Principles and Methods of Teaching 1 Module 1Module 1PRINCIPLES OF TEACHINGED 107 Principles and Methods of TeachingJSED; TFr 9:00-10:30Group 1Leader: Ivy T. EnjocSecretary: Frelyn F. SantorceMembers: Jestila O. Cordova Ana Licel B. Sago Marhana A. Tocao Rodjelyn B. Taule Abigail Villa Irvin Dwight L. Costaños Mark Harold T. MoraldeModule 1 Principles of TeachingLesson 1: The Overview of teaching Profession and Basic Terms used in Teaching a. Strategy of teaching b. Method of teaching c. Technique of teaching d. DeviceLesson 2: The Professional Ethics, the Qualities of Effective Teachers, The Teacher’s Code andTeacher’s CreedLesson 3.The Teacher as Corporate Professional a. Polished Look b. Polished Demeanor c. Polished LanguageLesson 4: The Principles of Teaching (According to Various Authors)
Principles and Methods of Teaching 2 Module 1 LESSON 1 THE OVERVIEW OF TEACHING PROFESSION AND BASIC TERMS USED IN TEACHINGLearning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to: To distinguish the difference between the methods and the strategies in teaching. To identify the role of these methods and strategies that is used in teaching. To identify which method is the best choice for a given topic. Understand the definition of techniques of teaching and the device Know some of the techniques in teaching and the devices used by the teachers Develop their own ability in presenting their lessons in the future 1.1Strategy of Teaching Strategy of teaching- refers to the personalized style of carrying out a particular step of a given method. It is a still employed by the teacher in carrying on the procedures or act of teaching. The Different Strategies in Teaching Learning is an Active Process This means that we have to actively engage learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. The More Senses Involved in Learning, The More and the Better the Learning Sight – 75% Hearing – 13% Touch- 6% Taste- 3% Smell- 3% ( Tores, PhilipT.)
Principles and Methods of Teaching 3 Module 1“ The eyes contain nearly 70% of the body’s receptors and send millions of signals along theoptic nerves to the visual processing centers of the brain… We take in more information visuallythan through any of the other senses.”(Wolfe,2001)A Non-Threatening Atmosphere Enhances LearningA non-threatening and conducive classroom atmosphere is not only a function of the physicalcondition of the classroom but more of a function of the psychological climate that prevails inthe classroom.How can we contribute to the creation of a positive classroom atmosphere?-Cultivate a culture of respect &Give allowance to mistakesThe Methods of TeachingMethod is a common usage refers to a procedure that one follows in order to attain anobjective.1.2The Different Methods Used in TeachingLecture -A clarification of information to a large group in a short period of time. In other words,students expect to learn the information presented to them.Demonstration/Performance-A method that illustrates a general principle with a concreteexample to provide a model of a skill which can then practice.Discussion -A common method for allowing exploration of attitudes. The class discussion isintended to be a free give and take between the instructor and the students designed to elicitstudent interpretations, questions and opinions.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 4 Module 1Case Study-The case study method is primarily aimed at the application of general principles tospecific instances or at the analysis and evaluation of the situation.Pairs or Small Group Works-These methods are generally used as a part of a larger courserather than as the only teaching method. In these situations, students work in pairs or smallgroups on problems of application and analysis.1.3The Techniques of Teaching Refers to the personalized style of carrying out a particular step of a given method. It is a skill employed by the teacher in carrying on the procedures or act of teaching. Refers to the quality of the acts executed by the teacher in presenting the subject matter to pupils. Includes the skill of teacher in accomplishing the task of teaching. Technical skill or an artistic execution. Factor which promotes or effectuates learning through teaching with the aid of devices, or the skill of the teacher in manipulating the devices so that the psychological processes of the learner may be stimulated to effective reactions, particularly in dealing with the subject matter that is to be learned. 1. General Techniques a. Question andanswer (knowledge) b. Drill (skill and habits) c. Appreciation (attitude and appreciation) 2. Standards that govern the selection of technique: The technique must be selected according to: o the nature of the subject matter and according on the basis of its direct effect upon some essential phase of the learners learning performances. o the nature and maturity of the pupils of the class.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 5 Module 1 o the basis of the ability and training of the teacher who would employ it. o the time allotted to the subject. 3. Rules governing the use of techniques: o the technique should be as a means to an end o the technique should be judged by the effect it produces upon each particular situation. o the technique should utilize the primary laws of learning such as readiness, exercise and effect.1.4Device A teaching aid or tool to facilitate instruction is any means, other than the subject matter itself that is employed by the teacher in presenting the subject matter to the learner. is an incentive introduce into the method of teaching for the purpose of stimulating the pupil and developing understanding through experience. with the wise selection and use of a variety of instructional devices or audio-visual materials, experiences can be provided that will develop understanding. 1. The uses of visual and audio-visual devices: o To challenge the attention of the pupils. o To stimulate the imagination and mental imagery of the pupils. o To facilitate the understanding of the pupils. o To provide incentive for action. o To develop the ability to listen. 2. Other forms of visual-aids:
Principles and Methods of Teaching 6 Module 1 o Demonstration o Field trips o Laboratory experiments.3. Classification of devices: a. Material device- has no bearing upon the subject matter presented. Ex: black board, chalk, book, pencil and paper. General -for all subjects(Projector or blackboard) Special-for only one subject. b. Mental devices- related to form and meanings to subject matter being presented. Classroom visual aids Field and excursion visual aids4. Criteria covering the selection of devices: o A device should always be means of helping the students learn the particular subject matter presented. o The device should be adapted to meet the individual needs of the pupils. o The device should not be too numerous. o The device should be numerous enough to permit selection by both teacher and learner. o Devices should be economical and should not be mere attraction o Devices should be readily usable. o Devices should be adapted to the goals to be secured through the mastery of the subject matter.5. General suggestions for the use of devices: o The order or system of the use of instructional devices should be well planned by the teacher. o The teaching devices should serve some vital purposes well established in advance.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 7 Module 1 o The devices should be used judiciously. o Should be within the view of all members of the class. o Teacher should use various types of devices. o Teacher must not consider devices as a substitute for teaching procedure or method. o Teacher should not consider devices as ends of themselves but near to an end. o Teacher bear in mind that no one device is effective for all types of learning in all situations. o The teacher should not use devices as mere tricks.6. The Teaching devices: a. Representations or replicas -globes, maps, models, miniature of objects b. Prepared set-ups -aquarium, terrarium, home, veranda, mini weather station, launch pad c. Simulations using figures -historical events and places d. Real objects -articles, chemicals garden tools, living organisms e. Exhibits -life cycle, original investigations, preserve specimen. f. Collections of -shells, poems, letters, essay, ceramics, musical instruments g. Publication and other printed materials -book, magazines, autobiography, bulletins, clippings h. Art work -painting, sculpture, busks, fashion pieces i. Laboratory equipment -microscope, dissecting set, glass wares, calculator j. Electronic equipment and devices -computers, laptop, I pad, projector, tapes,films, discs k. Internet -Social Networking Sites, Google, YouTube
