<ul><li>Acorn Computers was a British computer company established in Cambridge , England , in 1978. The company produced a number of computers which were especially popular in the UK . These included the Acorn Electron , the BBC Micro and the Acorn Archimedes . Acorn's BBC Micro computer dominated the UK educational computer market during the 1980s and early 1990s, drawing many comparisons with Apple in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Though the company was broken up into several independent operations in 1998, its legacy includes the development of RISC personal computers. A number of Acorn's former subsidiaries live on today - notably ARM Holdings who are globally dominant in the mobile phone and PDA microprocessor market. Acorn is sometimes known as "the British Apple ". </li></ul>
Arthur <ul><li>is an early operating system (OS) that was used on Acorn ARM - cpu -based computers from about 1987 until the much-superior RISC OS 2 was completed and made available in April 1989. It was the operating system of the earliest Archimedes ARM machines. </li></ul><ul><li>It was bundled with a primitive desktop graphical user interface (GUI). It features a colour-scheme typically described as " technicolour ". Its earlier revisions were very buggy , and was only really meant to be a placeholder until RISC OS 2 (a name chosen instead of Arthur 2) was completed. </li></ul><ul><li>The graphical desktop runs on top of a command-line driven operating system derived from Acorn's earlier MOS operating system for its BBC Micro range of 8-bit microcomputers. </li></ul>
ARX <ul><li>was a Unix-like operating system written in Modula-2 developed by Acorn Computers Ltd in the UK and at the Acorn Research Centre (ARC) at Palo Alto for their new ARM RISC processors . For the project, Acorn developed its own Modula-2 compiler, Acorn Extended Modula-2 (AEM2), but this was never released externally. </li></ul><ul><li>ARX was a pre-emptive multitasking , multithreading , multi-user operating system. Much of the OS ran in user mode and as a result suffered performance problems due to switches into kernel mode to perform mutexes , which led to the introduction of the SWP instruction to the instruction set of the ARM3 version of the ARM processor. This suggests that ARX had a microkernel -type design. </li></ul>
Machine Operating System(MOS) <ul><li>was a computer operating system used in the Acorn BBC computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained fast expansion bus. The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non re-entrant. </li></ul>
RISC OS <ul><li>is a computer operating system which was originally developed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge , England for their ARM based computers. It was first released in 1988 as RISC OS 2.00, and replaced Acorn's Arthur operating system, which was shipped with the first Archimedes computer models in 1987 . The operating system takes its name from the RISC ( reduced instruction set computing ) architecture used on supported systems. </li></ul>
RISC iX <ul><li>was a Unix-like operating system designed to run on the Acorn Archimedes . Heavily based on 4.3BSD , it was initially completed in 1988 — a year after Arthur but prior to RISC OS . Its relationship to ARX is unknown. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Amiga was a family of personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation . Development on the Amiga began in 1982 with Jay Miner as the principal hardware designer. Commodore International bought Amiga Corporation and introduced the machine to the market in 1985. The name Amiga was chosen by the developers specifically from the Spanish and Portuguese word for a female friend,  and because it occurred before Apple and Atari alphabetically.  </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Motorola 68k series of microprocessors , the machine sports a custom chipset with advanced graphics and sound capabilities, and a pre-emptive multitasking operating system (now known as AmigaOS ). While the M68k is a 32-bit processor, the version originally used in the Amiga, the 68000, has a 16-bit external data bus so it must transfer 32 bits of data in two consecutive steps, a technique called multiplexing -- all this is transparent to the software, which was 32-bit from the beginning. </li></ul>
AMIGA OS <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The AmigaOS has been characterized as “the best operating system ever developed”. </li></ul><ul><li>The "Amiga Operating System" originally targeted the desktop computing market. It was built around tightly integrated hardware and software. The hardware was originally based on proprietary chips running the Motorola 68000 series of processors. The AmigaOS was designed from its inception as a true multi-threaded, multi-tasking, multi-media operating system. This combination of hardware and software produced a very fast, powerful and easy to use computing platform. Over 6 million Amiga computers were sold. </li></ul>
