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Marriage in Europe


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Marriage in Europe

Marriage in Europe

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  • 1. "Liviu Rebreanu" School,Mioveni town, Arges county, Romania (Romania) ISTITUTO COMPRENSIVO "MARIA GRAZIA CUTULI" (Italia) "Demetrion" B Primary School of Pafos (Cipro) School Apoldu de Jos (Romania)
  • 2. Almitra then spoke again and said: What is Marriage, master? And he answered saying: You are born together and together you may forever. You'll be together when white wings of death dispersing your days. And together in the silent memory of God But there is room in your union, And you danzino the winds of heaven. Love one another, but not Create a prison of love: Rather there is a motion of the sea between the shores of your souls. Pile each other cups, but not drink a single cup. Give mutual support, but do not eat the same bread. Singing and dancing together and were merry, but each of you be alone, As the sun are the strings of the lute, although vibrino music equal. Give your heart, but is not a refuge to another, Since only the hand of Life can contain your hearts. And be united, but not too close; The columns of the temple stand apart, And the oak tree and the cypress grow not a shadow of the other. THE HISTORY OF MARRIAGE Marriage exists since antiquity in different forms, reflecting the customs and values of a society. The word "marriage" comes from Latin and matrimonium for root "mater-tris" means precisely that mother. In the past, marriage served to her husband to take possession of his wife, as if to enslave ... only with the Roman rule had a different concept of marriage and became a free agreement between two people. The only ancient civilization that allowed the equality between men and women after their marriage was Egyptian. In the past, elements worthy of consideration to join in marriage were belonging to the same religion, the same race, the same social class and of course the economic position of the contractors,
  • 3. there was no space for love. Only with Christianity marriage took the value of a sacrament, and as such was sacred and unbreakable, with the sole purpose of procreation. Marriage over the centuries Antiquities . Ancient Egyptians among women and men enjoyed relative equality in marriage, was the only civilization to encourage and enable relations between consanguineous. The Egyptian bride wore a tunic of thin layer of fine linen, transparent, with hairstyles or wigs by various ornaments with golden cloths, paper clips, try gold flowers. .. In ancient Rome, marriage is seen as a kind of social advancement to switch from one to another caste, also valid for humans. Marriages are combined when the spouses are still children. The bride's dress is white , A symbol of her virginity, closed by a knot of Hercules that was to be dissolved only by the husband. . Another very important accessory was the "veil", which was lifted the day after the consummation of the marriage and was yellow saffron, to symbolize the fire of Vesta, the goddess who protected the home. Hair combed with six braids in honor of the virgin vestals, we laid a wreath made up of lilies, wheat, rosemary and myrtle (symbols of purity, fertility, male virility and long life). Ages and the Renaissance average . In the Middle Ages, from X-XI century, recognizing marriage in the high significance, the Church turns it into a religious ceremony, consolidating his authority on this institution, and announces the ceremonies civil.. Nevertheless, marriage is only for reasons of money and interest, a way to combine assets and land. The wedding dress does not follow precise rules: the bride wears the most beautiful that the family can afford. The use of trawl, or "tail", appears only in the sixteenth century and has remained one of the essential elements for the classic and most of the wedding dress today.. From the model of wedding dress that the bride brings can be seen at what social class they belong: the more the bottom is long and decorated the more symptom of wealth and social prestigeThe sleeves, usually very tight, are a real treasure because of sumptuous embroidery and precious stones set. . The first documented wedding dress is that of Princess Filippa, daughter of Henry IV of England, who in marriage to Erik of Denmark in 1406, put a robe and a white silk cloak trip vaio fur and ermine.
  • 4. The ceremony of marriage The ceremony of marriage was similar to that of the engagement, but obviously more solemn: it was usually celebrated in the atrium of the church, the bride and groom dressed in red and the bride had to have long hair loose and covered by a veil (both spouses then were covered by a single veil). The wedding ring was exchanged, and slipped the ring finger, which is the finger with the vein that leads directly to the heart. " In marriages of nobles, especially of kings, the ring also led the writing, or the names of spouses, or some important things for one and another. At the time of the exchange of rings was the custom among those invited to take a jostling and sometimes even Schiaffonati, not to lose the memory of this event (in most cases there were no written documents). One victim was broken and divided between the two spouses, who drank from the cup and then lit a candle to the Blessed Virgin. At the end of the ceremony, after it left the church accompanied by the hand by the priest, the bride and groom, along with relatives, entered the cemetery and went to pray to their dead. On the way home for relatives and friends tiravano grain spouses, desire for fertility and abundance (likely custom of pagan derivation, remained in use in religious ceremonies even today). Then the feast began: songs, dances and rich eat for days and days. At sunset the first night, the priest bless the room and the bed where the two couples were married consummated the marriage, even though many times it happened that separated asleep. The people and the marriage For the people, however, marriage was always that sense of familiarity and intimacy that characterizes the union of love between two persons: solidarity within families was very strong, we shared with family members all the feelings, by hatred. In most cases arose not a real family because the newlyweds went to live with their parents (usually the husband, the wife if she had no brothers), to share with their family and, of course, the earth. There were very strict rules to be observed: the girls had to have more than 12 years and boys at least 14 relatives were not to be up to the seventh grade (even if this rule was a fairly elastic) and were to have received the main sacraments of the Church . From the X-XI century, recognizing marriage in the high significance, the Church turns it into a religious ceremony, consolidating his authority over this institution, and announces the civil ceremonies. Nevertheless, the marriage takes place only for reasons of money and interest, a way to combine assets and land. The wedding dress does not follow precise rules: the bride wears the most
  • 5. beautiful that the family can afford. The use of trawl, or "tail" appears only in the sixteenth century and has remained one of the essential elements for the classic and most of the wedding dress today. The model of wedding dress that the bride brings can be seen to what social class they belong: as the trail is long and decorated the more symptom of wealth and social prestige. The sleeves, usually very tight, are a real treasure because of the sumptuous embroidery and precious stones set. The first bridal gown documented is that of Princess Filippa, daughter of Henry IV of England, who in marriage to Erik of Denmark in 1406, put a tunic and a mantle of white silk edged with fur of vaio and ermine. Renaissance is always the man to be dominant, women are always put aside, and weddings are becoming a more expedient to unite the land and wealth. Widespread homosexual encounters between wealthy men and writers, ol'abitudine of having a lover than to be faithful to his wife. A marriage historian Galeazzo II and lunch on weekdays at the court of Milan In 1368, during the marriage between the young and beautiful Milan Violante, daughter of Galeazzo Visconti II Lord of Milan, Lionello of England and Duke of Clarence, took place a princely banquet, which was unusual for the era profusion of food and richness of the gifts offered. According to the historical record of the event, the canteen were in fact not one but two. In the first sat her husband sat next to knights and nobles, among which there was also a very distinguished character, the poet Francesco Petrarca Messer. At table was chaired by Regina della Scala, sat women, which brought the dishes on the table at the first table, ie 50 for each scale. The flow rates were 18, each was also duplicated, as consisting of two dishes, one meat and one fish-based. Each individual flow was accompanied by a personal gift to each convitato. The first imbandigione, consisted of two golden guinea pigs that were sending fire from the mouth and a variety of fish called "golden porchetta." The second gold submitted hares with pike. The fourth was composed of quails and partridges, of course, golden, accompanied by roasted trout. The ninth imbandigione instead offered, jellies meat and fish. Then, gradually, ending with the latest flow rushes, cheese and fruit. Violante went in dowry to her husband lands and money. But, indeed, the prince enjoyed little English so well of God, because just three months after their lavish wedding, the hapless and fell ill within a few days he died. Veal stuffing (as of recipe) Remove veal and young scorticalo or peeled. Arrostilo and empilo with Paparo, hens, capons and other qualunche goodness. Mettici however much lard beaten in the abdomen. Remove the fat then it falls and when s'arrostisce set en Pevero abbrusticato with bread and
  • 6. zaffarano. Bubble for a little if that Pevero and to eat. " This veal stuffed with other animals, was certainly a food for banquets that involved many people. Certainly today it is unlikely that a sutler could be proposed. Indeed, in what could be modern oven to cook an animal biggest of a porchetta pig? Grilled squid A fish squid, cava the inner ears for them and get them for sale. Cocere a few foul at the fire. Then illarda subtly and scholars, almost like a pheasant, and again roast enough. Eat with orange juice, citrangole, water rose and limoncello. Pastelade For the basic flour, eggs and water. For the filling: pears - bone marrow hole For the cream: eggs - sugar - milk - saffron - salt With the dough lining a pie dish imburrata previously. Peel pears, cut into slices and place in pie dish sprinkled making two layers of bone marrow hole. Pass the pan in the oven for a few minutes. In a bowl in hand, beat egg yolks with sugar, milk, saffron and salt, to obtain a cream. Remove the cake from the oven pears, pour over the mixture and complete the cooking. The cake should be served cold. Wedding Banquet rite of fertility and wealth Famous wedding banquets celebrated among the powerful of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, where the desire to demonstrate wealth joined increasingly anxious to dazzle and passion for luxury. Go back to these eras the many customs observed today prepares for the tables of marriage. In addition to the number of odd convitati ever, were indispensable Pomegranate, aphrodisiac food (desire fertility), or confetti and sweets (sweet hope future). Invitation to the wedding of Lorenzo the Magnificent Just twenty years Lorenzo de Medici brightened with his star Florence where he ruled with great firmness and width of views earning the epithet of Magnifico. In the same year were celebrated his marriage to Clarice Orsini, a young Roman aristocrats. The event was celebrated with many sumptuous celebrations. For the occasion were the many gifts offered by the Florentine and Tuscan cities. These events are narrated with a wealth of detail by Piero di Marco Parenti, one of which
  • 7. invited them described the maternal uncle Filippo Strozzi, exile in Naples. "They came to the Palace of Via Larga one hundred and fifty calves between four thousand chickens and ducks, fish, game and many barrels of wine" nostrale and strangers "that Lorenzo generously distributed to the people prepared even before the real banquet which took place from Sunday to tuesday. These sumptuous celebrations are required by the importance of race Orsini as the bride Clarice making his entrance to the palace on horseback, accompanied by a parade of riders. The windows of the room by Lorenzo are decorated with olive branches, a symbol of peace. They are arranged in five banquets portico and loggia in the courtyard of the palace, the tables of ladies and knights - according to the rule of the time - are strictly separated. The table of the bride is in the mezzanine and are seating fifty young noblewomen, while older ones sitting inside the palace chaired by the bridegroom's mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni; nell'androne are young people with Lorenzo and Giuliano and the other table elderly in the city. But other canteens of prepared foods are placed inside of the building is on the order throughout the city - even that of common people - can enjoy these festivities. All courses are preceded by ringing of the trumpet; people stop at the foot of the staircase and just a hint of established carver go hand upstairs and lodges in part so that the food at a stretch is posavano everywhere. Even the equipment of the table is accurate. Surrounding the David, the famous bronze statue by Donatello, high tables covered with tablecloths; the corners bacili huge brass with glasses, so too is nell'orto apparatus around the fountain. On the tables a large silver cup full of water for cooling glasses and drinks. Then you were the saliere of Arienti, forks and cutlery Nappi and morselletti almonds and con: confectioner pe 'Pinocchio. Each table was also welcomed by dance, music and small shows. The abundance and generosity of the festivities for the wedding of Lorenzo de 'Medici and Clarice Orsini enshrine in any way the political relationship between the city and the Lordship ruled that based on magnificence. Maria de 'Medici and the wedding ceremony without king Maria de 'Medici (1573-1642) After a childhood and un'adolescenza normal, but the first obscured by the death of his mother and then by the sudden and mysterious father, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I, the "late" age of twenty-seven years Mary became the wife of King Henry of France IV. The marriage to the French king, an inveterate Dongiovanni who had obtained the annulment of her previous union with Margaret of Valois, was more an affair of state of heart. Maria described physically not bad, a little paffutella, but with bright eyes and a milky flesh, given the "big bank" (big bankers) in accordance with the definition coined by one of the lovers of the king, did not have a happy marriage even though gladdened by birth six children. In 1610, after the husband, Maria took the regency on behalf of the firstborn future Louis XIII, but those years are remembered as a period not exciting in the history of France. So already in 1617 Luigi (even sixteen) took full powers pushed his mother in a golden rule of imprisonment. Returning to the marriage between Mary and Henry, we should remember that the lunch was a