Principles and Methods of Teaching 8 Module 1 LESSON 2The Professional Ethics, the Qualities of Effective Teachers, The Teacher’s Code and Teacher’s Creed Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to: build understanding about professional ethics. extend the knowledge in proper teaching. apply the qualities of effective teachers.2.1Professional Ethics - Partly comprised of what a professional should or should not do in the work place. It also encompasses a much greater part of the professionals’ life. A. The Teacher and the Sate Section 1. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state; each teacher is a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage as well as to elevate national morality, promote national pride, cultivate love of country, instill allegiance to the constitution and for all duly constituted authorities, and promote obedience to the laws of the state. Section 2. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry out the declared policies of the state, and shall take an oath to this effect. Section 3. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own, every teacher shall be physically, mentally and morally fit. Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full commitment and devotion to duty.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 9 Module 1 Section 5. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political, religious, or other partisan interest, and shall not, directly or indirectly, solicit, require, collect, or receive any money or service or other valuable material from any person or entity for such purposes. Section 6. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and responsibility. Section 7. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce any other person to follow any political course of action. Section 8. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have privilege of expounding the product of his researches and investigations; provided that, if the results are inimical to the declared policies of the State, they shall be brought to the proper authorities for appropriate remedial action.B. The Teachers and the Learners Section 1. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the academic marks and the promotions of learners in the subject or grades he handles, provided that such determination shall be in accordance with generally accepted procedures of evaluation and measurement. In case of any complaint, teachers concerned shall immediately take appropriate actions, observing due process. Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first and foremost concern, and shall deal justifiably and impartially with each of them. Section 3. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or discriminate against a learner. Section 4. A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from learners, their parents or others in their behalf in exchange for requested concessions, especially if undeserved.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 10 Module 1 Section 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials other what is authorized for such service. Section 6. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learners work only in merit and quality of academic performance. Section 7. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between teacher and learner, the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid scandal, gossip and preferential treatment of the learner. Section 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestation of poor scholarship.C. A teacher and the Profession Section 1. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling. Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education, shall make the best preparations for the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all times and in the practice of his profession. Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program of the Professional Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies as will improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen his competence, virtues, and productivity in order to be nationally and internationally competitive. Section 4. Every teacher shall help, if duly authorized, to seek support from the school, but shall not make improper misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other questionable means.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 11 Module 1 Section 5. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a manner that makes it dignified means for earning a descent living.2.2 The Qualities of Effective Teachers A. Personal Attributes of a Teacher Passion – passion for teaching is a compelling force that emerges from one’s inborn love for children. Passionate teachers exude spontaneity in ministering to the needs of the students especially those experiencing learning difficulties. Passion does not die nor diminish. They feel they “will live and die a teacher”. Humor – humor stands for anything funny, which elicits smile, laughter or amusing reaction. It is an essential quality of teachers that serves a number of purposes. Nothing will be difficult to undertake since a common feeling of eagerness exist among the students. Values and Attitudes – teachers are models of values. Whether conscious of them or not, values are exhibited implicitly and explicitly. Values connote standards, code of ethics and strong beliefs. Patience – in teaching, patience refers to a teacher’s uncomplaining nature, self control and persistence. Patient teachers can forego momentous frustrations and disappointments. Instead they calmly endure their students’ limitations and difficulties. Enthusiasm- enthusiasm is synonymous to eagerness and excitement. Enthusiastic teachers are full of energy and dynamism. Their passion and love for children are easily felt and not long after their lively presence in the classroom. B. Professional Attributes of a Teacher Control of knowledge base of teaching and learning and use of this knowledge to guide the science and art of his/her teaching practice.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 12 Module 1 Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use this to instruct children in classrooms and to work with adults in the school setting. Dispositions and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a reflective, collegial, and problem solving manner. View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and dispositions and skills for working towards improving his/her own teaching as well as improving schools.C. Top 10 Qualities of Effective Teacher1. An effective teacher loves to teach. The single most important quality that every teacher should possess is a love and passion for teaching young people. Unfortunately there are teachers who do not love what they do. This single factor can destroy a teacher’s effectiveness quicker than anything else. Teachers who do not enjoy their job cannot possibly be effective day in and day out. There are too many discouraging factors associated with teaching that is difficult enough on a teacher who absolutely loves what they do, much less on one who doesn’t have the drive, passion, or enthusiasm for it. On top of that, kids are smarter than what we give them credit for.2. An effective teacher demonstrates a caring attitude. Even teachers who love their job can struggle in this area, not because they don’t care, but because they get caught up so much in the day to day routine of teaching that