AmigaOS 2.0, 2.04, 2.05, 2.1 <ul><li>improvements introduced a lot of major advances to the GUI of Amiga operating system. The harsh blue and orange colour scheme, replaced with a much easier on the eye grey and light blue with 3D aspect in the border of the windows. The Workbench was no longer tied to the 640×256 (PAL) or 640×200 (NTSC) display modes, and much of the system was improved with an eye to making future expansion easier. For the first time, a standardised "look and feel" was added. This was done by creating the Amiga Style Guide , and including libraries and software which assisted developers in making conformant software. Technologies included the GUI element creation library gadtools , the software installation scripting language Installer , and the AmigaGuide hypertext help system. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Apollo Computer, Inc. , founded 1980 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer ), developed and produced Apollo/Domain workstations in the 1980s. Along with Symbolics and Sun Microsystems , Apollo was one of the first vendors of graphical workstations in the 1980s. </li></ul>
Domain/OS <ul><li>Domain/OS is the operating system used by the Apollo/Domain line of workstations manufactured by Apollo Computer , Inc. during the late 1980s, as the successor to the one previously used, AEGIS . It was one of the early distributed operating systems .  Hewlett-Packard supported the operating system for a short time after they purchased Apollo, but they later ended the product line in favor of their HP-UX Unix variant. HP ended final support for Domain/OS on January 1, 2001. </li></ul>
AEGIS <ul><li>AEGIS was distinctive mainly for being designed for the networked computer, as distinct from its competitors, which were essentially standalone systems with added network features. The prime examples of this were the file system , which was fully integrated across machines, as opposed to Unix which even now draws a distinction between file systems on the host system and on others, and the user administration system, which was fundamentally network-based. So basic was this orientation that even a standalone Apollo machine could not be configured without a network card . </li></ul>
<ul><li>gave the acronym SOS (pronounced /ˈsɔːs/ )  the meaning Sophisticated Operating System  when the operating system was released in 1980. SOS made the resources of the Apple III available in the form of a menu-driven utility program as well as a programming API . </li></ul><ul><li>The Apple /// System Utilities program shipped with each Apple III computer. It provided what today would be called the end user "experience" of the operating system if the user were running it instead of an application program. </li></ul>
Apple DOS <ul><li>refers to operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from 1979 through early 1983. Apple DOS had three major releases: DOS 3.1, DOS 3.2, and DOS 3.3; each one of these three releases was followed by a second, minor "bug-fix" release, but only in the case of Apple DOS 3.2 did that minor release receive its own version number, Apple DOS 3.2.1. The best-known and most-used version was Apple DOS 3.3 in the 1980 and 1983 releases. Prior to the release of Apple DOS 3.1, Apple users had to rely on audio cassette tapes for data storage and retrieval, but that method was notoriously slow, inconvenient and unreliable . </li></ul>
Apple ProDOS <ul><li>ProDOS was the name of two similar operating systems for the Apple II series of personal computers . The original ProDOS, renamed ProDOS 8 in version 1.2, was the last official operating system usable by all Apple II series computers, and was distributed from 1983 to 1993. [ citation needed ] The other, ProDOS 16 , took advantage of the extra capabilities of the 16-bit Apple IIGS , but was short-lived and replaced by GS/OS within a year.  </li></ul>
GS/OS <ul><li>is an operating environment developed by Apple Computer for its Apple IIGS personal computer that uses the ProDOS filing system. It provides facilities for accessing the file system , controlling input/output devices, loading and running program files, and a system allowing programs to handle interrupts and signals. GS/OS was included as a component of Apple IIGS System Software versions 4.0 through 6.0.1. </li></ul>
Apple SOS <ul><li>Apple Computer, Inc. gave the acronym SOS (pronounced /ˈsɔːs/ )  the meaning Sophisticated Operating System  when the operating system was released in 1980. SOS made the resources of the Apple III available in the form of a menu-driven utility program as well as a programming API . </li></ul>
<ul><li>was a personal computer designed at Apple Computer, Inc. during the early 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lisa project was started at Apple in 1978 and evolved into a project to design a powerful personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) that would be targeted toward business customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1982, Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project  , so he joined the Macintosh project instead. Contrary to popular belief, the Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are obvious similarities between the systems and the final revision, the Lisa 2/10, was modified and sold as the Macintosh XL . </li></ul>Aple Lisa
