EU, NATO, AND THEPOLITICS OFCONDITIONALITY              Angel Angelov
STRUCTURE OF THE LECTURE   I    Introduction to Conditionality   II   Enlargement Conditionality   III The EU and NATO ...
I     INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY                       I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY                       II. Enl...
1.        DEFINITION                                 I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY                                    ...
1.   DEFINITION                     I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY                                        1. Definition...
1.        DEFINITION                  I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY                                      1. Definition...
2.        GENERATIONS OF CONDITIONALITY                                    I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY              ...
A.   First generation of Conditionality                                  I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY                ...
B.   Second generation of conditionality                                      I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY           ...
3.    CHARACTERISTICS OF CONDITIONALITY                                    I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY              ...
II     ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                                     I. Introduction to Conditionality                   ...
•       ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY :            3rd GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY                                   II. ENL...
1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A       THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY                                   II. ENLARGEM...
1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A       THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY                                  II. ENLARGEME...
1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A   THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY                                  II. ENLARGEMENT C...
1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A   THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY                           II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIO...
2.       RATIONAL                                II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                                •    Enlarg...
3. LIMITATIONS                          II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                          •    Enlargement Condition...
III EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENTCONDITIONALITY                       I. Introduction to Conditionality                       II...
1.   MEMBERSHIP CONDITIONALITY                    III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                    •     Mem...
A.      EU membership conditionality                             III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY              ...
B.        NATO membership conditionality                                 III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY      ...
2.      CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EU AND NATO            ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                                         I...
Is there a power asymmetry?                                   III.   EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY               ...
Are there available alternatives to themembership in EU/NATO?                                  III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMEN...
Is there a lack of an urgent need for    EU/NATO to enlarge?                          III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITI...
Are EU and NATO imposing conditionsunilaterally?      III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                   •     ...
Could the applicants have undertaken the reforms    if membership was not conditioned on them?                            ...
3. RATIONAL OF THE NATO        ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                                III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT COND...
3.      RATIONAL OF THE NATO        ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                             III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CO...
3.       LIMITATIONS TO THE NATO         ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY                               III. EU AND NATO ENLARGE...
CONCLUSION                                   I. Introduction to Conditionality                                   II. Enlar...
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Efs plecture3

  1. 1. EU, NATO, AND THEPOLITICS OFCONDITIONALITY Angel Angelov
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF THE LECTURE I Introduction to Conditionality II Enlargement Conditionality III The EU and NATO Enlargement Conditionality
  3. 3. I INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY II. Enlargement Conditionality III. EU and NATO Conditionality2. Definitions4. Generations6. Characteristics
  4. 4. 1. DEFINITION I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of Conditionality The law of conditionality: Whatever comes into existence does so in dependence on conditions, and in the absence of those conditions ceases to exist. (Sangharakshita, A Guide to the Buddhist Path) A new world order can be created, and development aid, by its conditionality, is one of the instruments to do so. (Peter Uvin, ‘Do as I Say, Not as I do’: The Limits of Political Conditionality)
  5. 5. 1. DEFINITION I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of Conditionality I will provide you with ‘x’ on a condition you do ‘y’ The idea - old as politics itself Recent addition to the lexicon of IR
  6. 6. 1. DEFINITION I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of Conditionality The use of fulfilment of stipulated political obligations as a prerequisite for obtaining  economic aid  debt relief  most-favoured nation status  access to subsidized credit  membership in desired regional or global organizations
  7. 7. 2. GENERATIONS OF CONDITIONALITY I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of ConditionalityA. First generation  Economic conditionalityB. Second generation  Political conditionality
  8. 8. A. First generation of Conditionality I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of Conditionality Late 1970s - economic crisis in the Third World Reasons - excessive government spending, over-valued currencies, etc. Prescription - domestic economic reforms Economic reforms - condition for assistance
  9. 9. B. Second generation of conditionality I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of Conditionality The end of the Cold War Democracy and human rights - primary concern in development Free markets and free elections - essence of aid Development aid - dependent on political reforms