they can forget that their students have lives outside of school. Taking the time to get to know a student on a personal level takes a lot of time and dedication. There is also a line that no teacher wants to cross where their relationship becomes too personal. Elite teachers know how to balance this without crossing that line and once a student believes the teacher truly cares for them, then there is no limit to what that student can achieve.3. An effective teacher can relate to their students. The best teachers go out of their way to find ways to relate to each of their students. Common interest can be hard to find, but good teachers will find a way to connect with their students even if they have to fake it. For instance, you may have a student who is a Lego fanatic. You can relate to that student if you do something as simple as ordering a Lego catalog and then going through it and discussing it with that student. Even if you have no actual interest in Lego’s, the student will think you do and thus naturally create a connection.4. An effective teacher is willing to think outside the box. There is no one set cookie cutter way to teach. If there was, teachers and students would both be bored. What makes teaching so exciting is that kids learn
Principles and Methods of Teaching 13 Module 1 differently and we have to find and utilize different strategies and differentiated learning to reach every student. What works for one student, will not work for every student. Teachers have to be willing to be creative and adaptive in their lessons, thinking outside the box on a continual basis. If you try to teach every concept in the same manner, there will be students who miss out on key factors because they aren’t wired to learn that way.5. An effective teacher is a good communicator. To be the best possible teacher you must be an effective communicator. However, in this area you are not just limited to being a good communicator to your students although that is a must. You must also be a great communicator with parents of your students as well as your faculty/staff team within in your building. If you have a difficulty communicating with any of these three groups, then you limit your overall effectiveness as a teacher.6. An effective teacher is proactive rather than reactive. This can be one of most difficult aspects for a teacher to conquer. Intense planning and organization can ultimately make your job all the more less difficult. Teachers who plan ahead, looking for aspects that they might have issues with, and proactively looking for solutions to solve those problems will have less stress on them, then those teachers who wait until a problem arises and then tries to address it. Being proactive does not replace being adaptive. No matter how well you plan, there will be surprises. However, being proactive can cut down on these surprises tremendously, thus making you more effective overall.7. An effective teacher works to be better. A teacher who has grown complacent in what they do is the most ineffective kind of teacher. Any teacher who is not looking for new and better teaching strategies isn’t being an effective teacher. No matter how long you have taught, you should always want to grow as a teacher. Every year there is new research, new technology, and new educational tools that could make you a better teacher. Seek out professional development opportunities and try to apply something new to your class every year.8. An effective teacher uses a variety of media in their lessons. Like it or not we are in the 21st century and this generation of students was born in the digital age. These students have been bombarded by technological advances unlike any other generation. They have embraced it and if we as teachers do not, then we are falling behind. This is not to say that we should eliminate textbooks and worksheets completely, but effective teachers are not afraid to implement other forms of media within their lessons.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 14 Module 19. An effective teacher challenges their students. The most effective teachers are often the ones that many students consider to be their most difficult. This is because they challenge their students and push them harder than the average teacher does. These are the teachers who are often students’ least favorite teachers at the time, but then later on in life they are the ones that we all remember and want to thank, because of how well they prepared us for life after our time with them. Being an effective teacher does not mean you are easy. It means that you challenge every one of your students and maximize your time with them so that they learn more than they ever thought possible.10. An effective teacher understands the content that they teach and knows how to explain that content in a manner that their students understand. There are teachers who do not know the content well enough to effectively teach it. There are teachers who are truly experts on the content, but struggle to effectively explain it to their students. The highly effective teacher both understands the content and explains it on level. This can be a difficult skill to accomplish, but the teachers who can, maximize their effectiveness as a teacher.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 15 Module 1 LESSON 3 The Teacher as Corporate Professional Learning Objectives: To know the right and proper attire of a Professional Teacher. To know the proper way as to how to act properly as a professional To know the best way in approaching the students through their outside look, their behavior and their language. Know the importance of polished language in teaching. Apply those behaviors in teaching profession. 3.1Polish Look A teacher should be aware of his/her look especially to the dress he’s/she’s wearing. It isbecause dressing appropriately is very important for their profession. Their clothing choice ispart of their career, and it plays a major part. Whether you are a construction worker with your boots and carhartts or a businessprofessional in a three-piece suit. Your attire or your appearance is your first impressions and areflection of who you are. It may sound shallow but you will be judged on this immediately.To the Ladies Always keep it classy and not trashy. Looking good is fine, but there is no need to dressseductively. You are not there to really impress anyone. Keep everything covered and don’twear extremely form fitting clothes. You are trying to teach the students and not to distractthem. If you wear jeans on a casual day, they should be fairly formal looking and in near-perfect condition. Avoid jeans that are too baggy and skinny styles, and go for a dark wash withno sandblasting or kitschy details like jewels or embroidery. If you do wear jeans, make sure
Principles and Methods of Teaching 16 Module 1you compensate for the casualness by pairing them with dressier shoes and a more formallayer, like a blazer over a blouse.To the Gentlemen Unfortunately, male teachers often seem to struggle with dress. There are commonissues to address: Shoes and belt- Your shoes and belts should always be match (brown shoes/brown belt or black shoes/black belt). Always wear a belt and if not, wear suspenders. Don’t just go without. Don’t wear tennis shoes either. Dressed shoes should be worn because you are dressed up. Keep them polished and not all scuffed up. Ties- Many schools do not require male teachers to wear a tie, but ties can help to gain respect and show authority. Make sure the knot of your tie is tight and centered, also be sure the length of the tie is around the buckle of you belt. Wrinkles- Don’t wear wrinkled dress pants or shirts. Always iron your dress you’re going to wear. Wrinkled dress looks sloppy and like you don’t care. Untucked- While moving around teaching all day, it is easy for your shirt to come untucked. Reaching to write on the board and other actions can cause this. It looks very sloppy for part of your shirt to be untucked and hanging out. Be sure to check and make sure your shirt remains tucked in. Matching- This one may sound obvious but some people it isn’t. Your clothing should always match. You cannot just pair any color with another. Mixing different patterns can also cause other disasters. 3.2Polished DemeanorThe Professional Teacher The professional teacher is the “the licensed professional who possesses dignity andreputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence…. s/headheres to observe, and practices a set of ethical and moral principles, standards and values”