Mac OS <ul><li>is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface -based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) for their Macintosh line of computer systems . The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple would later name the "Mac OS" was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh , usually referred to simply as the System software. </li></ul>
VERSIONS OF MAC OS <ul><ul><ul><li>System Software 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Software 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Software 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Software 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Software 5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Software 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System 7 (code-named "Big Bang") </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Mac OS 8 was released on July 26, 1997, shortly after Steve Jobs returned to the company. It was mainly released to keep the Mac OS moving forward during a difficult time for Apple. Initially planned as Mac OS 7.7, it was renumbered "8" to exploit a legal loophole to accomplish Jobs's goal of terminating third-party manufacturers' licenses to System 7 and shutting down the Macintosh clone market. [ citation needed ] 8.0 added a number of features from the stillborn Copland project, while leaving the underlying operating system unchanged. A multi-threaded Finder was included, enabling better multi-tasking </li></ul>
Mac OS 9 <ul><li>Mac OS 9 was released on October 23, 1999. It was generally a steady evolution from Mac OS 8. Early development releases of Mac OS 9 were numbered 8.7. Mac OS 9 added improved support for AirPort wireless networking </li></ul>
A/UX <ul><li>In 1988, Apple released its first UNIX-based OS, A/UX , which was a UNIX operating system with the Mac OS look and feel. It was not very competitive for its time, due in part to the crowded Unix market. A/UX had most of its success in sales to the U.S. government , where UNIX was a requirement that Mac OS could not meet. Mac OS X later incorporporated code from the UNIX-based NeXTStep after Steve Jobs rejoined Apple in 1996 . </li></ul>
MkLinux <ul><li>MkLinux is an open source computer operating system started by the OSF Research Institute and Apple Computer in February 1996 to port Linux to the PowerPC platform, and Macintosh computers </li></ul>
Mac OS X <ul><li>Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn/ )  is a line of computer operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. As of 2009, every new Macintosh computer ships pre-loaded with the latest version of the system. </li></ul>
VERSIONS <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.0 (aka Mac OS X 10.0 "Cheetah") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.1 (aka Mac OS X 10.1 "Puma") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.2 (aka Mac OS X 10.2 "Jaguar") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.3 (aka Mac OS X 10.3 "Panther") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.4 (aka Mac OS X 10.4 "Tiger") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.5 (aka Mac OS X 10.5 "Leopard") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X v10.6 (aka Mac OS X 10.6 "Snow Leopard") </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X Server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
Darwin (operating system) <ul><li>Darwin is an open source POSIX -compliant computer operating system released by Apple Inc. in 2000. It is composed of code developed by Apple, as well as code derived from NEXTSTEP , FreeBSD , and other free software projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin forms the core set of components upon which Mac OS X and iPhone OS are based. It is compatible with the Single UNIX Specification version 3 (SUSv3) and POSIX UNIX applications and utilities. </li></ul>
iPhone OS <ul><li>iPhone OS or OS X iPhone is the operating system developed by Apple Inc. for the iPhone and iPod Touch .   Like Mac OS X , from which it was derived, it uses the Darwin foundation.  iPhone OS has four abstraction layers : the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. </li></ul>
Newton (platform) <ul><li>Newton platform was an early personal digital assistant hardware/software platform developed by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.). Development was started in 1989 and officially ended on February 27, 1998. Some electronic engineering and the manufacture of Apple's Newton devices was done in Japan by the Sharp Corporation . </li></ul>
Newton OS <ul><li>Newton OS was the operating system for the Apple Newton PDAs produced by Apple from 1993 - 1997. Newton OS was written entirely in C++ and trimmed to be low power consuming and use the available memory efficiently. </li></ul>
Atari DOS is the disk operating system used with the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Operating system extensions loaded into memory were required in order for an Atari computer to access a disk drive. These extensions to the operating system added the disk handler and other file management features. The most important extension is the disk handler. In Atari DOS 2.0, this was the File Management System (FMS), an implementation of a file system loaded from a floppy disk. This meant at least an additional 32K RAM memory was needed to run with DOS loaded,.