  • 8. wedding of the most bizarre and theatrical history. How to tell the chronicles of the time, the pump magna ceremony was held on October 5 1600 at Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, but without the male protagonist who was in France to lie down on girls thalamus. The organization of the reception and banquet was given to John of the Master, the Grand butler. In the "Description dele happy marriage of Maria Cristianissima Majesty, the Buonarroti took note of all the details of the tables of food and packages of sugar, and dell'addobbo room. Especially the time did wonders devised by theater Buontalenti, and the statues of sugar modeled by Giambologna. "The Supreme apparatus" of the tables had an incredible amount of animals in several groups, and the queen was happy to see before you put a statue on a horse representing her husband. After the fruit from the ceiling calarono clouds swollen with Juno and Minerva, and their dileguarsi tables were changed with a view mirrors and crystals, which in turn is transformed into woods with paths, hedges and fountains, statues of nymphs and shepherdess decorated with flowers and fruit. The butler with the head chef had prepared a lavish and rich menu, prepared finally after a long and arduous gestation period, provided among other things these courses. 24 cold dishes: "Salads worked in the coalfields ... ... Strawberries Castles made of salami ... First served cold: Pheasant ... a lantern ... White magnet slices, green cake Milanese ... According served hot: ... Pasticcio triangles of meat to beat ... Stuffed Porchetta ... Tart calf ... Kitchen cupboard to give the cold: ... cake mouth of drafts ... Ciambellette ... Milk apples in basins ... Cheese and fruit: ... marzolino, Ravaggiuoli, Cialdoni, Peaches in wine, pears, grapes ... Artichokes, Celery ...". Modern Age . In the seventeenth century, the royal absolutism leads the king to decide that you must have un'amante.. Who is faithful to his wife is a stupid question. But during the century, the new emerging middle class begins to realize that this kind of ideas and morals is the daughter of corruption especially the rich. In this century, marked by deep lacerations religious festivals become more intimate.. We invest money and support for the dowry, and the most beautiful dress, almost always used, is also used after their marriage. . The eighteenth century saw the American and French Revolutions the first attempt of the masses and new classes to finally put aside the arrogance and values aristocrats. Love becomes important for marriage, and joined the fundamental human rights established by the two revolutions. In this century is wearing beautiful clothes by floral motifs, that in that period that was born the so-called "Empire" of French origin, cut under the breasts to highlight the less wide hips and abdomen decision, made with pastel hues. Eight hundred The period of romanticism interpret marriage as the natural destination of love, and while condemning all forms of union determined by others intent that would lead to suffering and grief.. All of the century struggles between exalt and glorify the loves and impossible to indicate a good way for the marriage of love. . Nell'Ottocento also created many traditions, like the long, white dress, the cake, the reception, gloves. The white color becomes the favorite, as a symbol of purity. Transparent, sometimes moistened, daring, the dress is worn without corsets or more.. In the civil ceremony, however, the aristocracy prefers black shiny sequins, or the color of pearls live rents and sequins. Contemporary age . The twentieth century was ravaged by two tragic world wars, which finally change, for better or
  • 9. for worse, relations with others and how to live. The marriage becomes increasingly something that I love and not for duty or interest, even if marriages to increase its assets do not disappear altogether. . Twenty years in the wedding dress is shorter and stretches the veil; interpreter of the new feminine style is undoubtedly Coco Chanel. In the mid-Thirties, the famous marriage of Princess Marina of Greece with the Duke of Kent (1934) launches a new look. The bride wore a sheath dress in white and silver lame, with long sleeves members, and gear up ground , To head a diamond tiara with a veil of tulle over three meters long. . With World War II feels a duty to give up traditional marriageThe wedding dress is rents, or lends itself to family in the family. . After the war, in the Fifties, Cristian Dior requires women to a life thin, the tall and round, wide skirt, with sottogonna, corset member neckline and wide. . In 1956 Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier of Monaco: the habit guest, is packed with 25 meters of silk satin, 25 TAFFETAS, a hundred meters of tulle and three hundred meters of old lace. . Until the late sixties marriages remain formal ceremonies marked by tradition, then with the advent of feminism and the sexual revolution, the dress no longer has a precise style. Of course, the tradition of organic white is still deep But there are brides who prefer to bind with their lives in other colors or other styles of clothing.. Indeed, marriages are arranged special theme in medieval and Renaissance costume. The wedding ceremony in Greece The Greek wedding ceremony lasted three days: the first was called protéleia, or progama proaulìa emera Gamos or the second and the third telos epaule emera The rites before the wedding On the day before the wedding feast took place a precise ritual that included the first sacrifice for the protective deity of the wedding, This could be in honor of Hera, Artemis of Moire, of Grace Gamel, and of Aphrodite in Athens, even the Gods of the line. The most important moment of the ritual was still swimming purifier that were both wife that her husband, at home, with water from a river or sacred source. For this ritual there was a special pot called loutrophòros, which was ovoid in shape with the neck and two sharp bends on hips. The importance attached to the bathroom purifier is also evidenced by the fact that there was the custom of placing a loutrophòros on the grave of those who died without having married adult Finally to complete this ritual articulated the young wife devoted to a deity related to the sphere of Virginity, like Artemis or Hippolytus, her crown of hair, the retina, the games: the timpani, the ball, the dolls. The second day of the ceremony, called Gamos or telos was the most important day because it was doing the ekdosis namely the delivery of the bride, and began the cohabitation The were three main
  • 10. phases: the thòine gamikè namely a wedding banquet home of the bride, the pump that is the transfer of the bride to the bridegroom's house, the katachýsmata and other rituals of welcome in the new house. Of course preparations in the house of the bride swing from the first morning were indeed hung crowns of olive and laurel to the door and lit a torch of fragrant incense. It is likely, however, that all preparations were directed by the mother of the bride in person. Meanwhile a host of women, mostly relatives and friends, led by nymphéutria took care of dressing the bride for the wedding banquet. The wedding banquet The protagonist of this important moment of the ceremony is the father of the bride who supervises all stages of its preparation. It seems also that he always had to make a sacrifice just before, according to the sacred rite prescribed. During the banquet men and women were seated in front of tables or on sofas separated and the wife sat among the veiled women By sources familiar with the menu of the wedding that could include fish, veal, pork, guinea pigs, hare, rolls, cheese, cakes, eggs, etc.. Recurring element in the various menus mentioned by sources is the hare, which seems to be sacred to Aphrodite and exalted for its sexual and its fruitfulness. Of course he could not miss the wedding cake, the plakoûs gamikòs scented with a sweet sesame, which, according to tradition, encouraged fertility, as had many sprouts. Sesame, mixed with the wedding cake was in fact an essential element of the symbolic rite of marriage in Greek society. Once mixed the cake, and scented with olive oil mixed with sesame, when everything was ready for the ceremony, was cut and distributed by a pregnant woman, a good omen for the young couple According to the ceremonial should also wear a crown of myrtle, in honor of Aphrodite. During the banquet was probably the music in Athens and a child with both parents alive, he went around the room, crowned with thorns and fruit with oak in his hand a basket of bread by saying the ritual formula, "I fled evil, I found the best. " The words that accompanied the child seem to express the close relationship between civilized life and marriage. The bread offered as a product of nature which belongs only to man, in fact, is a sign and guarantee of civil life. Symbolizes also clearly the values associated to the condition and breeding of domestic married woman, as opposed to the cultural connotations of the crown of oak leaves, reminiscent of the proximity of wildlife. The banquet ended with the toast and wishes to marry, again by the father of the bride. At this point in the ceremony some scholars place the rite dell'anakalyptèria ie the moment when the bride takes off her veil and wedding gifts received by the husband .. Depending on the social condition of the wedding party could be more or less ostentatious, but it is likely that at some point they began to exceed the costs, whether in Plato's Laws (775th VI-b) feel the need to set a limit to the number of guests for each family and a roof for the costs. University (245th VI-c), however, speaks of the Inspectors of the women, who were gynaikonòmoi those invited to weddings and if necessary could also decide to send someone away. To make the invitations were the parents of the couple, who
  • 11. could personally invite relatives and friends or, as is clear from some papyri, send your own invitations, in which, as in today's "investments" were shown the place, date and time of the feast. The wedding procession At night there was the pump, the solemn transfer of the bride from the family home to that of the bridegroom. It maybe the most ancient times had the form of a kidnapping and This custom is still preserved in Sparta. The procession moved on foot or on a wagon, where the bride was placed by the husband or the Paraninfo, the one that led to the bride and protected during this important time of transition. Now an important role was filled by the bridegroom's mother who first raised the torches lit and led the procession The moment had to be very suggestive, because the procession lit by torches, to the sound of flutes and singing and dancing cetro the wedding. In Beozia, then, the parade ended with a particular ritual: there was, in fact, the custom of burning the axles of the wagon to symbolize that the bride could not leave After the banquet, the bride (nymphe) must be carried out in its new home. The transfer of the young from its birthplace, the house of his father, as the husband was indeed the climax of the ritual of marriage and which was called to attend the entire community. High time, now in the evening, the bride is taken for the pulse from her husband (Fig. 1) and hoisted on the cart that will lead to new dwelling (fig. 2). Beside her on the chariot sat the husband and pàrochos , Species of companion pair selected among the peers (relatives or close friends) of the bridegroom. The type of transportation varied according to the budget of the family: it was the luxury model, a style of archaic calessino pulled by fine horses, the most common model of type "gardener" (wagon with seats side) pulled by mules or horse. Many depictions represent vascular wedding procession escorting the two to marry young girls and boys who carry gifts, dance and sing songs of good wishes, relatives, carrying torches or elements of the outfit. Flashlights and torches are essential for this part of the ritual takes place when it is dark outside: how much more light you could produce, the more opulent and rich was the marriage in the eyes of fellow citizens. The instruments were played mainly aulòs (reed instrument like the clarinet, often a double reed), the Syrinx (Pan flute), the kithàra (zither), the phòrminx (lira), the cymbals and tambourines. The songs blend in on this occasion is called "wedding" (hyménaioi) and were characterized by accents and some malicious' outlets.