Principles and Methods of Teaching 17 Module 1Personal Attributes Personality is the sum of one’s personal characteristics. It is one’s identity. The teachers,more than any other professional, are momentarily subjected to scrutiny to the minutest detailand observation by those they associate with. Teachers are judged more strictly than otherprofessionals. The personality they project determines the impressions they make uponstudents and colleagues. Their poise, bearing and manner of dressing create a stunning andattractive appearance. Their facial expression communicates a friendly and amiable disposition. Teachers’ personality must be natural and genuine, that is, devoid of pretenses andartificiality. They must be consistent, true and authentic. Some outstanding personal qualities that never fail to win their flock are worth printingin gold. 1. Passion 2. Humor 3. Values and Attitudes 4. Patience 5. EnthusiasmPolished Demeanor- refers to the more refined behavior, manner or appearance of the Teachertowards the students and other people. A. The Teaching Profession The teaching profession is an occupation that requires extensive education or specialized training to become highly competent in the field of instruction and learning. There are some points for the teachers to serve as “guides” or “mirror” in order that his chosen career would be productive and efficient. 1.1 Awareness of profession 1.2 Separation of teaching job from personal life
Principles and Methods of Teaching 18 Module 1 1.3 Frustration 1.4 Constant self-evaluationB.Preparations of Teachers Nobody could teach and instruct in any formal school without undergoingsufficient and painful preparation for a great task – teaching. Any candidate for teachereducation who is languid to read books, lethargic in doing research, and lousy may notbe a good teacher and a model for his students in the future. 2.1 Physical 2.2 Intellectual 2.3 Emotional 2.4 Moral 2.5 SpiritualC. The Teacher outside the Classroom The teacher’s morale in the classroom has to correspond with his daily social life.His good and exemplary life must radiate extensively to other people in the society thathe embraced to serve.C.1Model CitizenNon-partisan in Politics The teacher as an individual personality is an important element in the learningenvironment or in the failures and success of the learner. The way in which hispersonality interacts with the personalities of the pupils being taught helps todetermine the kind of behavior which emerges from the learning situation.3.2Polished Language Typically focus on speaking, reading, writing and translating the Polish language. Coursework also includes studies of Polish literature and culture.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 19 Module 1 Both undergraduate and graduate degree programs are available in the Polish language.1. Voice is the union for education professionals, and we speak up for everyone, from teachers, lecturers and nursery nurses, to head teachers and school support staff, including teaching assistants, technicians and administrators and students. The primary tool of trade, your main mode of communication in the classroom and one of your most powerful assets. The teacher and parents can determine what the best actions are to help enhance the learning process for a particular child. Many teachers can offset a childs negative surroundings outside of the classroom. The skills that students learn in school may help them get through any problems that they may have in dealing with their loved ones. Teachers can also help to reinforce the rules and skills that parents have already placed into their children. Teachers should avoid raising their voice in the sense of shouting or using a higher pitch that may have an even more disturbing effect on the group or class. No naughtiness or disobedience instead learning and positive activity is no longer possible. Bad behavior can result from the lack of knowledge teachers have about the effect of their voice on their pupils. A good teacher should give an encouragement words to their students. Don’t say any words that may hurt them.2. Gestures A body movement that express or emphasizes an idea, sentiment or attitude. Teaching gestures is different from everyday communicative gesture. A. 3 main roles of teaching gestures: Management of the class ( to start / end an activity, question students, request silence) Evaluation (to show a mistake, correct, congratulate, etc.) Explanation (gives indication on syntax, underline specific prosody, explain new vocabulary, etc.) B. Various shapes of Gestures: Hand gestures
Principles and Methods of Teaching 20 Module 1 Facial expressions Pantomime Body movements, etc.C. How to teach using gestures and mime Giving directions Vocabulary Practice Production Cultural
Principles and Methods of Teaching 21 Module 1 LESSON 4 The Principles of Teaching (According to Various Authors) Learning Objectives: After the report, students should be able to: Show how principles of teaching are derived. Cite principles of teaching. have more knowledge of what are the Principles of teaching. understand the importance of the Principles of teaching. apply the different principles of teaching4.1Principles of teachingPrinciple is: A basic truth, law, or assumption A rule or standard, especially of good behavior. The collectivity of moral or ethical standards or judgments. A fixed or predetermined policy or mode of action. A basic or essential quality or element determining intrinsic nature or characteristic behavior A rule or law concerning the functioning of natural phenomena or mechanical processes. PRINCIPLE is a comprehensive law or doctrine from which an accepted or professed rule ofaction or conduct is derived. It has been adopted from latin word princeps which means thebeginning or the end of all facts, circumstances or state of affairs. This is also used to expressthe origin of things and their fundamental laws and to bring out the ultimate objectives(Zulueta,2006)Principles of teaching The basic principles of teaching relate to effective communication and should be visiblewithin a lesson plan. By communication is meant the whole environment of effective teachingas well as simply verbal speaking and listening (each by student and teacher) 1. Share intellectual control with students. Building a sense of shared ownership is an effective way of achieving high levels of student interest and engagement. It can be achieved in many ways; many of these involve some form of formal or informal negotiation about parts or all of the content,