Third-party DOS programs <ul><li>SmartDOS </li></ul><ul><li>OS/A+ and DOS XL </li></ul><ul><li>Super DOS </li></ul><ul><li>TopDOS </li></ul><ul><li>MyDOS </li></ul><ul><li>SpartaDOS </li></ul><ul><li>ETC. </li></ul>
Details The Atari TOS debuted with the Atari 520ST in 1985. TOS combines Digital Research's GEM GUI running on top of the DOS-like GEMDOS. Features include a flat memory model, MS-DOS-compatible disk format, support for MIDI, and a variant of SCSI called ACSI in later versions. Atari's TOS is run from ROM chips contained in the computer, thus before local hard drives were available in home computers it was an almost instant-running OS. TOS originally booted off floppy disks but later ST models came with the latest version of TOS in ROM.
<ul><li>TOS consisted of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop - The main interface loaded after bootup. </li></ul><ul><li>GEM - Graphical Environment Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AES - Application Environment Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VDI - Virtual Device Interface (screen drivers only, other drivers loaded using GDOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GEMDOS - GEM Disk Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS - Basic Input/Output System </li></ul><ul><li>XBIOS - Xtended BIOS </li></ul><ul><li>Line-A - Low-level high-speed graphics calls. Obsolete </li></ul>
MultiTOS is an operating system developed by Atari. It is an improved version of TOS for the Atari personal computers. MultiTOS allows multitasking. MultiTOS was the last version of TOS ever to be released by Atari. MultiTOS is a combination of 2 system components; the OS kernel ( MiNT ) and the graphical user interface ( AES 4.0). MultiTOS was supplied with the Falcon 030 range of computers from Atari
<ul><li>BAE SYSTEMS is a systems company, innovating for a safer world. BAE SYSTEMS employs nearly 100,000 people including joint ventures, and has annual sales of around $18 billion. The company offers a global capability in air, sea, land and space with a world-class prime contracting ability supported by a range of key skills. BAE SYSTEMS designs, manufactures and supports military aircraft, surface ships, submarines, space systems, radar, avionics, communications, electronics, guided weapon systems and a range of other defense products. BAE SYSTEMS is dedicated to making the intelligent connections needed to deliver innovative solutions. </li></ul>
was originally developed by the company Be with the former Apple coworker Jean-Louis Gasseè for its own type of computer, the BeBox. It contains 2 power PC CPUs and was equipped with maximally with 256 Mbyte of RAM. BeOS is written from sratch and does not contain obsolete operating system design concepts. Designed as a single user operating system BeOS unfolds his optimal efficiency on multi-processor systems with several parallel running programs through it modern multi-thread based structure. BeOS basically does not run other applications that are not developed for this operating system. This operating system is only available in English, French and Japanese languages.
BeOS 4.5 boot process 5.0 - multi-threading for optimized performance
BeIA (Be Internet Appliances) is a software platform which offers particularly simple access to Internet applications. It is based on BeOS and was scale-downed strongly. BeIA differentiates from BeOS by the platform independence and the specialization for multimedia and Internet applications for devices like web pads, settop or Internet boxes. Applications are surfing in the internet, audio streaming, video playback and e-mail communication. The system boots particularly fast, was developed for the x86 and PowerPC architecture and needs at least 8 mbyte fixed storage (harddisk, CompactFlash) as well as 32 mbyte RAM. BeIA was licensed for a small selection of devices of Sony, Compaq and Qubit. Sony presented a product named eVilla™ on the base of BeIA 1.0 for internet access. Sony released a press report on 30th August, 2001 that this product is not continued any more because of the low market success.