  • 12. The oldest description of a wedding procession is nell'Iliade of Homer (canto XVIII, 491-496): (...) We celebrated weddings and banquets: the shining light of torches carried by their wives rooms on the fortress town and everywhere rose wedding song; young dancers twirl and in their midst lire clarinet and spreading their sound, women, each standing at the door of the house, admired the show The parade passes by the most popular and the agora, the marketplace: the whole community to be witness the event, in which two families of the city establish a bond of solemn covenant. The girls of the parade "accompany the bride with torches, an hour late evening, to show to all" (Dione Crisostomo, Patrol. Grec. 61 pp. 104): and the houses women face on the way to see pass the noisy parade. The riot of music and dances of the parade was to create a strong contrast with the attitude of the main protagonists of the ceremony, which, as the pictures show the old, instead keeping composed and solemn pose. Especially the young wife, silent, with eyes low el'atteggiamento resigned, it seems to perform only passive movements that are required by the husband and nymphéutria (a sort of maid that accompany it during the day). On the threshold of the new homeless, she finds her father and mother of the bridegroom for her. But the feast at this point was not yet finished: for participants in the parade, in fact, it went on until late at night, even after the husband and wife had withdrawn in the nuptial chamber, indeed, it was customary that the companions of the bride began to beat insistently on the door which closes behind the couple began to spend the first night together. At the sound of shots was added to the sound of another song ritual, this time of solemn tone, the epithalamium which celebrated the beauty of the bride, invited the two young people to enjoy the pleasures of love and prayed to the gods protectors of marriage donate to the couple happiness, prosperity and the emergence of legitimate children. One of the most important elements in the symbolism of the wedding march is the fact that in all phases of the transfer, the bride, while the center of attention, and richly dressed agghindata to be admired, does not perform an independent movement ever. Socket for the wrist and dragged, hoisted on the weight of the wagon, driven by nymphéutria or raised by pàrochos, the girl is never active subject of the rite, but passive object of all that takes place around her. To understand this, we must remember that in the mentality of the ancient Greeks, the woman was not an autonomous entity, but rather an asset of which the male members of the family were entitled to have. The girl from her husband, for example, could not in any way to choose your companion in life was his father who had completely daughter was with him and decide whether and whom to give in marriage. From the time that was given in marriage, it passed from the protection of the father than the husband, who was required to demonstrate (or so you would not) complete obedience and subordination. In no way it could move away from his new home: firm and immovable as the firebox (hest) that it was, unapproachable by men outside the family, her movements were confined to the area circumscribed by home, which could leave only for times established rituals (some holidays and funerals). Go around the city was not something good for women: slaves and prostitutes, however, had not un'onorabilità be preserved and moved so without restrictions. As far as I know, only in Sparta the condition of the married woman was different and included greater freedom of action and movement: and, indeed, the behavior of women Spartan scandal awakened the rest of Greece.
  • 13. Then it is not a coincidence that in the rite of marriage transfer from parental home to that of her husband she would always' moved 'or dragged as an inert object: in this way it was intended to symbolically emphasize that, although intended to move for change of house membership in this movement, the bride had no active part, but, rather, its function was to get moving and stay where her father and her husband had decided to install it. Here, for example, what happened in the ritual of Beozia, a region of Greece bordering Attica, after which the bride was carried to the house of her husband (Plutarch, Roman Questions, 29): "Burn the axle of the cart, thus showing that the wife is not able to go, since the means of locomotion has been destroyed." The woman was called to embody the stability of the family, the idea of permanence and isolation that keeps the house safe from external threats. The goddess that best represented this female was Hestia, whose name means "hearth": the symbolic center of the area closed and protected domestic, the hest was the point where the house had, so to speak, its roots. The threshold of the house was the boundary beyond which the good woman did not dare go. At the opposite pole was the god Hermès, the god of transitions, communication and commerce, which knows no barriers motion of boundaries or thresholds, which was instead the mobility of men and supervised exchanges between the inside and the outside of the house. The free entry and exit, the autonomy of the movement were, in the couple, the husband's prerogative, and only fathers and husbands, it was also in charge of regulating the relationship between the family and the outside world, to decide acquisitions or disposals of assets, to regulate the passage of guests, staff, slaves, wives ... This explains why in some ancient representations of the transfer of the bride is his god Hermès to open the way for the wedding procession The rituals in the new house The third time the ceremony took place in the house of the bridegroom: here the couple was received by the parents of the bridegroom, who first poured on the head of the bride figs, dates, walnuts and some coins and offered gifts of welcome, according to the rite of katachysmata. Then the bride ate a quince, as required by Solone to make it sweet on the first and last embrace thàlamos saliva in the nuptial chamber. This had been previously prepared, perhaps by the mother of the bridegroom, who probably had the same marital bed. Once the bride and groom in the wedding room, the door was bolted outside and a friend of the bridegroom was on watch, while the friends of the bride fighting with their hands on the door and sang the epithalamium In the house on the streets and the party continued throughout the night with songs and dances.
