the production of economical low-force clamping stations, while parts can still be produced with textured surface finishes. The resulting low stresses in the molded parts also help make the containers resistant to strain and environmental stress cracking. 27
  28. 28. www.fluent.com/software/ polyflow/blow.htm Extrusion Blow Molding Animation 28
  29. 29. Injection Molding Although Injection Molding is probably the most popular form of plastics processing, it is not conducive to liner manufacturing. In order to form a part as tall as a drum, the walls would have to be much thicker than is needed in thermoforming or blow molding, which would increase the part cost. Thicker parts also mean longer cycle times, also increasing costs. Injection molds are also typically more expensive and generally need more taper than thermoforming molds, so the liner will not fit the drum as well. There are some technical issues with injection molding related to liners. There are inherent stress points at the sprue and gate (injection points), which may cause a fracture point and consequently a leak point. 29
  30. 30. Injection Molding Animation 30
  31. 31. Questions  Liner Markets  Styles of Drum Liners  Flat Seamed, Round Bottom, Straight-sided, Accordion, Combination, Vented, Anti-stat  Manufacturing Processes  Blown Film, Thermoforming, Blow Molding, Injection Molding 31