The Burroughs large systems were the largest of three series of Burroughs Corporation mainframe computers. Founded in the 1880s, Burroughs was the oldest continuously operating entity in computing, but by the late 1950s its computing equipment was still limited to electromechanical accounting machines such as the Sensimatic; as such it had nothing to compete with its traditional rivals IBM and NCR who had started to produce larger-scale computers, or with recently-founded Univac . The first machine, the B5000, was designed in 1961 and Burroughs sought to address its late entry in the market with the strategy of a completely different design based on the most advanced computing ideas available at the time. Computers using this architecture were still in production in 2005 as the Unisys ClearPath/MCP machines. Unisys now uses Intel Xeon processors, and run MCP , Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems on their servers.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs large systems including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems. Originally written in 1961 in ESPOL (Executive Systems Programming Language), which itself was an extension of Burroughs Extended ALGOL , in the 1970s it was converted to NEWP , a better structured, more robust, and more secure form of ESPOL. The MCP was the first operating system to manage multiple processors and the first commercial implementation of virtual memory, among numerous other advances
Convergent Technologies was a company formed by a small group of people who left Intel Corporation and Xerox PARC in 1979. Convergent Technologies' first product was the IWS (Integrated Workstation) tower based on the Intel 8086 , which ran Convergent Technologies Operating System - their first operating system. The next product was a cost-reduced desktop version called the AWS (Advanced Workstation). Both of these workstations ran in an RS-422 clustered environment under a proprietary operating system known as CTOS . In 1982, Convergent formed a new division to focus on a multi-processor computer known as the MegaFrame . The MegaFrame ran a [[Unix|UNIX] System 3]-derived operating system called CTIX on multiple Motorola 68010 processors. Three other I/O processor boards could also be place in the system, the File Processor , the Cluster Processor , and the Terminal Processor . All I/O processor boards were based on the Intel 80186 and ran a scaled down version of CTOS . Convergent later used the Motorola 68010 in their MiniFrame , and later Motorola 68020 and 68040 processors in their VME-based MightyFrame systems, all also running CTIX . Supplanting the IWS was the AWS (Advanced Workstation) which itself was replaced by the NGEN (New or Next Generation) workstation and used by Prime Computer as a word processing workstation; The "Prime Producer 100". The NGEN was known to Burroughs users as the B25, to Prime as the "Prime Producer 200", and was included the Intel 80186 CPU chip .
Operating Convergent Technologies System or CTOS is a multi-user operating system developed by Convergent Technologies. CTOS is a character based, multi-processing, pre-emptive multitasking, true message-based, microkernel OS. CTOS file system was hierarchical and allowed very long file names. Security was also hierarchical. Most of the system programs were written in PL/M, an ALGOL-like language from Intel which compiled directly to object code without a runtime library. Convergent Technologies Integrated Workstation based on the Intel 8086 processor used CTOS as its operating system. CTOS ran on Intel X86 computers, and could run concurrently with Windows NT. CTOS is no longer marketed today.
TOPS-10 <ul><li>The TOPS-10 System ( Timesharing / Total OPerating System ) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967. TOPS-10 evolved from the earlier "Monitor" software for the PDP-6 and -10 computers; this was renamed TOPS-10 in 1970. </li></ul>
WAITS <ul><li>WAITS was a heavily-modified variant of Digital Equipment Corporation 's Monitor operating system (later renamed to, and better known as TOPS-10 ) for the PDP-6 and PDP-10 mainframe computers, used at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL) up until 1990; the mainframe computer it ran on also went by the name of "SAIL". </li></ul><ul><li>There was never an "official" expansion of WAITS, but a common variant was "West-coast Alternative to ITS "; another variant was "Worst Acronym Invented for a Timesharing System". The name was endorsed by the SAIL community in a public vote choosing among alternatives. Two of the other contenders were SALTS ("Stanford AI Laboratory Timesharing System") </li></ul>
TOPS-20 <ul><li>Learning from this mistake, the DEC sales manager in charge of the PDP-10 line managed to purchase the rights to TENEX from BBN and set up a project to port it to the new machine. At around this time Murphy moved from BBN to DEC as well, helping on the porting project. Most of the work centered on emulating the BBN pager hardware in a combination of software and the KI-10's simpler hardware. The speed of the KI-10 compared to the PDP-6 made this possible. Additionally the porting effort required a number of new device drivers to support the newer backing store devices being used. </li></ul>