  • 14. On the third day, the epaule Emer (the morning of the wedding gifts received by the father of the bride carried by a procession of relatives and friends, which was led by a child with a white mantle and lit a torch in his hand. Then, not if we know in this day or after, the groom gave a banquet to the members of his fratre, and the wedding was a sacrifice and pray to the gods to assist and guide them into new life together. During the ceremony there were some items that generally mark the 'experience of marriage as a fundamental event of life of the individual and community: the frying pan to roast the barley, used during the banquet and the pump public spouses that accompanied the new home, the sieve, a child who took the side of women rites of integration in the new home, the pestle from the mortar, which was attacked in front of the bridal chamber. Every detail, in fact, would seem to imply a reference to Demeter, the goddess by the wonderful fruits and cereals which gives men the knowledge of agricultural technique, had inaugurated the new age, which consisted not only in the application of new techniques and in knowledge of new plants, but in a society which placed end to the archaic The clothing of the bride We do not know if there was a specific wedding dress prescribed by tradition: the sources, in fact, have different combinations of clothing and colors, which suggests a certain freedom. Esiodo, for example, when the Teogonia describes the habit of Pandora, which goes to Epimeteo married, she has white robe with a stop at the waist by a belt, a veil and a crown of gold, and in Euripides' Alceste ( vv. 922 ss.) made by, ready to say that death instead of the wedding and the white peple expect complaints and black robes. Both poets insist, therefore, particularly on white robes, but the tragediografo also elsewhere (see Eur, Hel. 1087s., 1186s.) Peple the white as opposed to blacks, symbols of mourning for the heroes who are preparing to face a premature death. Esiodo also speaks generally of esthès (eèsqh @ v) "dressed", while Euripides uses the term pèplos (eg plov @), which designated the simple tunic that women used in the Greek himation. Quite the opposite is the testimony of Aristophanes that Pluto (vv. 529 f.) refers to a wedding dress from an enriched himation finely embroidered colorful and maybe even purple. The color red also back in a witness late: the novelist Achille Tazio (Clit. II 11, 2), in fact, he describes the toilet of a bride as hinting at a whole red, with gold bands and a series of multicolored stones. Finally, another novelist, Caritone, as talk of a miles, a type of cloth of very fine wool, and bridal wreath. If instead we take a look at the jars, which often represent the preparation of the bride, we find that the girl is usually covered with a richly embroidered himation, which often makes them even veil, and has a crown of flowers, mostly golden and not, as is attested in literary sources. Clearly, to conclude, that the Greek bride could choose as the best liked her wedding dress, in fact wearing a simple white tunic, or coat a large variously colored embroidery and a golden crown and a woven of flowers, but in his dress marriage should not miss the veil, which had a specific ritual function and that after the wedding
  • 15. was spent Era. It could be short and embroidered or could be formed from the same himation draped around the head. The bridal veil in ancient Greece The Greek women of any age, those rare times when leaving the house, have his head veiled. Besides protecting against dust, the veil protects the reputation of the wearer, it is, that is, a sign of confidence, virtues which every respectable woman can not have. Or that, at least, must publicly show that they have. The veil, therefore, is not the exclusive prerogative of the bride apparel, yet plays a role of some importance within the ritual of marriage. One of the moments of the rite, in fact, the name of anakalyptérion, the unveiling. Tells Ferecide of Syrian poet who lived in the fourth century. BC, which, at the beginning of time, the supreme god Zeus was united in marriage to Chthonia the deep earth. The wedding feast lasted three days, after which the god, in front of his bride, the veil lifted the thin fabric embroidered that he had donated, and spoke these words: "Greetings to you, come with me !. For this, the poet adds, 'the gods and men of the earth keep dell'anakalyptérion use. And in fact, the unveiling is part of the ritual spread throughout the greek, but is not confirmed by other sources that the groom pronounce precisely the same formula set out by Ferecide. The bride (nymphe) is veiled in the family home by nymphéutria, a woman dell'entourage family of origin, responsible to support the couple during the ceremony. The representations related to vascular wedding march the bride veiled show in various ways: now has her face completely hidden, now only the head, is often portrayed in the act of making the veil to cover only one half of the face. This diversity testifies that, depending on the region or historical period, some details of the ritual may vary. At this stage of the rite, the veil seems to have, as in other cultures, an apotropaic value, precisely because it is the moment when the bride is more exposed. O just before the wedding procession, or already in the house of her husband - we do not know with certainty - the site anakalyptérion. To reveal the young is, however, the groom, in front of witnesses. Dell 'anakalyptérion we have not, unfortunately, iconographic documents. The ancient literary sources suggest that its meaning is to accept and take possession together. In particular, the act of lifting the veil would signify the possession the body of the woman, through the ritual performance, and therefore public, what will happen a little later the intimacy of the thalamus. The marriage over the centuries and in ancient Rome In antiquity it was believed that marriage serves to subject his wife to control her husband, who considered it owns. The Roman law was the first order to introduce the idea that marriage was a free agreement between two people who decide to live together.
  • 16. The situation changed radically with the advent of Christianity: the marriage was in fact given the value of the sacrament and its primary purpose was the procreation of children and the sanctity of the union between husband and wife also determined the indissolubility of the bond between spouses and the unacceptability of all forms of voluntary dissolution Religion Catholic, Orthodox and Hindu consider marriage as an indissoluble bond and grant the dissolution only in some exceptional cases. The Catholic Church, for example, granting the dissolution of a marriage only in specific cases and after the intervention of the court of the Sacred Rota. Around the middle of the 'lower classes in 700 females are married on average about 23 years, while males around 26. On the marriage age gap of social classes, affected several factors: the increased duration and the need for cadets, to create, through the exercise of professions, a certain income in order to be able to afford a marriage consistent with its social class and conducting a comfortable life. In middle-class families, access to marriage was strictly controlled, usually reserved for first-and at age late in an attempt to preserve the family heritage by banning the sale and directing Cadets to the ecclesiastical career. In southern civilization, this relationship was confirmed by the constant concern for continuity of the family and heritage. Dall'interdipendenza between the age of marriage and age of death will have different demographic behavior in different countries. For example, where the aging was less relevant, accessible to the marriage-age youth, the where you lived longer, marriages are celebrated in old age. The age of marriage for women was an important factor in determining the course of their fertility and therefore their reproductive capacity. Typically, the reproductive period is thirty years. This fertility throughout their entire reproductive period describes a dish that has a phase of rapid rise during puberty, and has its peak during the decade between 20 and 30 years, after which assumes no prior then slowly increasing rapidly until you reach the sterility. Women, therefore, married about 23 years, we can say that reducing the reproductive period averaged 15 years, even taking out that the birth of the child was around 38 years. Another important factor is the interval time between birth and one another. Ranged from 24 to 30 months and often depended on abortions, spontaneous or procured, and born dead. We must also bear in mind that breastfeeding normally lasted 18 months, delivering amenorrhea in most cases for about 6 months in women well-fed and 18 in those poorly fed. The feeding was, therefore, a genuine contraception. Finally the intervals between births stretch with the decline of fertility and virility. We note also that the rich had more children than the poor, certainly because the rich married women younger and more fertile, because the children were entrusted to balie and then mothers should not breastfeed, and finally because the mothers were better fed and housed. E 'certain that the high infant mortality among the poor was caused by poor nutrition and poor hygiene.
  • 17. In fact, a higher portion of the children of the rich survive until adulthood because healthier. Some circumstances in the course of time have not changed, the story is repeated almost cyclically. The common thread? That wire is inside us, inside all those people who throughout history have loved and were able to assume its obligations overcoming the adversity of their era. The nuptials . In Rome the wedding were usually preceded by spousal solemn ceremony with which it fulfilled the promise of marriage. How reveals the same name, at least in the archaic age nuptials are made through the sponsor, a formal commitment by which the pater familias promised betrothed to his daughter in his wife. This ceremony was thus a solemn act, based on the patriarchal tradition and characterized by a precise legal apparatus that made him almost as challenging the marriage. The nuptials were held in the presence of aruspici and all friends of the two families who held the role of witnesses of the marriage. This was taken as forms of stipulatio, which is the pater of women is the boyfriend undertook to ensure the fulfillment of the wedding. Taken legal agreements, there was the usual - but it was not a necessary step - that the two engaged couples will exchange a chaste kiss, which does not offend the ancient traditions. In that case, the ceremony of the nuptials was defined Osculati intervener. . Followed, then, the exchange of gifts - usually furniture and clothing - that constituted the "pledge" of future wedding, after which the man gave the girl a ring, l 'anulus pronubus on which there are several testimonies. Quest' ring, in fact , Was not just a gift but was a symbolic function instead: it was a kind of "chain" symbolic through which the bridegroom linking itself to the bride, claimed full possession. Consequently, once stuck 's anulus on his finger, she actually showed its commitment to respect the pact of loyalty towards the boyfriend. It is no coincidence, in fact, that' anulus was stuck to the penultimate finger of the left hand, anularius just said, which is believed to start a vein that came straight to the heart. Initially, as well Pliny the Elder, l 'anulus was to be a simple circle of iron and only later realized it was gold. After having signed the wedding contract, which had established the nature and amount of dowry the bride and Having set the date of the wedding, the ceremony of the nuptials came to a close. Followed, then a banquet at which everyone present participated.