Principles and Methods of Teaching 22 Module 1 tasks or assessment. Another complementary approach is to ensure that students questions, comments and suggestions regularly influence, initiate (or terminate) what is to be done.2. Look for occasions when students can work out part (or all) of the content or instructions. Learning is almost always better if students work something out for themselves, rather than reading it or hearing it. This is not always feasible of course, but often it is.3. Provide opportunities for choice and independent decision-making. Students respond very positively to the freedom to make some decisions about what or how they will work. To be effective, the choices need to be genuine, not situations where there is really only one possibility. These may include choices about which area of content to explore, the level of demand (do more routine tasks or fewer more demanding ones), the form of presentation (poster, powerpoint presentation, role play, model etc.),and how to manage their time during a day or lesson.4. Provide diverse range of ways of experiencing success. Raising intellectual self-esteem is perhaps the most important aspect of working with low and moderately achieving students. Success via interactive discussion, question- asking, role-plays and tasks allowing high levels of creativity often results in greater confidence and hence persistence in tackling other written tasks. Publicly recognising and praising good learning behaviours is useful here.5. Promote talk which is exploratory, tentative and hypothetical. This sort of talk fosters link-making and, as our research shows, commonly reflects high levels of intellectual engagement. Teaching approaches such as delayed judgement, increased wait-time, promotion of What If questions. The classroom becomes more fluid and interactive.6. Encourage students to learn from other students questions and comments. The student conception that they can learn from other students’ ideas, comments and questions develops more slowly than the conception that discussion is real and useful work. The classroom dynamics can reach new, very high levels when ideas and debate bounce around from student to student, rather than student to teacher.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 23 Module 17. Build a classroom environment that supports risk-taking. We underestimated the very high levels of perceived risk that accompanies many aspects of quality learning for most students, even in classes where such learning is widespread. It is much safer, for example, to wait for the teachers answer to appear than to suggest one yourself. Building trusts in the teacher and other students and training students to disagree without personal put-downs are essential to widespread display of good learning behaviours.8. Use a wide variety of intellectually challenging teaching procedures. There are at least two reasons for this, one is that teaching procedures that counter passive learning and promote quality learning require student energy and effort. Hence they need to be varied frequently to retain their freshness. The other is that variety is another source of student interest.9. Use teaching procedures that are designed to promote specific aspects of quality learning. Students could be taught how to learn, in part by devising a range of teaching procedures to variously tackle each of a list of poor learning tendencies, for example failing to link school work to relevant out-of-school experiences. The variety in (8) is not random and one basis for selecting a particular teaching procedure is to promote a particular aspect of quality learning.10. Develop students awareness of the big picture: how the various activities fit together and link to the big ideas. Many, if not most students, do not perceive schooling to be related to learning key ideas and skills. Rather, they see their role as completing tasks and so they focus on what to do not why they are doing it. Much teacher talk, particularly in skills based areas such as Mathematics, Grammar and Technology reinforces this perception. For these reasons, students (including primary students) commonly do not link activities and do not make links to unifying, big ideas.11. Regularly raise students awareness of the nature of different aspects of quality learning. This is a key aspect of learning how to learn. Students typically have no vocabulary to discuss learning. it is very helpful to build a shared vocabulary and shared understandings by regular, short debriefing about some aspect of the learning that has just occurred. Having a rotating student monitor of a short list of good learning behaviours can be very helpful.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 24 Module 112. Promote assessment as part of the learning process. Students and sometimes teachers typically see assessments as purely summative: something that teachers do to students at the end of a topic. Building the perception that most assessment tasks are part of the learning process includes encouraging students learning from what they did and did not do well as well as having students taking some ownership of and responsibility for aspects of assessment.4.2 How Principles of Teaching Are Derived It can be said that principles of teaching are derived; a) Through the pooling of the opinions of experts, b) Through comparative studies of the teaching performance of capable and oincapable teachers; c) Through experimental studies of teaching and learning in the classroom; d) From the results of experiments which are the universal methods of deducing principles; and e) From critically analyzed experience or from systematic investigations. Principles of Teaching and Learning Language 1. Begin with the end in mind. With the clear focus “no amount of far-fetched question or comment from our students, no amount of unnecessary interruption or disruption can derail our intended lesson for the day. If you want people to achieve result, clarify what you want your students to achieve. 2. Encourage your student to personalize the learning goals identified for them. Your student must own the lesson objectives. When they make the lesson objectives their own then they take care that they realize them. When student set their own personal targets they will become more self-motivated. 3. Motivation is essential for learning. It is motivation that makes students explore, choose, remain interested, participate actively and build self- confidence. 4. Learning is a social activity. We learn from others when we interact with them in the same way that they learn from us.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 25 Module 15. Teaching language is more effective and learning, more meaningful when it is integrative. When you do integrative teaching you will: Incorporate the four language arts – listening, speaking, reading and writing Consider varied strategies for all multiple intelligence and learning styles Apply interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary teaching Teach language structure and from in authentic contexts rather through contrived drills and in language workbooks Connect your lessons to the life experiences of your students Incorporate effective, research-based instructional strategies for teaching Integrate values in your lessons6. A conducive classroom atmosphere. Build comfort into learning. People function best in a favourable atmosphere. Gerald J. Pine and Peter J. Horne describe a facilitative learning atmosphere as one that: Encourage people to be active Promotes and facilities the individual’s discovery of the learning meaning of ideas Emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning Sees difference as good and desirable Consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes Tolerate ambiguity Looks at evaluation as a cooperative process and emphasizes on self- evaluation Encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self Encourages people to trust in themselves as well as in external sources Gives respect to people Accepts people for who they are Permits confrontation with self and ideas7. Learning is an active process in which the learner uses sensory input and constructs meaning out of it. Learning is not the passive acceptance of knowledge which exists ‘out there’ but that learning involves the learner’s engaging with the world.8. Learning is reflective. We need to provide activities which engage the mind as well as the hands.9. Emphasize on self-evaluation. Feedback should be criterion-referenced. Practice using rubrics. It is against this personal target that they will evaluate themselves at the end of the lesson.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 26 Module 110. Make use of an integrated performance assessment that makes the connections between learning styles, intelligence, and the real world explicit in a way that is useful to both students and teachers.11. Emphasize on real world application that favours realistic performance over out-of-context drill items. Such assessments require students to generate-rather than choose- a response, and to actively accomplish complex tasks while bringing to bear prior knowledge new learning, and relevant skills.
