Luzon Empire - Philippines


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Tondo is an old municipaility of Manila. Today, it is an unsightly place, where poverty is ubiquitous and hope seems absent in the mind. But such condition may be in stark contrast with what some researchers have been discovering about its past. A lot of the work remains unvalidated but the fact that there are evidences (e.g. LCI) pointing to the reality however far-fetched for now, deserves a lot of attention. If found out to be so, then those living in this place must recognize its glorious past and be inspired to pursue a more hopeful tomorrow---making him proud of his heritage and fight for regaining its glory in the near future.

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Luzon Empire - Philippines

  1. 1. TONDO and LUZON EMPIRE DISCLAIMER: This work is research-in-progress. I encourage everyone to do his/her own research inasmuch as the many materials in the internet are from unverified sources. What I will share herein, however, appears to have come from credible sites. Nonetheless, more research work is required.
  2. 2. Women of Tondo Ca.1900 taken during the days when America conquered and annexed the Philippines to the USA. The word quot;conquerquot; was used by the American 3-D publishing houses that issued these views of the USA's quot;new possessionquot;, for the visual consumption and delight of millions of Americans. What better way of introducing the natives of the Philippines as quot;Uncle Sam's new citizensquot;.....even if they had no say in the matter !
  4. 4. Tundo and the Kingdom of Luzon Tondo, also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, and sometimes as the capital of the Kingdom of Luzon, was an ancient Philippine fortified settlement in the Manila Bay area, specifically north of the Pasig river, on Luzon island. It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. This kingdom initiated diplomatic ties with China during the Ming Dynasty and was a dominant force in regional trade. Its regional prominence sparked an attack from Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah in 1500. The Spanish first arrived in Tondo in 1570. They finally defeated the local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1591, after which Tondo came under the administration of Manila, ending its existence as an independent city-state.
  5. 5. Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 AD) The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document, written in Kawi, dates back to Saka 822 - the year 900 AD. The first part of the document says that: On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the Commander in Chief of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa. Apparently, the document was a sort of receipt that acknowledged that the man named Namwaran had been cleared of his debt to the chief of Tundo, which in today's measure would be about 926.4 grams of gold. [1] The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their chiefs: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran (Lord Minister Ka Sumuran), Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah , Puliran, and Binwangan are the towns of , Pulilan, and in Bulacan,[1] but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. [2] While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the chief of Tundun with these other chiefs, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank. [3]
  6. 6. In 1279 AD, in the Naval Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役) at the Pearl River Delta (珠江), the final conflict between the Mongol Forces (元) and the Southern Sung Empire (南宋國) was fought. The Mongol forces managed to advance to the center of the Southern Sung fleet and attack the boat of the child emperor Songdi Bing (宋帝昺). Seeing no hope of breaking free, the Minister of the Left (重臣) Liu Xiufu (陸秀夫) decided to commit suicide with the boy emperor rather than be captured by the Mongols. He jumped into the sea with the boy emperor and many officials and concubines followed suit. A few days later, the tattered remains of the boy emperor was found floating in Shekou Bay(蛇口). This sealed the fate of the Southern Song Empire.
  7. 7. Battle of Yamen Part of the Song-Yuan Wars Date 19 March 1279 Location Yamen, Guangdong Result Yuan victory, Song Dynasty ended. Belligerents Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 people, with many Song court officials and servants, 1,000+ ships, mostly transport ships with warship escorts 20,000 soldiers, 50+ warships Casualties and losses At least 100,000 died either from fighting or drowning, the Battle of Yamen rest fled The naval Battle of Yamen (simplified Chinese: 崖门战役; traditional Chinese: 崖門戰 役) (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya; simplified Chinese: 崖山海战; traditional Chinese: 崖山海戰) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song Dynasty against the Yuan Dynasty, which was established by the Mongols in 1271. Although outnumbered 10:1, the Yuan navy delivered a crushing tactical and strategic victory, annihilating the Song. Today, the battle site is located at Yamen, in Xinhui County, Guangdong Province, China. It was one of the largest naval battles in history.
  8. 8. Oral History: Before the final sea battle at Yamen (崖門戰役), Minister of the Left Liu Xiufu (陸秀 夫) disguised his own son to look like the boy emperor Songdi Bing (宋帝昺). When the Mongols finally managed to attack the center of the Southern Sung fleet, Liu Xiufu committed suicide with his own son disguised as the emperor. The finest and most loyal of the Southern Sung fleet under the command of Grand General Zhang Shijie (張世傑). managed to break off from the battle with the real emperor and escape across the sea. There they established the Lesser Song Empire (呂宋國) at its capital Tondo (東都).
  9. 9. Facts: 1. Even though the corpse of the last emperor of the Southern Song Empire was reportedly found, no graveyard was ever erected. 2. Chinese historians agree that the Southern Sung Fleet under the command of Grand General Zhang Shijie (張世傑) did survive the final Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役) and that they simply vanished from record. 3. Tondo (東都) was the capital of an empire recorded by the Ming Dynasty (大明國) as the Luzon Empire (呂宋國). 4. Luzon Empire (呂宋國) was conquered by the Spaniards in 1571 and the province of Pampanga was the first colonial province carved out of it. The whole northern island was named Luzon. Tondo (東都) still exist today as a mere suburb of Manila.
  11. 11. Diplomatic ties with the Ming Dynasty (1373 A.D.) Ming Dynasty Porcelain. The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Annals (明史 ), which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty (大明朝) in 1373 AD. Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (traditional Chinese: 東都; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings (王). This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the peoples of the Philippine archipelago. Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands. But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song Dynasties. As the LCI points out, Tondo already existed at this time, and the archeological evidence indicates that both it and Namayan was part of this trade. The rise of the Ming dynasty saw the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in the Philippines. They were well received and lived together in harmony with the existing local population — eventually intermarrying with them such that today, numerous Philippine people have Chinese blood in their veins.
  12. 12. Statue of Luzon Sukezaemon at Sakai Citizens' Hall. This connection was important enough that when the Ming Dynasty emperors enforced the Hai jin laws which closed China to maritime trade from 1371 to about 1567, trade with the Philippines was officially allowed to continue, masqueraded as a tribute system, through the seaport at Fuzhou. Aside from this, a more extensive clandestine trade from Guangzhou and Quanzhou also brought in Chinese goods to Luzon. Luzon and Tondo thus became a center from which Chinese goods were traded all across Southeast Asia. Chinese trade was so strict that Luzon traders carrying these goods were considered quot;Chinesequot; by the people they encountered. This powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th century East Asia was also felt strongly by Japan. The Ming Empire treated Luzon traders more favorably than Japan by allowing them to trade with China once every two years, while Japan was only allowed to trade once every 10 years. Japanese merchants often had to resort to piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu (島 井宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神屋宗湛) established branch offices in the Luzon Empire. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon (呂宋助左衛門), went as far as to change his surname from Naya (納屋) to Luzon (呂宋).
  13. 13. Statue of Luzon Sukezaemon at Sakai Citizens' Hall, Osaka, Japan.
  14. 14. Tondo – Garbage City
  15. 15. MMDA to transform Tondo into “Tondominiums”