  • 18. The wedding rite . Marriages in Rome were usually celebrated in summer. Extremely superstitious, the Romans had set a number of days and times of when it was absolutely forbidden to marry. Specifically it was forbidden to celebrate weddings on Sundays, when we had to deal with things divine temples in Calende and Idi during parental the holidays in February in honor of deceased relatives and especially in May, as Plutarch , Which also explains that the best time was, however, immediately after the Ides of June, the month dedicated to Juno, one of the most important protective deity of marriage. The day before the wedding the bride was the protagonist of a rite that marked the transition from childhood to adulthood, during which consecrated on home games as a toddler. The next morning, assisted by pronuba, an elderly matron and univira (having had only one husband was a sign of good omen), the young clothing according to the dictates of tradition and awaited the groom and his paternal relatives in the house that for The occasion was decorated festively from door frames and hung crowns of flowers, branches of evergreen plants like myrtle and el'alloro Colored dressings, were placed into the carpet while, especially at major patrician families, it was used to open the cabinets where they were kept imagines, the wax masks of the ancestors. A Roma si praticavano tre differenti forme di matrimonio. In Rome we practiced three different forms of marriage.. Marriage for confarreatio was the oldest and solemn, according to legend established by Romulus and that is considered sacred and inseparable nally practiced by nobles, was reserved for only the priestly class of Flamines, but soon fell into disuse. . Marriage for coemptio was based on some sort of "selling" of women by the pater the bridegroom who, in the presence of five witnesses, paid the symbolic figure of a Nummus.. L 'Usus, finally, was based sull'ininterrotta cohabitation of a man and a woman not married to one year. At the end of this period one could believe constituted the marriage. The wedding ceremony began with a greeting sacrifice made in the presence of aruspici and ten witnesses who were perhaps ten curie.. In the case of marriage for confarreatio presenziavano also the highest religious authority of pagan Rome, the Pontifex Maximus and Flamini of Jupiter, the Flamen Dialis. . Are still uncertain the deity to which they sacrificed (or Juno Jupiter Capitoline) and the type of animal was sacrificed, perhaps a sheep or an ox, the less likely a pig. In the case of confarreatio, the animal was sprinkled on the forehead by a pappina spelled, which is also covered knives; spelled was then thrown into the fire.. During the sacrifice a very important role was played by aruspici that explored the depths of the draw responses to the wedding ceremony, it went just in case the auspices were favorable. Also in marriage for confarreatio, at this point in the ceremony, the bride and groom eat together, sitting side by side to a two stools covered with sheepskin (PELLIS lanata), a focaccia always spelled the panis farreus. The consummation whole bread was, in fact, a symbol of conjugal life: the food eaten in common favored harmony and unity of suffering. After this ritual
  • 19. the bride and groom were around dell'altare preceded by a inserviente carrying the cumerus the basket with vestments At sacrifice followed the signing of tabulae nuptiales containing the marriage contract, and the rite of dextrarum iunctio, during which the pronuba, join the right wing of the two spouses. The dextrarum iunctio was the culmination of the wedding rite: in that moment, in fact, between the two spouses was enshrined in the covenant marriage. i cui avanzi bruciacchiati erano poi distribuiti agli ospiti in segno di buon augurio. bruciacchiati whose surpluses were then distributed to guests as a sign of good omen. At the ceremony ended, there was the wedding feast, known nuptialis dinner, after dinner in the evening to check Venus was called deductive, transfer the bride's family home as marital. The bridegroom, perhaps in memory of the marriage for rats, pretended to kidnap his wife, reluctant and scared, ripping the arms of his mother, then formed the wedding procession, illuminated by torches and accompanied by flute players. The bride was accompanied by three children all assets and marriage, as this was considered a good omen: two held by the hand, while the third preceded bringing the plug dawn, a torch of hawthorn, a symbol of fertility, turned at the home of home of the bride The parade was composed by a young man of noble birth and freedom, called Camillus, which bore a vase covered inside with the tools of women's work and two serves in hand holding the time and Conocchia, tools of the art of spinning.. The husband, meanwhile, was distributed to the children nuts, a symbol of fertility. During the parade s'invocavano all the many protective deity of marriage: in addition to more like Jupiter and Juno, which was attributed to the institution of marriage, Venus, the protector of love, Diana protector of fetuses, Fides, personification of one of virtutes Fundamental requests to Roman matron, were, in fact, invoked even minor deities that were promoting the sexual union of spouses.. At prayers are alternated the invocations festive, as the ritual cry "Talaso, on the origin of which there are several hypotheses: Livio linked him to an incident of rape of the Sabine, while Festo gives an etymological explanation relating to the art of spinning. . Neither could miss the fescennini verses scathing and often obscene that, accompanied by the sound of the double tibia, probably played a role apotropaica, taking away the fascinus, the evil eye. Reached the threshold of the marital home bride adorned the lintel of the door with wool and bandages coated with the fat of pork, as Servius, and the husband replied that on the threshold wondered who he was, with the famous expression formulate "Ubi tu Gaius ego Gaia." After completing this ritual, two friends of the husband finally brought into lifting it from the earth is to avoid stumbling on the threshold of her new home, as this would be a bad omen, and, perhaps, to remember the rape of the Sabine. In the house her husband received an urn carrying water and a pure brand of fire (aqua et Accipite ignition), two elements that probably symbolize life and marriage, according to Varrone, were linked to procreation. After this ceremony, is fulfilled the prayers of the rite and s'invocavano Genio family of husband and various deities. Infine, mentre il corteo si scioglieva, la pronuba accompagnava la sposa nella camera nuziale, in cui si trovava il talamo che era ornato di porpora e coperto dalla toga forse come augurio di figli maschi o come segno del dominio maritale. Finally, while the parade is dissolved, the pronuba accompanied the bride in the bridal chamber, which was the thalamus, which was decorated with purple and covered by toga as perhaps wishes for sons or as a sign of marital domain. Here the husband to dissolve the virginal belt. The next day the bride, who dressed for the first time matronly clothes, sacrificed to Lari and Penati and received gifts from her husband. Followed, then a banquet (repotia) reserved for relatives of the bride and groom.
  • 20. Clothing of the bride The day of the wedding, the groom wore the toga, simply replace if he had not already done during the engagement, the praetexta toga virilis with that, however, the bride's dress had very specific characteristics, both in the combing the habit.. Stopped, in fact, finally dressed as a girl, she wore the wedding dress already in the evening before the wedding and after collecting her hair in a red wire, so clothing bed. The next day, his hair was combed according to a special hairstyle, called crines sex. . It was to divide the hair into six braids composed around the front and held together by bandages, the vittae, that the woman wore for the first time on the day of their marriage and that constituted one of the distinguishing marks of his new. These cloths were woven in a precise ritual, based on an archaic technology that provided for the use of a vertical frame on which a large plot, for straight performance, prevail on the plot. Completed the bridal headdress of a kind pins dall'impugnatura short and long from the tip pointing like a spear tip, called hasta caelibaris, whose symbolic value is not entirely clear. The wedding dress was made of a simple white tunic, long until the foot, called the tunic or recta Regilla reminded that cutting stole matronlyAs for vittae, the seam of the tunic followed a ritual especially since this capacity was derived from a single piece of cloth and should not present any kind of edge and finishing.. This tunic was then applied in order to make it in life member, a belt of wool, the Cingulum, who consecrated to Juno, one of the protective deity of marriage, could not be dissolved by that spouse. The heads of Cingulum were held together by a double knot called, as hope of fertility, Nodus Herculeus: According to the mythological tradition, in fact, the hero was the father of seventy children. The bride wore, and then, a ball that saffron yellow color drappeggiava on the tunic and boots, the socca, the same color. The key wedding industry was, however, the flammeum, a veil that went down by the head of the bride to cover the top of the face and that, during the ceremony, was also raised and tended on the head of the bridegroom.. As is clear from the same name, was flammeum color of fire: red, in fact, on the one hand, symbolized modesty virginal bride's hand, was the color apotropaico for excellence. Flammeum was rests on a crown woven of marjoram and verbena then replaced in the imperial age, one of myrtle and orange blossom. The flammeum . N Roman marriage was the use of flammeum, a veil of orange or yellow or red, in any case of a color you call the fire or the fire. . The bride completed her dress and hairstyle hair with a veil that this symbol initiatory become a symbol of chastity and pudicizia.. This term is associated with the greek word flo @ ginov "flamboyant", derived from flo @ x "fire", and which is a calculated semantic. According to the testimony of Paul Festo the presence of flammeum in clothing traditional Roman wife owes its origin flaminio to Dialis, the wife of Flamen Dialis, priest of Jupiter.
  • 21. The Flaminia used to wear a dress and a veil color flame with whom during the sacrifices it covered his head. The flammeum was considered a sign of good omen, since the Flaminia divorce was not licit. The value of this head of apparel for the bride Roman was such that the act of 'married' to the woman was told nubere, namely in the proper sense "velarsi take the veil." Small history of the wedding dress L 'bridal gown always symbolizes the white, purity. In 'Ancient Greek brides wore white tunics, veils wrapped in yellow and orange. In China, the color of the wedding is red, as it is for Indian brides. The red is a color that is said to bring about the birth, already two thousand years ago the bride was covered with a red veil. With the advent of Christianity, the veil became a symbol of submission to God and to her husband. The noble families is handed veils precious, almost like a family treasure. It must be said that sometimes the veil used to cover the face of the bride who was given in marriage for political reasons, and the bridegroom was not required to know the 'identity. The rice that was thrown on the head of the spouses already time in a rain pagan symbol of fertility. The flowers d 'orange symbolize purity and virginity, tradition has it that the groom will gifts to the bride a bouquet with a ribbon tied white. The exchange of rings is very important because it symbolized the loyalty oath and was all'anulare left that put the finger is connected with the path of the heart. In some regions of Italy 's ring is called "true" or' fidelity '. Tradition dictates that the groom has to keep up to marriage and then bring them on the pages for the blessing. In the Middle Ages in Europe, especially outfit had the aim of preserving the body from the cold, without any special attention elegance. However, compared to just a few little animals became traditional: the long camisa of Arab origin, the first slings (worn by men under the
  • 22. skirt or cooked), the caps of several different forms. In the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance in stabilizing some forms typical for the men Farsetti, trousers tight mesh, the various coverings, for women a long dress, from the round neckline, a sleeveless sopraveste, variously decorated and several colors. The first white wedding dress that is documented is that of Princess Filippa of England in 1406. Renaissance fashion was very pompous: typical for men and the large slings his coat with the sleeves cut off to see the lining, and for women a wide skirt, bodice at the bust to cues, the embroidered shirt and a rich zimarra. In Italy, the strict provisions of the Counter-inspired costumes stricter and simpler:'600 is typical of the severe black dress enlivened only by gorgiera, a huge white collar folds. The eighteenth century was the culmination of elegance: paniers, redingote, culottes and waistcoats of silk or satin richly ornate. After the French Revolution, Josephine Bonaparte launched the line defined by the Empire with a high waist corset which goes down the skirt. Since then, the bridal gown became increasingly important, thanks to Queen Victoria that launched a style that takes its name, Victorian life with strict adherent bodice and wide skirt with train. Throughout the 800 and the first 900 years of the bride followed the fashion by night. Around the thirties of the twentieth century is said to dress like we mean today: white, long, with a veil and a bouquet of flowers.