Principles and Methods of Teaching 27 Module 1 LET REVIEWER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (PAGES 317-346) 1. Ms. Ortiz ranked No. 1 in March 2012 LET Exam. Upon learning this by the school where she had her internship, she was offered immediately of a position for the school year 2012-2013. She gladly accepted this job offering. She submitted all the documents required by the school and just waited for the results of her medical exam. A week before the orientation for the newly hired teachers, the result of her medical exam was released. She learned that she has tuberculosis. Which of the following do you think must Ms. Ortiz do? a. Hide her sickness from the principal and proceed to teach in the SY 2012-2013 b. Ask the examining doctor to give her medical clearance so that she can teach and assure the doctor she will continue her medication. c. Tell the principal that she has changed her mind and opted not to teach anymore. d. Discuss her medical condition to the principal and defer to teach until she gets well. 2. Mrs. Banaticla is a high school teacher who is known for her integrity and credibility. In her community, she was regarded as one of the leaders. All thru out her career as a teacher, she is also a part of the board of canvassers every time there is an election. One time, she was asked by her nephew to campaign for him in the forthcoming election for he will run as a Congressman. Should Mrs. Banaticla campaign for her nephew? a. Yes, there I no reason why she can’t do this since blood is thicker than water. b. Yes, she will be campaigning for her nephew and will do it discreetly. c. No, she hates her nephew and it’s time to get even. d. No, she knows that it’s against her principle as a teacher and this might put her credibility as a teacher at risk.3. Jonathan San Diego, son of the Principal of Mapagpala Elementary School is running as amayor in their town. Is it ethical for Principal San Diego to vote for his son during the election? a. Yes, it is a constitutional right of Principal San Diego to vote. b. Yes, his vote is an additional point for his son c. No, out of delicadeza, he should refrain from voting since his son is a candidate d. No, he has no right to vote 3. Mrs. Conception is a public school teacher for 35 years. Every time she was asked by her principal to attend a seminar, she refused and requested that the new teacher be the one to take the slot. Is this correct? a. Yes, Mrs. Concepcion had enough of these seminars b. Yes, Mrs. Concepcion is about to retire and these seminars will have no longer use for her
Principles and Methods of Teaching 28 Module 1 c. No, Mrs. Concepcion should take every opportunity to attend a seminar for her own professional growth d. No, Mrs. Concepcion has the prerogative to what seminar she will attend 4. Teacher Allyce doesn’t like Maria, her student who is expected to graduate as class Valedictorian. In this regard, she is so impartial to her; she also gives her low marks in recitation and project. Is this correct? a. Yes, this is the right of the teacher to determine the mark of the student b. Yes, it is human nature to feel disgust to an individual c. No, it is a mortal sin to hate anyone d. No, it is a must that every teacher be impartial to each student 5. Mrs. Quinay was asked by the parents of Michael (her favorite student) to help them to get the concession of the school canteen. Mrs. Quinay, effortless made this possible for Michael’s parents. In return, Michael’s parents gave her a brand new refrigerator as a gift. How should Mrs. Quinay react on this? a. Accept the gift since she made a favor for Michael’s parents b. Accept the gift and asked Michael’s parents to be discrete about this c. Accept the gift and politely explain that it is against the principle of a teacher to adhere in such practice d. Accept not the gift and tell to Michael’s parents that she prefers cash over the refrigerator7. The Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers cover(s) a. All private school teachers in all educational institutions at the pre-school, primary, elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical or non-formal b. All public school teachers in all educational institutions at the pre-school, primary, elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical or non-formal c. All private and private school teachers in all educational institutions at the preschool, primary, elementary, secondary and tertiary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical, or non-formal d. All private and private school teachers in all educational institutions at the preschool, primary, elementary and secondary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical, or non- formal
Principles and Methods of Teaching 29 Module 18. Which of the following is the mark of a good teacher? a. Has the control of the class b. Has the mastery of the lesson c. Has the capability to implement corporal punishment d. Has the habit of preparing for visual aids11. Mr. de Guzman is regarded as the best teacher in their school. He is known not onlybecause he teaches well but also because of his integrity and credibility. In addition, he is alsoan adviser in their barangay. Without the knowledge of everyone he is consistently attendingthe cockfight in his adjacent town every other day. He is also known for betting a big amount ofmoney in every game. Can he continue doing this considering his profession as a teacher? a. Yes, this activity is not affecting his work as a teacher b. Yes, this activity is being funded by his own money c. No, this activity will not merit him reasonable social recognition d. No, this activity may lead him to financial loss and problem12. What do you think would be the action of the teacher who found out and has proven thathis principal is involved in the malversation of funds of their school? a. Malign him through an anonymous letter b. Circulate the issue and let it become a gossip c. Present the charge to a competent authority d. Ignore what the teacher has discovered about this action of the principal14. Teacher Reian is a new teacher. She realizes that handling her student’s misbehavior is avery demanding aspect of classroom management. In this regard, she thought of giving upteaching. What advice can you give her? a. Agree with the class on what rules to follow b. Report every student’s misbehavior to the principal c. Set the ground rules for the whole class d. None of the above15. If the teacher is an advocate of “banking concept in education”, he or she viewed studentas? a. Clear account to be filled up by the teacher b. Dormant account to be activated by the teacher c. Wobble account to be balanced by the teacher d. All of the above
Principles and Methods of Teaching 30 Module 117. Teacher Carol is a neophyte teacher. One time a mother of one of her students confrontedand maligned her in front of her colleagues. How should Teacher Carol react on this kind ofsituation? a. Walk away and ignore the mother b. Answer back the mother and malign her too c. Allow the mother to keep on maligning her until it’s her turn to do the same d. Wait until the emotion of the mother subsides and invite her to discuss the concernwith principal or guidance councilor18. During the distribution of the report card, which of the following must be the foremostconcern of a teacher? a. Discuss the projects of the school b. Discuss the progress as well as the deficiencies of the student c. Discuss the unsettled bill of the student d. Discuss the complaints of other teachers and classmates of the students24. Which of the following is NOT correct under the Code of Ethics for Teachers regardingTeacher and Businesses? a. No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of, or be financially interested in, any commercial venture which furnish textbooks and other school commodities inthe purchase and disposal of which he can exercise official influence, except only when hisassignment is inherently, related to such purchase and disposal; provided they shall be inaccordance with the existing regulations; provided, further, that members of duly recognizedteachers cooperatives may participate in the distribution and sale of such commodities. b. A teacher has no right to engage, directly or indirectly, in legitimate incomegeneration c. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to the financial matters suchas in the settlement of his debts and loans in arranging satisfactorily his private affairs d. None of the above25. Teacher Mely, a neophyte in the field, experienced for the first time a complaint from themother of one of her students during the distribution of the report card. Which of the followingdo you think must be the attitude of teacher Mely? a. Bring the mother to the Guidance Councilor b. Ignore the complaint of the mother c. Listen to the complaint of the mother with sympathy d. None of the above27. Teacher Leor and student Joy are mutually attracted the first time they see each other. Thismutual attraction developed into love. Eventually, the teacher-student became a boyfriend-girlfriend relationship. Can they continue this kind of relationship?