<ul><li>RSTS (pronounced as "RIST-ess" or "RIST-uhs") is a multi-user time-sharing operating system , developed by Digital Equipment Corporation ("DEC"), (now part of Hewlett Packard ) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers . The first version of RSTS (RSTS-11, Version 1 ) was implemented in 1970 by DEC software engineers that developed the TSS-8 time-sharing operating system for the PDP-8 . The last version of RSTS (RSTS/E, Version 10.1 ) was released in September of 1992. RSTS-11 and RSTS/E are usually referred to just as "RSTS" and this article will generally use the shorter form. </li></ul>
RSX-11 <ul><li>RSX-11 is a family of real-time operating systems mainly for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), common in the late 1970s and early 1980s. RSX-11D first appeared on the PDP-11/40 in 1972. It was designed for and much used in process control, but was also popular for program development. </li></ul>
Towns OS <ul><li>The Fujitsu Towns OS was a color Graphical User Interface desktop + mouse type similar to Microsoft Windows and Macintosh GUIs and designed specifically for the proprietary FM Towns PC architecture. It was bootable from its CD media in 1989, something the standard CD-ROM drive in every FM Towns computer made possible. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
INTEGRITY-178B <ul><li>178B is a royalty-free ARINC ARINC-653-1 –compliant real-time operating system (RTOS) manufactured and marketed by Green Hills Software . It is a subset of the securely partitioned INTEGRITY real-time operating system. It targets demanding, safety-critical applications containing multiple programs with different levels of safety criticality, all executing on a single processor. (The "178B" indicates conformance to DO-178B .) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity-178B is used in several military jets such as the F-16 , F-22 , and F-35 , as well as the commercial airframes Airbus A380 and Boeing 787 .  </li></ul>
INTEGRITY <ul><li>is a real-time operating system (RTOS) produced and marketed by Green Hills Software . It is royalty-free , POSIX -certified, and intended for use in embedded systems needing reliability, availability, and fault tolerance. It is built atop the velOSity microkernel and is intended mainly for modern 32- or 64-bit embedded system designs that support an MMU . INTEGRITY uses hardware memory protection to isolate and protect itself and user tasks from incorrect operation caused by accidental errors or malicious tampering. Supported platforms include variants of ARM and XScale , Blackfin , Freescale ColdFire , MIPS , PowerPC , and x86 computer architectures. There is also INTEGRITY-178B , a certifiable version for Safety-Critical applications. </li></ul>
Real-time operating systems (RTOS) <ul><li>INTEGRITY is a POSIX -certified  royalty-free  real-time operating system intended for use in embedded systems requiring reliability and fault tolerance .  </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRITY-178B is an ARINC-653-1 –compliant real-time operating system for applications containing multiple programs with different levels of safety criticality, all executing on a single processor.  </li></ul><ul><li>velOSity , a royalty-free real-time operating system for processors without a full memory management unit .  </li></ul><ul><li>µ-velOSity , a real-time microkernel for resource-constrained devices . </li></ul>
MPE ( Multi-Programming Executive ) <ul><li>is an late 1970/early 1980s era business-oriented minicomputer operating system made by Hewlett-Packard . </li></ul><ul><li>It runs the HP 3000 family computers, which originally used HP custom CISC CPUs and were later migrated to PA-RISC . The original version of MPE was written in SPL; later the name of the OS was changed to MPE/iX to indicate Unix interoperability. The product line is in deep maintenance mode as of 2003 [update] - or mature as HP likes to call this - and will be completely ended in a few years; the user-base is much smaller than that of its old competitors OS/400 and VMS and no further product introductions are expected. </li></ul>
HP-UX <ul><li>HP-UX 11i (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packard 's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system , based on System V (initially System III ). It runs on the HP 9000 PA-RISC -based range of processors and HP Integrity Intel 's Itanium -based systems, and was also available for later Apollo/Domain systems. Earlier versions also ran on the HP 9000 Series 200, 300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000 series of processors, as well as the HP 9000 Series 500 computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS processor architecture. </li></ul>
