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A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice
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A NonInvasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice

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This is the presentation completed for our first review as part of our final year thesis.We are students of electronics and communication engineering who are creating a noninvasive optical method to …

This is the presentation completed for our first review as part of our final year thesis.We are students of electronics and communication engineering who are creating a noninvasive optical method to detect Jaundice in Newborns.This slideshow gives a brief theoretical overview and explains the components used in the tool.

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  • 1. A Non Invasive Tool for the Screening of Neonatal Jaundice Project Team: Guide: Mrs.Shanthi Prince Students: Ajaay Ravi, Roll No:10403008, & Avantika Vardhan,Roll No:10403050 4 th Yr ECE ‘A’ Section,SRM University
  • 2. Introduction
    • Jaundice is caused by high bilirubin levels
    • Experiments could quantify bilirubin levels in the skin in a non invasive way
    • The spectral reflectance of the skin gives information about the constituents that make up the skin
    • Bilirubin is a skin constituent that indicates jaundice
    • Type of Patient/Bilirubin Levels
    • Normal patient/Less than 1mg/dL
    • Jaundiced Adult/Greater than 2mg/dL
    • Jaundiced Newborn/Greater than 7mg/dL
  • 3. Introduction
    • This project aims to develop a neonatal jaundice screening tool
    • Make it non invasive by using only light as input and output
    • This is done by reflectance spectroscopy
    • I.e a light source is given to skin and amount of reflected and absorbed spectrum is calculated for different wavelengths of light
    • An analysis of this data gives us the nature of the skin,I.e. the different metabolites present
    • This will be a good indicator of bilirubin levels
  • 4. Introduction
    • A light source shines light on a mock tissue sample/blood sample
    • A spectrometer(built from first principles) receives light from the mock tissue
    • The data is analyzed and gives the corresponding reflectance values of light from the skin
      • The basic principle is reflectance spectroscopy
      • The range is 300 to 900 nm
      • Three metabolites are analyzed:
      • Hemoglobin, Melanin and Bilirubin
      • Law(when absorbance spectrum is found):total skin absorbance is equal to the sum of the absorbance of the individual metabolites
  • 5. Introduction
    • A computational simulation modeling skin characteristics will be done using MATLAB for normal and jaundice skin of newborn
    • Light incident on skin will be simulated using Monte Carlo statistical method
    • Then experimental analysis using blood samples and also for newborn babies
    • The computational data along with the experimental data will be compared
    • A statistical curve will be established
    • This curve will relate reflectance and bilirubin concentration
    • From this curve, the data points will indicate different jaundice levels
  • 6. Biological Background
    • Bilirubin -Breakdown of Whole Blood
    • Processed by Liver and excreted
    • High level of bilirubin-Jaundice
    • Leads to Hyperbilirubinemia
    • In newborns,liver underdeveloped
    • 50% of newborns have jaundice
    • 6% get hyperbilirubinemia
    • This may cause severe brain illness kernicterus ,severe retardation, blindness and physical abnormalities
    • High Bilirubin attacks brain cells
    • This can’t be left untreated for newborns
  • 7. Biological Background
    • Unconjugated bilirubin (fat soluble)
    • Conjugated(water soluble) by liver
    • Unexcreted Conjugated accumulates
    • Flows out of bloodstream to surface
    • Skin,eyes,lining of mouth turn yellow
    • Current Methods:
    • Physical examination and heel test
    • blood extraction & chemical test
    • Disadvantages:
    • Trauma , Infection risk
    • Physical examination error
    • 3. Unavailable,costly for common man
  • 8. Theory of Operation
    • Spectral response of blood components
    • Epidermis :Melanin only,high absorption
    • Dermis :Bilirubin(Br) and Hemoglobin
    • Jaundice: Bilirubin diffuses to epidermis