Principles and Methods of Teaching 31 Module 1 a. Continue the relationship but Teacher Leor must exercise utmost professionaldiscretion so as to protect the interest of one another b. Stop the relationship because teacher Leor is not allowed to have a romanticrelationship with any of his students c. Defer the relationship and wait for the right time d. None of the above30. Student Dianne hits her classmate. What do you think should her teacher do so that she canlearn from the consequence of her action? a. Ask Dianne’s classmate to hit her too b. Request Dianne to stand for the entire period c. Give Dianne a failing mark on the subject d. None of the above31. Principal Lourdes asks the assistance of teacher Elvie to prepare the report to be presentedto the District Supervisor. After the presentation, the District Supervisor commended her forthe excellent report. She even asks her to print the materials for the distribution to otherprincipals. In the printed work, principal Lourdes does not even acknowledge teacher Elvie. Isthis morally correct? a. Yes, the principal has all the right to decide who will be acknowledged. b. Yes, the principal knows that teacher Elvie is afraid of her and will not complain c. Yes, the principal must impress her district supervisor and hide the truth that it is nother alone who prepared the report d. None of the choices s correct32. During the class reunion of teacher Eloisa, she learned that most of her classmates aresuccessful in their fields. Also, she found out that most of them are wealthy because they havechosen a lucrative profession. Confronted with this situation, how should teacher Eloisa react? a. Hide those who asked her real profession b. Leave the event so as to avoid being asked about her profession c. Tell with pride that she is a teacher by profession d. Answer not their question concerning her profession45. Teacher Angelita is not only a competent teacher but also a community leader in theirplace. Which of the following should teacher Angelita NOT do as a teacher? a. Consistently proposes projects that will benefit the community b. Actively participate in the activities of the community
Principles and Methods of Teaching 32 Module 1 c. Always make herself unapproachable to every member of the community so that her decisions will have no effect of community politics d. Constantly help in raising funds for community projects46. Teacher Helen knows of the illicit affair of her colleague has with a married man. However,she chooses to be silent about this for the fear of getting involved in this situation. Which of thefollowing principle of morality does teacher Helen fail to comply? a. The end does not justify the mean b. Do what is good c. Choose the lesser evil d. All of the above48. Which of the following is NOT in accordance to the provision under the Code of Ethics forTeachers? a. All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy, helpfulness andsympathy towards teachers and other personnel, such practices being standards ofeffective school supervision, dignified administration, responsible leadership andenlightened directions b. School officials shall encourage and attend the professional growth of all teachersunder them such as recommending them for promotion, giving them due recognition formeritorious performance, and allowing them to participate in conferences in trainingprograms. c. School officials, teachers and other school personnel shall consider it theircooperative responsibility to formulate policies or introduce important changes in the systemat all levels. d. No officials can be stopped from dismissing or from recommending the dismissal of ateacher or other subordinates even without a cause.49. Which of the following is incorrect? a. Teaching profession is a dignified mean of earning to have a decent living b. Teaching profession is the noblest profession c. Teaching profession can be used in soliciting funds for personal gain d. None of the above50. Teachers being trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation is underobligation to a. transmit to learners such heritage and elevate national morality b. promote national pride, cultivate love of country and instill allegiance to theconstitution authorities
Principles and Methods of Teaching 33 Module 1 c. promote obedience to the laws of the state d. all of the above52. Principal Thea is vewy much interested in a quality professional development program ofher teachers. Which of the following should she consider to realize this? a. Prescribed by top educational leaders b. Dependent on the availability of funds c. Required for the renewal of professional license d. Responsive to identified teacher’s needs53. Mrs. San Rafael is the principal of Matimbo Elementary School. For her to ensure highstandards of teachers’ personal and professional development, which of the followingmeasures should she implement? I. Plans the professional development of her teachers II. Allows each of her teacher to formulate their own professional development III. Monitors her teachers as they implement what they learned in training a. I only b. I and II c. II and III d. II only54. Aside from being a teacher, Mr. Sandoval is also a community leader. Which of thefollowing should Mr. Sandoval NOT do as a teacher? a. Support effort of the community to improve his status in life b. Make himself aloof to ensure that his decisions will not be influenced by communitypolitics c. Solicit donation for philanthropists in the community d. Play an active part in the activities of the community55. A teacher is said to be a “a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation andis under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage”. What practice makes the teacherfulfill such obligation? A. Use interactive teaching strategies. b. Use the latest educational technology. c. Observe continuing professional education. d. As a class, study the life of Filipino heroes.61. Cris is a sophomore student who complains to his teacher about his falling grade. When histeacher recomputed his grade, the teacher found out that he committed an error. The teacher