RMX <ul><li>iRMX is a real-time operating system designed specifically for use with the Intel 8080 and Intel 8086 family of processors. It is an acronym for Real-time Multitasking eXecutive . Intel developed iRMX in the late 1970s and originally released it in 1980 to support and create demand for their processors and Multibus system platforms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective 2000 iRMX is supported, maintained, and licensed worldwide by TenAsys Corporation , under an exclusive licensing arrangement with Intel . </li></ul>
iRMX variants <ul><li>Several variations of iRMX have been developed since its original introduction on the Intel 8080 : iRMX I, II and III, iRMX-86, iRMX-286, DOS-RMX, iRMX for Windows, and, most recently, INtime. While many of the original variants of iRMX are still in use, only iRMX III, iRMX for Windows, and INtime are currently supported for the development of new real-time applications. Each of these three supported variants of iRMX require an Intel 80386 equivalent or higher processor to run. </li></ul>
DOS-RMX <ul><li>DOS-RMX is a variant of the standalone iRMX operating system designed to allow two operating systems to share a single hardware platform. In simplest terms, MS-DOS and iRMX operate concurrently on a single IBM PC compatible computer, where iRMX tasks (processes) have scheduling priority over the DOS kernel, interrupts, and applications. iRMX events (e.g., hardware interrupts) pre-empt the DOS kernel to insure that tasks can respond to real-time events in a time-deterministic manner. In a functional sense, DOS-RMX is the predecessor to iRMX for Windows and INtime . </li></ul>
Origins <ul><li>IBM originally intended that System/360 should have only one batch-oriented operating system, OS/360.  It also intended to supply a separate timesharing operating system, TSS/360 . There are at least two accounts of why IBM eventually decided to produce other, simpler batch-oriented operating systems: because it found that OS/360 would not fit into the limited memory available on the smaller System/360 models;  or because it realized that the development of OS/360 would take much longer than expected. IBM introduced a series of stop-gaps to prevent System/360 hardware sales from collapsing—first BOS/360 (Basic Operating System, for the smallest, card-only machines), then TOS/360 (Tape Operating System, for machines with only tape drives), and finally DOS/360 (Disk Operating System), which became a mainstream operating system and is the ancestor of today's widely used z/VSE .   </li></ul>
DOS/360 and successors <ul><li>Disk Operating System/360 , also DOS/360 , or simply DOS , was an operating system for IBM mainframes . It was announced by IBM on the last day of 1964, and it was first delivered in June 1966.  </li></ul><ul><li>DOS/VS was further development, released in 1972 , as the virtual memory mechanism became available on new System/370 series hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM later released DOS/VSE, then VSE/ESA, and then z/VSE , which is the most current version since 2005 . In its time DOS was the most widely used operating system in the world;  its successor z/VSE is still widely used as of 2006 [update] .  </li></ul>
Unix-like <ul><li>A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix to circumvent trademark issues) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification . </li></ul>
MTS systems Corporation <ul><li>MTS Systems Corporation ( NASDAQ : MTSC ) is a testing and sensing solutions company located in Eden Prairie , Minnesota , a southwest suburb of Minneapolis . </li></ul><ul><li>MTS is a leading provider of mechanical test systems, material testing, fatigue testing and tensile testing services as well as motion simulation system and calibration services. Examples of MTS products include hydraulic actuators, rolling road simulators , shaker tables, and medical testing equipment. </li></ul>
TSS/360 <ul><li>The IBM Time Sharing System TSS/360 was an early time-sharing operating system which ran on a special model of the System/360 line of mainframes, the Model 67 . Introduced in 1967, it implemented a number of novel features which eventually saw daylight in more popular systems such as Multics and VM/CMS . </li></ul>
MUSIC/SP <ul><li>MUSIC/SP (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing / System Product; originally "McGill University System for Interactive Computing") was developed at McGill University in the late 1960s from an IBM system called RAX (Remote Access). The system ran on IBM S/360 , S/370 , and 4300-series mainframe hardware, and offered novel features (for the time) such as file access control and data compression . </li></ul>
IBM Series/1 Marine Corps Series/1 computer in a field configuration . Marine Corps Series/1 computer set up for use
<ul><li>The IBM Series/1 computer was a 16-bit minicomputer , introduced in 1976, that in many respects competed with other minicomputers of the time, such as the PDP-11 from Digital Equipment Corporation and similar offerings from Data General and HP . The Series/1 was typically used to control and operate external electro-mechanical components while also allowing for primitive data storage and handling. </li></ul>