    Formula :Total Br=Br in dermal+Br in epidermal Formula: Total Br=Dermal Br + Diffused Br in epidermis
  • 9. Light Source Sample Photodetecto r I to V converter A to D converter Op-Amp H/w Hardware Design: Reflectance meter
    • Light source: LED’s (Red,Blue,Green,Yellow)
    • Mock sample:
    Melanin Bilirubin + Hemoglobin
    • Reflects light to photo-detector
    • Reflectance data for different wavelengths indicates Bilirubin conc.
    Coupling via Optic Fibre
  • 10. Hardware Design: Read Fibers Input fiber
    • LED’s are connected to the Input fiber via a connector
    • Output wavelength of LED is in range 380-780
    • The Power Wattage of LED is measured with/without Fibre
    • The Read Fibers carry output to detector
  • 11. Hardware Design
    • ·  LED’s in 410-490 nm range with peak 475 nm
    • ·  These LED’s have:
    • 1. High irradiance
    • 2.  Low power requirements
    • 3.  Low cost
    • 4.  Emitted wavelengths within peak
    • absorption range of bilirubin
    • Long operational life spans
    • They suit the constraints of neonatal skin
    •     Corrections :
    • Stray light correction
    • Normalization(standard sources of light)
  • 12. Spectroscopy
    • Reflectance spectroscopy is performed
    • A simple spectrometer is constructed –the basic outline is shown
  • 13. Spectroscopy
    • A mock skin sample is obtained by filling cuvettes with melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin and stacking them on top of each other ( in normal case)
    •   For jaundice case, the Melanin cuvette is also filled with bilirubin of defined volume, in addition to the bilirubin present in the hemoglobin cuvette
    • Total Bilirubin = Bilirubin in dermis +Bilirubin diffused into melanin
    • The bilirubin measurements must be performed with different concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin
    • Perfectly absorbing and reflecting materials are used for calibration
  • 14. Spectral Analysis
    • The reflectance meter produces output data
    • This ranges between 0 and 100% reflectance
    • This depends on incident light wavelength and bilirubin concentration of skin
    • This varies based on stray factors like fibre optic to skin alignment,ambient conditions,etc
    • Regression analysis could be done to fit the concentration vs. reflectance data
  • 15. Monte Carlo Analysis
    • The basic skin optics is simulated
    • A stochastic method is used to simulate light incident on the skin
    • The dermal and epidermal layers are constructed using optical coefficients
    • The data relating to reflected , absorbed and transmitted light is found
    • This can be altered to suit Indian/Asian skin tones
    • This method will then verify and enhance the efficiency of the hardware created
  • 16. Bibliography:
    • Skin Optics Summary, Oregon Medical Laser Center News. Jan 1998. Steven L. Jacques
    • Design of a Bilirubin Light Intensity Tester for Developing World Hospitals,Jennifer M.Dolan et.al,2006 IEEE Biomedical Engineering Transactions
    • Non invasive System for Quantification of Bilirubin in Neonates,Joseph.Clark,et.al,IEEE 2005
    • Phototherapy of the Newborn:A predictive model for the outcome,Nelson Osaku et.al,Annual Conference for Engineering in Medicine and Biology,IEEE 2005
    • In-Vitro determination of Bilirubin in Hemolysed Whole Blood Using First Derivative Analysis,Peter W. Cheung,et.al,IEEE/EMBS,1997
    • Prashant R.Bhadri et al,“ Development of an Integrated Hardware and Software Platform for the Rapid Detection of Cerebral Aneurysm”, IEEE Proceedings, 2005
  • 17. Bibliography:
    • Title: Use of a LED Array for Bilirubin Phototransformation,
    • Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Harel Rosen, et al
    • Transcutaneous bilirubinometry:The right job for the right tool,The American Journal of Pediatrics,December 2006
    • Monte Carlo Simulation of Light Incident on Skin Optics,IEEE transactions on biomedical Engineering,1989
    • An Optical Fiber Probe Monitor for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia,IEEE Proceedings,2003
    • Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia,The New England Journal Of Medicine
    • Instrumental Analysis and Methods,A textbook for chemical analysis
    • Wikipedia
    • Google Patents
    • For more information,visit
    • http://screenforjaundice.blogspot.com

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