  • 23. The civil marriage Civil marriage is, by definition, the celebration automatically guarantee that all legal and administrative effects. It is how the marriage choice by those who do not want the religious celebration. The civil marriage requires a series of preliminary formalities that have the purpose of ascertaining the actual state of freedom from the constraints of previous marriages and awareness, both from those involved, you want to enter into marriage without any coercion or blackmail. The practice for the civil marriage requires both partners to travel at least two to three months before the oath at the Civil Status Office of the City of residence of one of the two to sign a formal request for "publications". We must bring with it the birth certificate, the certificate of residence, citizenship and free. If one of the two contractors is divorced, should be added to the list also the decree of divorce, but if you are widowed you must submit a copy of the death of a spouse. In the case of civil marriage between minors, a copy of the decree authentic eligibility for marriage issued by a court for minors, and for a foreigner need the capacity marriage certificate issued by the Consulate or Embassy responsible. If this certificate is not complete in its entirety, it is also the birth model in multilingual or translated from the consulate. Following that request, the responsible municipal prepare all materials received and then personally contact prospective spouses in order to fix the date of civil marriage. They are so exposed, for eight days, publications with the complete identity of prospective spouses and the place of celebration of civil marriage. Publication goal is to make known to all the intention of the engaged to marry so that anyone may have reason to oppose, where there are impediments to which they are aware or other serious reasons specified by law. After four days after the end of publications, the Journal of Marital Status, if you have not received any opposition on the couple, issuing the "clearance" to marriage, which declares that the celebration did not stop the civil effects. The two engaged at this point, can celebrate their civil marriage within 180 days of the expiry of the publication, on pain of revocation of validity of documents. The marriage in City Hall, is normally celebrated on time office of the municipality, from Monday to Saturday morning. Civil marriage is apparently less formal than religious, but still imposes certain rules of form and good taste that should be respected. Elegance, sobriety and simplicity should connote the conduct of civil marriage which does not allow any delay on the part of spouses, since the same day many marriages are celebrated. As for the religious ceremony, the bride enters the arm of her father, then the guests will accommodate according to tradition: parents, friends and relatives of the bridegroom to the right, left those of the bride.
  • 24. I the rite of marriage is pretty short, by the fifteen minutes and the winds expected reading some articles of the Civil Code by the Institute's status. These, in detail, are: Article 143 mutual rights and obligations of married couples with marriage the husband and wife acquire the same rights and assume the same duties. Since marriage comes the obligation to mutual fidelity, moral and material assistance, cooperation in the family and cohabitation. Both spouses are required, each in relation to its substance and its capacity for professional work or home, contributing to the needs of the family. Article 144, address family life and the family residence Spouses agree among them the address of family life and set the residence of the family according to the needs of both those key and the family itself. Each spouse has the power to implement the agreed address. Article 147 Duties towards children Marriage requires both spouses must bring up and educate their children taking into account the ability and inclination of natural aspirations of children. These articles are read to the end of classical religious ceremony, with the only difference being that, to declaim, is the officiating priest. After receiving the declaration by the spouses of wanting to take as my husband and wife, is the exchange of rings, the signing of the registers and, in conclusion, a brief greeting speech from those who officiated the ceremony. E 'practice that the civil ceremony is held at the headquarters of one two municipalities in which they reside pledged spouses. Some municipalities offer, for the celebration of civil marriages, even charming environments, such as availability of historical buildings in the city. Where the wedding will be celebrated in a commune other than membership, send to the municipality of residence a written request, which explained the reasons for choosing to celebrate the marriage in another town. The office of the municipality will deliver a letter to spouses of delegation, due in town chosen for the celebration of marriage.
  • 25. THE RELIGIOUS RITE The ceremony usually takes place during a mass wedding, not without its exciting moments, and evocative, among them, you can certainly indicate the basic steps: • Renewal of baptismal promises: the spouses respond to questions posed by their priest, questions that reflect those places during the sacraments of baptism, communion and confirmation; • Liturgy of marriage: the priest asks the solemn consent to the wedding, the bride and groom, then, read in turn (before him, then you), the new formula: "I like you I take my / or wife / o ..."; • Blessing and exchange of wedding rings, the priest blesses faiths wedding and the wedding if the exchange saying the traditional formula: "Receive this ring as a sign of my love and my loyalty ...." At this point, the groom, donned for the first all'anulare left the faith of the bride, and then it's up to you repeat the same gesture; • Blessing of the spouses and applause: the priest intones a prayer for the new family just formed and, according to a habit imported from the United States and consolidatasi now also in our country, generally invites those present to devote applause as a sign of joy and joy for the union occurred, which has the hidden meaning of good wishes and prosperity for the new pair united and consecrated forever in the name of the Lord; • The Sacred Literature: Other very significant moment of nuptial celebration is dedicated to the Sacred liturgical readings, to be agreed in advance with the celebrant selection of songs from the Bible and the Gospel. Among the most striking, above all remember the beautiful prayer dedicated by St. Francis of Assisi to love for life and nature that is born and that lovingly surrounds us, making all living beings equally worthy of love and respect, in because they are essential in achieving the perfect balance of the natural "the Song of Songs," beautiful song that spouses can read a few entries to make it even more impressive, or even the First Epistle of St. John the Apostle, entitled emblematic "God is love"; lovely and the choice that falls its reading of similar composition of the Gospel according to Matthew, entitled: "What God has joined together let no man (dares) to separate ..". The exit from the Church: After the wedding ceremony, the newlyweds nouveau, accompanied by their witnesses, they withdraw with the priest to sign the register. Meanwhile guests can move towards the exit to reach, in an orderly and above all fair, the church where the couple will wait or can expect the bride and groom and train the wedding procession in output and in the latter case, of course, l 'Order will follow the same entry in the church, but this time, the mother of him, accompanied by her father.
  • 26. First to greet the newlyweds, it sometimes occurs that the priest gives them a booklet with the date and place of celebration and many blank pages that the new pair will fill indicating, perhaps, the names of the children who come and, remembering that the new family that the main purpose of religious, it remains primarily that of "procreation". Then, without taking into account the chosen invited to the exit, neomarito presents the bride his right arm and, together, start slowly toward the exit. On the churchyard of the Church, at the time of the spouses, relatives and friends will classic and auspicious launch of rice, later, follow the group photo in neo-classical style. Finally, the bride and groom greet guests who bring their eager to porger thanking the usual congratulations, and those who do not participate personally in the wedding reception. The moment certainly more captivating than the wedding ceremony is the exchange of promises of marriage. Here are the words that enshrine the union of the two spouses nouveau "Andrew and Maria." Dear Andrew and Mary, have come together in the Father's house because your love to receive his seal and its consecration in front of the minister of the Church and in front of the community. You are already consecrated by baptism now Christ blesses you and strengthens you with the wedding sacrament, because you love one another with love faithful and inexhaustible responsibility and duties of marriage. So I ask you to express in front of the Church of your intentions. Andrew and Mary, you have come to contract matrimony with full freedom, without coercion, fully aware of the significance of your decision? Yes. You are willing, the new way of marriage, to love and honor each other for life? Yes. You are willing to accept responsibly with the children who love God will give and bring under the law of Christ and his Church? Yes.
  • 27. CONSENT Therefore, if your intention is to join in marriage, datevi his right hand and express before God and his Church your consent. I, Andrew, take you, Mary, as my wife and I promise you are always faithful, in joy and in sorrow, in health and disease, and to love and honor all the days of my life. I, Maria, I take you, Andrew, as my husband and I promise you are always faithful, in joy and in sorrow, in health and disease, and to love and honor all the days of my life. O Lord, sanctifies the love of these spouses: leading the ring as a symbol of loyalty to continually call them mutual love. For Christ our Lord. Amen. Mary, get this ring, a sign of my love and my fidelity, in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Andrea, get this ring, a sign of my love and my fidelity, in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. With the celebration of the sacrament of marriage, spouses Christians part of the alliance spousal Christ with the Church and receive the grace to live and manifest in their relationship as a couple and family life. This is a celebration
  • 28. which implements a saving event. That is why the Church has turned to the Sacrament of Marriage constant attention and caring. The marital union is a universal value of humanity, is the foundation of the family, original cell of society, and connects intimately to the mystery of life itself. Stems from the will of God the Creator and his receives blessing and holiness. Jesus Christ for its part has high Marriage in the sacrament; has a real symbol that contains and expresses its union with the Church, The new alliance. The Lord crucified and risen, Having entered the Church believers in the body Baptism with them also sanctifies as a couple; communicate to spouses the Holy Spirit to enable them to love one another with love donation that is a reflection of his sacrifice Easter and the Trinitarian communion. Rite in adaptation of the peculiarity Marriage is the Christian been put out by offering a choice more extensive texts and giving directions because the inclusion in the Eucharistic celebration face shine in the fullness of its meaning Easter size of the "great mystery" The couple and the family, by virtue of the sacrament, they become living image of the mystery of Church and part of his fertility. Through the testimony of a self-giving love, faithful, indissoluble and fruitful, receive and transmit a unique and irreplaceable gift of salvation that comes from Christ. The nature of the Church's celebration Marriage is the obvious especially in some moments of the ritual. In Rites of entry is the Church gathering in the Lord hosting the wedding: the greeting of him who chairs the introduction and help from the outset to prevent the celebration to take a private nature. Marriage is not about only spouses, relatives and friends, but requires the participation of the whole Church. The memory of baptism, placed immediately after the greeting, highlight the theological basis of the consensus element the sacrament. Under the baptismal priesthood spouses participating in the mystery of Easter and work an ecclesial act properly. The consent of the spouses is the answer in a word of love, as coming from God before them. THE LAWS ON MARRIAGE - THE ITALIAN COSTITUTION – Article 29 of the Constitution: the Republic recognizes the rights of the family as a natural society founded on marriage. The marriage is legal moral ordered on equality of spouses with the limits set by law to guarantee family unity. CIVIL CODE Art.143. Reciprocal rights and duties of spouses. With the marriage the husband and wife acquire
  • 29. the same rights and assume the same duties. Since marriage comes the obligation to mutual fidelity, moral and material assistance, cooperation in the family and cohabitation. Both spouses are required, each in relation to its substance and its capacity for professional work or home, contributing to the needs of the family. Art.143bis. Surname of his wife. His wife adds to their surname and that of the husband keeps during the widow, until it passes a new marriage. Art.144. Address of family life and residence of the family. The couple agree between them the address of family life and set the residence of the family according to the needs of both those key and the family itself. Each spouse has the power to implement the agreed address. Art.147. Duties towards their children. Marriage requires both spouses must bring up and educate their children taking into account the ability and inclination of natural aspirations of children. Art.148. Competition in the charges. Spouses must fulfill the obligations laid down in previous in proportion to the respective substances and according to their ability to work or professional home. When parents do not have sufficient means, the other ascending legitimate or natural, in order of proximity, are required to provide parents with the necessary means so that they can fulfill their obligations towards children. In case of default the president of the court, upon application of anyone who has an interest, after the breach and assumed information, order by decree that a share of income in proportion to, is paid directly to the other spouse or who bears the cost of maintenance, education and education of offspring. The decree, notified to the parties concerned and third debtor, is entitled executive, but the parties and the third debtor can appeal within a period of twenty days of notification. The opposition is governed by the rules on the opposition to the decree of injunction, as applicable. The parties and the third debtor can always ask, with the shapes of the ordinary, modification and revocation of the measure.