Principles and Methods of Teaching 34 Module 1decided not to accept the enormous computation before Cris and so leave the failing grade forthe fear that he may lose credibility. Is this morally right? a. No, the reason for not accepting the error before Cris is a sign of weakness b. No, the end does not justify the mean c. Yes, the end justifies the mean d. Yes, as a teacher you must maintain your credibility62. Teacher Wendell knows of the illegal activities of Mr. Cordero, his neighbor but keeps quietin order not to be involved in any investigation. Which foundational principle of morality doesTeacher Wendell fail to apply? a. The end does not justify the mean b. The end justifies the mean c. Always do what is right d. Between two evils, do the lesser evil63. Which of the following action of Teacher Ford is an INAPPROPRIATE way to manage off-tackbehavior? a. Redirect a child’s attention to task and check his progress to make sure he iscontinuing to work. b. Make eye contact to communicate what you wish to communicate. c. Move closer to the child to make him feel your presence d. Stop your class activity to correct a child who is no longer on task64. Mrs. Cristobal is admired for being an effective classroom manager. She is not only friendlybut at the same time be _____. a. Confident c. Analytical b. businesslike d. buddy-buddy67. Mrs. Paguiligan wants to help in ending Ms. Sandoval’s act of immorality but doesn’t havethe courage to confront her. What she did was to write and secretly distribute copies ofanonymous letter to her colleagues. What should have been done instead? a. Ask a third party to write the anonymous letter to prevent her from being involved b. Talk to the married man with whom Ms. Sandoval is having an illicit affair c. If the charge is valid; present such charge under oath before school head. d. Secretly give anonymous letter to the people concerned68. Principal Jon asked his good teachers to write modular lesson in Filipino, then he had thempublished with his name printed as the author. Which is unethical in this case?
Principles and Methods of Teaching 35 Module 1 a. He was the exclusive beneficiary of the royalty from the modules. b. He had the modular lessons published when they worth publishing. c. He got the merit which was due for his teacher-writers. d. He burdened the teachers with work not related to teaching.77. Teacher Divine, a teacher for thirty-two years, refuses to attend seminars. She claims thather thirty-two years of teaching is more than all the seminars she is asked to attend. Are heractuation and thinking in accordance with the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers? a. No, non-attendance to seminars would mean no increase in salary b. No, a professional teacher, regardless of teaching experience, ought to go throughcontinuing process of education c. Yes, because she taught for thirty-two years and may have mastered the traded. d. Yes, provided she has an excellent performance rating.81. Which of the following would be the most fitting action of a teacher who is having arelationship with his/her student? a. Deny the relationship b. Enjoy the relationship while it lasts c. Defer the relationship until they are ready to admit d. Continue the relationship and exercise utmost professional discretion about this83. Ms. Lopez is a sickly teacher. She gets to school even late and not feeling well. Whatprovision in RA 7836 does she violate? a. Teachers must be devoted, honest and punctual in performing their duty b. Teachers should be physically, mentally and morally fit to teach. c. Teachers should manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a nobleprofession d. All of the above87. In the National Election, the Chairman of Precinct 34 asked Teacher Emily to change theentries in the election returns in exchange for special favors. It would be best for Teacher Emilyto _______ a. Change some discreetly b. Follow what the chairman has instructed c. Say yes to the Chairman but don’t do it d. Say no to the Chairman and be firmed about it88. Which of the following would best manifest the Teacher-Student Relationship?
Principles and Methods of Teaching 36 Module 1 a. Teacher to inflict corporal punishment to offending student upon the approval ofparents b. Teacher to inflict corporal punishment on offending student secretly c. Teacher to inflict corporal punishment to offending students at all times. d. Teacher to inflict no corporal punishment on offending students at all times.90. Teacher Veena is a newly appointed teacher. The Principal told her to avoid any conductsthat will discredit the teaching profession. Which of the following do you think will not in anymanner discredit the teaching profession? a. Revealing confidential information of the school b. Writing anonymous letter maligning colleagues c. Joining social drinking d. Practicing entrepreneurship with the students as clients94. Which of the following situations violate the principle of respect? a. Teacher Helen tells her student that what Teacher Joann taught is wrong b. Teacher Joann, upon learning what teacher Helen did, asked the students not toattend her class c. Teacher Janis is giving special favor to students to please them so that she can getremarkable result in the evaluation d. All of the above97. Teacher Jon knows of the illegal gambling that his neighbor is operating. However, hechooses to be quiet about it for fear of getting involved in any investigation that may lead tothis. Which among the following principle of morality does Teacher Jon fail to comply? a. Choose the good and avoid the evil b. Choose the lesser evil c. The end justifies the mean d. The end does not justify the mean107. The Preamble of the Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers, which is NOT said amongteachers? a. LET Passers b. Possess dignity and reputation c. Duly licensed professionals d. High moral values with competencies115. Ms. Gabrielle is the most admired pre-school teacher in her school. Which among thefollowing can best explain her being a good teacher?
Principles and Methods of Teaching 37 Module 1 a. She adheres to the want of the parents for their children b. She manages to instill control to her students c. She endorses all the projects of the school for her students d. She gives easy exams to her studentsAnswer Key1. D 62. C2. D 63. D3. A 64. B4. C 67. C5. D 68. C6. C 77. B7. D 81. D8. A 83. B11. C 87. D12. C 88. D14. C 90. C15. A 91. D17. D 94. D18. B 97. A24. B 107. A25. C 115. B27. A30. D31. D32. C45. C46. B48. D49. C50. D52. D53. B54. B55. D61. A