DOS/VS <ul><li>DOS/VS is the successor to the DOS/360. It added the virtual storage capability through a fixed page table which strictly mapped the real storage with fixed page table entries. Since the DOS/VS system maintained the small system memory scheme limited to 16 megabytes for all partitions combined, user programs and online systems were small and less complex than those found on systems using MVT and its successors. </li></ul>
CP/CMS <ul><li>CP/CMS was a time-sharing operating system of the late 60s and early 70s, known for its excellent performance and advanced features. It had three distinct versions: </li></ul><ul><li>CP-40 /CMS, an important "one-off" research system that established the CP/CMS virtual machine architecture </li></ul><ul><li>CP-67 /CMS, a reimplementation of CP-40/CMS for the IBM System/360-67 , and the primary focus of this article </li></ul><ul><li>CP-370 /CMS, a reimplementation of CP-67/CMS for the System/370 – never released as such, but instead becoming the foundation of IBM's VM/370 operating system (announced in 1972 and still in use) </li></ul>
CP/CMS as free software <ul><li>CP/CMS was distributed in source code form, and many CP/CMS users were actively involved in studying and modifying that source code. Such direct user involvement with a vendor-supplied operating system was unusual. </li></ul><ul><li>In the CP/CMS era, many vendors distributed operating systems in machine-readable source code. It is possible that OS/360 , DOS/360 , and a number of later "mainstream" IBM operating systems were distributed in this way; at any rate, their source code was certainly available in microfiche form, and was widely used by systems programmers at customer sites. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation. The system offered a number of innovative features, and was the brainchild of IBM engineer Dr. Frank Soltis . Developed under the code-name "Pacific", the System/38 was commercially available in August 1979. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The IBM System i is IBM's previous generation of systems designed for IBM i users, and was subsequently replaced by the IBM Power Systems in April 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, the platform was rebranded to System i as part of IBM's Systems branding initiative. Previously it was known as eServer iSeries in 2000 and before that it was introduced as AS/400 in 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>In April 2008 IBM announced its integration with the System p platform. The unified product line is called IBM Power Systems and features support for the IBM i (previously known as i5/OS or OS/400), AIX and Linux operating systems. Previous hardware ran OS/400 exclusively. </li></ul>
Unix <ul><li>Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX , sometimes also written as UNIX with small caps ) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs , including Ken Thompson , Dennis Ritchie , Douglas McIlroy , and Joe Ossanna . Today's Unix systems are split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The IBM Personal Computer , commonly known as the IBM PC , is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform . It is IBM model number 5150 , and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida . </li></ul><ul><li>Alongside " microcomputer " and " home computer ," the term " personal computer " was already in use before 1981. It was used as early as 1972 to characterize Xerox PARC 's Alto . However, because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term came to mean more specifically a microcomputer compatible with IBM's PC products. </li></ul>
International Computers Limited <ul><li>International Computers Ltd , or ICL , was a large British computer hardware , computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002, when it was renamed Fujitsu Services Limited after its parent company, Fujitsu . The company's most successful product line was the ICL 2900 Series range of mainframe computers </li></ul>
Origins of ICL <ul><li>International Computers Ltd was formed in 1968 as a part of the Industrial Expansion Act of the Wilson Labour Government. ICL was an initiative of Tony Benn , the Minister of Technology, to create a British computer industry that could compete with major world manufacturers like IBM . ICL represented the last step in a series of mergers that had taken place in the industry since the late 1950s. </li></ul>
International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) <ul><li>ICT was itself the result of a merger of two UK companies that had competed with each other throughout the 1930s and 1940s during the punch card era: British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) and Powers-Samas . ICT had thus emerged with equipment that would process data encoded on punched cards - 40, 80 or 160 column cards in the case of ICT, compared to the 64 or 80 column cards used by IBM and its predecessors. </li></ul>
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