  • 30. The wedding dress THE HABIT FOR THE BRIDE The tradition dell'abito white wife goes back to the nineteenth and represents purity and virginity. Roman brides were wrapped instead of yellow and orange veils. The Chinese women dressed in red. Red is still the color of the brides wedding in India. Lombard brides wore only a black tunic. The wives of Byzantine richer classes wore vestments of red silk embroidered with gold and precious stones. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance wedding dresses were very colorful, so as to be worn even after, during the holidays. The most common color used in any way, it was red, because it was believed that bringing about the birth. Today, in addition to the color white will prefer the beige. Bridal gown The bridal gown has always been one of the most important elements of the ceremony. Fascinating is its history in different cultures in different countries. In ancient Greece the bride wore white tunics. At that time the white symbolized the joy and purity and virginity. Roman brides were wrapped by hand veils yellow and orange, while the Chinese dressed in red. The color red is still the color of the brides wedding in India. Lombard brides wore only a black tunic, while the Byzantine maidens, who come from wealthier families, were wearing wedding dresses of red silk adorned with precious stones and gold embroidery. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance it was used to select colored wedding dresses to be worn even after, during the holidays. The color used was red anyway, because it was believed that bringing about the birth. The tradition dell'abito white wife goes back to the nineteenth. When, in 1854, the Church recognized the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, that the Virgin was born without original sin, young brides began to wear white for honor and invoke the protection of the Madonna. And the veil became a symbol of submission to God and to her husband. Today, however, are welcome wedding dresses from pastel shades or pink and gold shades,
  • 31. depending on your personality, color of skin and hair. In some models, the colors of clothing are clearly opposed to trim and strip color. Tissues dell'abito wedding, with its own characteristics, mainly determine the success of a model and suggest several ideas in the creation dell'abito. With their consistency more or less thick, in fact, able to shape the silhouette of the bride. Tulle, organza and chiffon suit just perfect lines, a slender body .. Raso, mikado, cady, duchesse silk and velvet suit for wives more meat. In any case, the fabric should be chosen depending on the period, the model chosen but also by time and place of marriage. For a ceremony held in the cathedral and in the morning, you should wear a dress of some importance, with sumptuous fabrics also, in heavy satin, duchesse or mikado. For an afternoon ritual that takes place in the city, clothes are recommended by the flowing lines and light fabrics such as crepe de Chine, the georgette, the cady satin or lightweight. For a mass in the church in the countryside, in the afternoon is the perfect romantic and vaporous dress in voile, chiffon and faille. And for the marriage in City Hall, the ideal is a short dress or a pants suit also, in shades of white, cream of, dell'avorio, dell'écru or pastel. Many models of wedding dresses where to turn its attention: - Bustier: Corsetto fence that gathers on your back with closed string, with a wide skirt, style 700. - Empire: High Life, small sleeves and skirts or flared slightly curled. Ideal for pregnant women or for brides who want a simple style. - A balloon: Skirt 50s style, broad, wrinkled and swollen, back from or repaid by a narrow strip on the bottom. - Redingote: Dress with waist narrow and higher than normal, a cloth skirt that tightens at the top of the bust, and then expand on my stomach and hips. - Glide: Model made with soft fabrics and softens following the contours of the body. - A siren: very sexy model that emphasizes the hips to widen and then finish with a small trawl. - A slip: Large shoulder neckline and thin, lightweight fabric. It should be completed with a stole or a light jacket. - Tubino: Model which follows the contours of the body, with straight skirt that falls without
  • 32. squeezing, tailleur style. - Peple: Similar to the tunic of the women of ancient Greece, is a straight dress, enhanced by drapes that make it particularly elegant. - Ottocento: Bustier adhere size with adjustable gonna inflate with tulle underskirt with large volants - Tabs: I live sober and elegant, with a skirt that ends just above the ankle. A check of person helps to understand what is valued and what is hidden in the bridal gown. For this reason, it always go to a studio with a highly skilled staff capable of giving the right advice. There are single-studio, where you can find a wide range of models of a certain signature, and workshops that offer multi-client to their wedding dresses of different signatures. The first appointment in the workshop need to decide on which model orientation. Then it takes at least two other tests to accommodate all of the bridal gown. Once withdrawn, the bridal gown should be removed from the protective plastic, hung on a padded hanger and covered by a cotton cloth until the day of the wedding. After marriage, however, it should be washed thoroughly by a professional laundry and placed in a large box, preferably by wrapping it with white tissue paper that preserves the color white. The Wedding Veil In ancient times, the veil symbolized the innocence of the bride who was protected from the influence of evil spirits. Today, many women continue to opt for the veil seen the touch of romance that gives each bride. The lengths are basically three. The veil is shorter than that comes in abundance to cover their backs and ends at the elbow. That the longer reaches the ground, and the median arrives to cover the entire back. Short or long that it is better to choose a model that does not hinder the gait of the protagonist.
  • 33. Even the shapes are different. The veil may be a wheel, and round, but may also terminate at the tip, creating a more modern effect. Tradition has it that the veil is thin and impalpable, sober, in the smooth tulle veil should apply sull'acconciatura. You can opt for a simple pettinino be included in your hair or you may prefer a tiara, far more demanding, which must be harmonized with the hairdo. The types of diadems are four diadems crown, a wreath, a rose, a drop. Up for the day of the wedding, the bridal veil and full of charm envelops the woman that goes to the altar. Distant in time, its origins, was a symbol full of meaning throughout history, but especially today maintains its aesthetic and decorative function. . The bridal veil in ancient The first Veil Wedding dates back to Roman times when the young men who climbed the altar used to wear the Flammeum, a light veil covering their face during the wedding ceremony. The first veil of history was made with a thin gauze, preferably red, but orange or yellow to symbolize the colors of fire. The Flammeum garment was considered a good omen and the importance of this accessory in the wedding ceremony was such that for the woman instead of the word 'marriage' is the verb usasse 'nubere', whose meaning is' take the veil, velarsi '. In the Middle Ages the bridal veil was made of many layers of linen on top, fixed to the head through the gold wire and beads. The veil was used to protect the bride from evil eye and bad luck, and hide it in the eyes of her husband until the wedding ceremony had not ended. In the past, and throughout the course of history in which marriages were combined, the purpose of the bridal veil was functional rather than decorative: the real purpose of the veil was to hide the bride from the perspective of the husband until completion the ceremony, so that the bridegroom should fail to take, sending in the wedding and interests related to them. Renaissance also adapted the veil is a mentality that provided luxury and magnificence for the wedding ceremony, the veil became a long trail that enveloped and protected the bride, was still colored and made of precious fabrics. During the first head made bridal gown white, and it also coordinates the veil. This change occurred because of the principles imposed by the Catholic Church and the recognition of white as the color of innocence, purity, virginity. The bridal veil in the nine hundred It was in the twentieth century that one can speak of a real wedding fashion in clothing, a number of trends that are taking hold and changing decade after decade. This also applies to the bridal veil, now inseparable from accessory dress, whose presence, fattezza depend first and length of historical
  • 34. and economic factors, and then by fashion trends, including the personal taste. Twenty Years in the veil is a long trail, often made of a single layer, but enriched with precious embroidery, satin-finished edges or with a fine plissettatura. In the Thirties, the wedding veil will shrink and adapt to the hair, become gradually more complex and the presence of diadems and pearls entwined on the head. Rather than to cover the face, the veil has achieved its role as an accessory which often form a single with the diadem, and from which the hair. In the fifties, after the war, fashion bride is geared towards a return to Romanticism: tornano wide skirts and long veils back to the foot, to envelop and surround the sweetness of white wife. Sixty Years in the bridal gown purchase value of that uniqueness that have today: dress worn only once in life, for your wedding ceremony. Lines back to the simplicity and the veil is appropriate for the style decoration on the head of the bride, falls into shapes and natural. The seventies were the years of returning to the color: ivory and cream make their entrance, as well as new materials that come from fashion to every day. The habit becomes more comfortable and follows the style of the bride, as the veil becomes a personal choice of the woman who will wear on him. The Eighties were the years of a mermaid dress and a lot of work styles and the same is true also for the hair, rising up and look like a masterpiece of sculpture. The veil is done by then, to make room for the bride to the face and daring hairstyles. Free marriages, the wives of the Eighties choose where to hide when you kiss or show to the guests. Types of bridal veil There are different types of bridal veil, distinguished by the length of the veil. Here the six main types of bridal veil. • Short or velina Velo It is the bridal veil shorter, comes up behind and covers his face. Ideal for anyone wearing a short dress or a bride of small size. Dona looked rid or very elegant and austere, as dell'abito which is coordinated and age of the bride. • Velo behind Ideal necklines on dresses from the large and generous, it is the bridal veil of imagination: visible, hospitality and charm, but very practical and does not prevent movement.