  10. 10. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONDITIONALITY I. INTRODUCTION TO CONDITIONALITY 1. Definition 2.Generations of Conditionality 3. Characteristics of Conditionality Power asymmetry Demander’s availability of alternative sources Donor’s necessity for interaction with the demander Elaboration of the conditions Demander’s commitment to reform
  11. 11. II ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY I. Introduction to Conditionality II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY III. EU and NATO Conditionalityn Enlargement conditionality: 3rd generation of conditionalityn Rationaln Limitations
  12. 12. • ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY : 3rd GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement Conditionality: 3rd Generation • Rational • Limitations Triggering factors:  Financial crisis in the Third World  First generation  End of the Cold War  Second generation  NATO and EU post-Cold war enlargements  Third generation
  13. 13. 1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement Conditionality as a 3rd Generation • Rational • Limitations Focus:  First generation  economic conditions  Second generation  brought in the human rights consideration  Third generation  ‘full package’
  14. 14. 1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement conditionality as a 3rd generation • Rational • Limitations Features of the enlargement conditionality  1990s - beyond a simple listing of membership criteria  Complex and elaborated system of conditions  Extensive and institutionalized monitoring
  15. 15. 1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement Conditionality as a 3rd Generation • Rational • Limitations Goals:  Previous generations  more immediate results  Enlargement conditionality  longer term perspective and sustainability
  16. 16. 1. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY AS A THIRD GENERATION OF CONDITIONALITY II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement Conditionality as a 3rd Generation • Rational • Limitations Better equipped for bringing and sustaining reforms The benefits associated with membership:sufficiently large as to induce far-reaching concessions
  17. 17. 2. RATIONAL II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement Conditionality as a 3rd Generation • Rational • Limitations Justifying rejection Ensuring the contribution potential of the newcomers Protection of the club’s basic values and interests Motivating particular set of reforms in the candidates
  18. 18. 3. LIMITATIONS II. ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Enlargement Conditionality as a 3rd Generation • Rational • Limitations Geographical limitation Temporal limitation
  19. 19. III EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENTCONDITIONALITY I. Introduction to Conditionality II. Enlargement Conditionality III. EU and NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITYn Membership conditionalityn Characteristicsn Rationaln Limitations
  20. 20. 1. MEMBERSHIP CONDITIONALITY III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Rational • CharacteristicsA. EU membership conditionalityB. NATO membership conditionality
  21. 21. A. EU membership conditionality III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Rational • Characteristics • Limitations Copenhagen conditions:  democracy and protection of human and minority rights  a functioning market economy  implementation of the acqui Fourth basic condition:  ‘good neighbourliness’ (Agenda 2000 )
  22. 22. B. NATO membership conditionality III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations ‘Study on NATO Enlargement’  Functioning democratic political system  Market economy  Democratic civil-military relations  Minority protection  Good-neighbourliness  Ability to provide a military contribution and achieve interoperability
  23. 23. 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations Power asymmetry  Is there a power asymmetry between EU/NATO and the applicants? Demander’s availability of alternative sources  Are there available alternatives to the EU/NATO membership? Donor’s necessity for a particular interaction with the ‘demander  Is there a lack of an urgent need for EU/NATO to enlarge? Elaboration of the conditions  Are EU and NATO imposing conditions unilaterally? Demander’s commitment to reform  Could the applicants have undertaken the required reforms if EU/NATO membership was not conditioned on them?
  24. 24. Is there a power asymmetry? III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations ‘Carrot and stick’ approach  Carrot - positive conditionality  If you do ‘x’ we provide you with ‘y’  membership - encourages a peaceful transformation of the social, political and military systems  Stick - negative conditionality  If you do not do ‘x’ we will not provide you with ‘y’  denial of membership “Carrot and stick” approach = significant power asymmetry
  25. 25. Are there available alternatives to themembership in EU/NATO? III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations Membership affiliations during and after the Cold War In economic terms - EU membership is the most attractive option A dangerous security vacuum Russia - not in a position, nor requested to assist Neutrality is not an option Membership in NATO – the most reliable option
  26. 26. Is there a lack of an urgent need for EU/NATO to enlarge? III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations No enthusiasm for ‘big bang’ enlargement Significant mismatch between demand and supply
  27. 27. Are EU and NATO imposing conditionsunilaterally? III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations  NATO alone sets the conditions and the timetable for the accession  The applicants – excluded from the decision-making  Partnership for Peace / Stability Pact for SEE  ‘Take it or leave it’
  28. 28. Could the applicants have undertaken the reforms if membership was not conditioned on them? III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations At its best- form of paternalism At its worst - imposes an alien agenda Problem of timing
  29. 29. 3. RATIONAL OF THE NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations Justifying rejection - keep the unwanted applicants away Ensuring contribution potential of the newcomers - sensibility on the inclusion of ‘free riders’
  30. 30. 3. RATIONAL OF THE NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations Protection of the club’s basic values and interests - widening should not obstruct deepening Motivating particular set of reforms - enlargement is one the most influential foreign policy instruments
  31. 31. 3. LIMITATIONS TO THE NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY III. EU AND NATO ENLARGEMENT CONDITIONALITY • Membership Conditionality • Characteristics • Rational • Limitations Geographical limitation  limited to the North-Atlantic area Temporal limitation  limited to the awarding of membership
  32. 32. CONCLUSION I. Introduction to Conditionality II. Enlargement Conditionality III. EU and NATO Enlargement conditionality Effective environment shaping instrument Reasons:  functions in an environment of power asymmetry  has no viable alternative  the demand of membership exceeds the supply  many reforms are triggered by EU’s and NATO’s carrot and stick approach

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