  • 35. • Velo at the elbow As a shawl wraps gagged bride without a veil in multilayer. Combined with dresses with necklines, suitable for brides not so high because he gives them elegance conceal the silhouette. • Velo Classic or Waltz The name refers all'elegante dance is smooth and that the functionality of the veil: it covers the bride and wraps from head to toe, making her legendary figure, not prevent it but to dance with ease, as the veil ends at floor height. Scenic effect guaranteed, even for the dancers to waltz not professionals. • Chapel Veil Rests on the floor and form the trail. Sometimes it is reinforced by other internal sottoveli who donate the right volume. Very elegant and imposing, recommended on clothes simple and smooth. • Cathedral Veil Impressive as its name, this is very long veil. Should not exceed three meters, but in any case requires the presence of maids and paggetti. It is majestic, scenic, ideal for a spectacular ceremony. How to choose your wedding veil Obviously the wedding veil will be chosen according to personal taste and, as mentioned above, the height of the bride and coordinated with the dress. However, there are a few tips, a half of tradition, popular belief and superstition, which is worth knowing before you decide what the veil covering the head of the bride, because you never know. Preferably the veil should be used, that is donated or lent to marry a woman to her neighbor who had a happy marriage. The news so I will be protected bride and her wedding will be lucky like that of the woman from whom he inherited the veil. If you opt for this choice, remember to bring with you the veil before the choice of dress, so as to find the right combination of color. If the bride goes with civil rite is older or married for the second time, it is advisable that wearing a hat instead of a veil. The straw hat is white in summer and velvet in the winter in any case a large aquifer and the presence of a veil to cover her face donate elegance and sobriety. In the selection of the veil that is the rule to the contrary, the veil must be of a material different from that of the dress. If, for example, is dressed in lace, the veil is tulle with satin finish or beads.
  • 36. Curiosity about the wedding veil in the world In Japanese tradition, the bridal veil is used symbolically to hide the jealousy of the bride, his ego and its selfishness, qualities that can not be displayed in the presence of the future husband and his relatives. Symbolically, the veil hides the negative qualities and makes the bride to enter into new life as a wife, kind and obedient. In Japanese tradition in the past there was also the belief that the hair of women were dirty and that is why going covered. In Africa, the wives do not wear a veil, a headdress, but combined the dress, whose shape closely resembles that of a turban. The colors of headgear are matched to those dell'abito wedding and are usually bright and cheerful colors. The traditional Chinese dress is red, or shades on for the couple away from the future evil spirits. The women wear an elaborate headdress (a kind of crown) from which in antiquity descended on the face, to cover the face, a red veil. Function of the veil was to conceal the face of the bride in the eyes of guests and the husband: the man was seen for the first time the face of his wife after her husband became the first night of marriage. In Indian brides are traditionally dressed in red, and is not expected that wear a veil, although often the Saree (traditional dress) covers the head. Accessories for the privileged in India are flowers and jewels that adorn the dress and the bride from head to foot. THE HABIT FOR SPOSO The groom dresses cost from 600-800000 to 2,000,000 or more, depending on your choice. The fluctuation of the price is depending on the fabric quality and brand, of course. The dress sold for more Pignatelli costs around 2,000,000 is in wool and silk, single- jacket with a shawl collar, embroidered waistcoat, ascot tie and
  • 37. shirt diplomacy. The Board. For him there is an advantage: the suit he can wear for the rest of life, for ceremonies or times that require an elegant dress. The things that bring good Tradition dictates that the bride brings with it the day of marriage 6 things: - One thing taken: to indicate the 'affection of loved ones who remain close to this transition from old to new. - What a gift: to remind the good people care. - Something blue: the blue color in ancient times was the color that symbolized purity and was the color of the 'dress of the bride. - An old thing: that symbolizes the life that is left behind and the importance of the past that must not be forgotten in the transition to the new. - A new thing: that symbolizes the new life about to start, shows all the new achievements and innovations that will bring with it. Le Fedi The custom of bringing the faith all'anulare claim dates back to the ancient Egyptians. They believed it to have identified a vein that, starting dall'anulare left, reach the heart along this vein that ran thought the feelings. "Tying" the ring would then secure his loyalty. To crown and seal the 'union of the spouses already the ancient Romans exchanged rings of iron, for the ancient Jewish law faiths had even more importance, in fact believed that only the exchange of these rings was enough to make the marriage legal. In the Middle Ages, when it had not yet fully foot the exchange of rings, the "faith" was a great bill and equal preciousness, often the groom, the bride ringed with three rings. In some regions of Italy is also called "true", a term the Veneto-Slavic, that means fidelity, it is usual to affect the date of marriage and the name of the Bride in to him and the name of the Bridegroom in the her. Tradition dictates that the spouse to pay them and keep them until the time of the exchange, but are often the witnesses to give. Pagetti will then take them on the altar for a blessing. The wedding rings are worn over the "Frenchman", the classic or the flat.
  • 38. Those who prefer something less traditional may opt for a model to more cross-circles, or you can choose the real with a small diamond, or even a set of diamonds. The Fedi The custom of bringing faith all'anulare dates back to the left of the ancient Egyptians. They believed he had in fact identified a vein that, starting dall'anulare left, reach the heart along this vein that they thought the sentiments. "Tying" the ring would then ensure their loyalty. To crown and seal 's union between the spouses already Ancient Romans exchanged iron rings, the ancient Jewish law faiths had even more importance is believed that only the exchange of these rings was sufficient to make the marriage legal. In the Middle Ages, when it had not yet fully foot the exchange of rings, the "faith" was of great bill and equal value, the groom often ringed the bride with three rings. And his form from the past, a symbol of eternal love and lasting, is the cyclicality of life as a couple that is renewed daily becoming stronger over time. The exchange of beliefs is the most solemn and moving ceremony. With that gesture and the promise of reciprocal loyalty that the pair of lovers becomes a real family. Faiths wedding, silver or gold have their value, sacred and liturgical. In some regions of Italy is also called "true", a term Venetian-Slav, which means fidelity within it is usual to affect the date of marriage and the name of the Bride in to him, and the name of the spouse in that her. The custom to affect the names of spouses and the date of the wedding in the real dates from the eighteenth century. With their exchange, in the middle of the ceremony is religious, whether civil, the couple is pressing for a pact of love and loyalty in the public domain. So the wedding faiths have a profound symbolic meaning, because they enclose a promise of love, but also an aesthetic value, they are worn for life. As a mutual gift between spouses, and select well together, although etiquette suggests that both the husband to buy them. The classic bridal faiths are in white gold, yellow or red. You can choose among different models: Tradition dictates that the spouse to pay them and keep until the exchange, but often are witnesses to give. It will then take on a pagetti for the blessing. Faiths are the most worn "Francesino", the classical or flat. Those who prefer something less traditional may opt for a more trying to cross, or it can choose the real with a small diamond, or even with a set of diamonds
  • 39. Bridal bouquet The bouquet is according to tradition, the last tribute of the bridegroom to the bride and terminating the cycle of engagement. The custom has it that her husband will do deliver the morning at home of the bride although in reality it is the bride to choose as must harmonize with her dress. In some countries even the mother-in-law to give. At the end of the reception will be launched at random from all unmarried girls who manage to marry should be grabbed by the year. The custom of the bride decorate with flowers is very old and comes from the Arab world. Here the woman who had to marry was decorated, the day of the wedding, with flowers of orange, white and delicate, a symbol of fertility. The custom started as hope for the bride to have numerous offspring. As for the various forms of bridal bouquet, much will depend on the physical and dall'abito the ceremony. There are some basic rules that you should follow. A bridal bouquet round and compact, composed of small flowers, and it mainly to a short and informal dress. This type of wedding bouquet is the one that best fits all the stature and female figures. A bridal bouquet open and voluminous is the ideal model for a dress that does not exceed the ankle and requires a bride lean and high enough, since this type of accessory should be given some 'below the level of life. The bridal bouquet called "cascade", with flower cluster, is reserved for a dress with train. A bridal bouquet of this kind draws attention to the bottom, creating a slimming effect. E 'and then indicated to a raagzza high and robust. Not recommended instead to a woman of small stature because, though voluminous, it might even obscure some details of her dress. The bridal bouquet beam, made up by long-stemmed flowers, is indicated for the suit. A bridal bouquet of this type should be supported to the arm and led with ease by a slender girl possibly still have security in the poise and elegance.
  • 40. As for the meaning of flowers, white tulips symbolize the declaration of his love for the bride and the azaleas are sincerely promise that the bridegroom and the bride requires that in return, the peach blossoms speak of eternal love, the rose is a symbol of sweetness and joy, and jasmine are the hope of future prosperity in life, the orange blossom is the hope of fertility. The bridal bouquet must be chosen with great care and attention being that refines and perfects the final effect of organic. It 'the same florist in charge of various decorations at home and in Church to prepare in harmony with the whole ceremony. Why is truly a perfect addition, the bridal bouquet must have the precise characteristics: it must be able to last all day without wilt; should not dirty / stain the dress of the bride; should be manageable and not too heavy, must have one handle well oriented in order to hold in your hand comfortably. The bride who also intends to further customize your bouquet, you can request a embellished with decorations like beads of wire, colored ribbons and other things that richiamino the details of her dress. However take into account the possible variation in price. To avoid unpleasant surprises, will be well agree with the florist some points, such as the use of very fresh flowers that endure more and processing of each individual flower stems with support tubes of water that ensures freshness. The bride, you are done, then decide what to do bouquet. You can choose the classic "launch" to single women and / or girlfriends at the banquet, or dry them for another beautiful memory of the day. The Confetti Traditionally, in ancient valuables were packed in bags of tulle, lace today, for the day of marriage must be strictly white and always in odd number usually five, to represent the quality of life that must not fail in life of the spouses: - Health - Fertility - Long life - Happiness - Wealth Tradition requires that the married couple laps between tables after cutting the cake. The bridegroom stand a silver tray with confetti, the bride will serve guests with a silver spoon also always in odd number. THE ELEMENTS OF Confetti The pill is typically formed by an inner core, the soul, consisting of a whole almonds, shelled and pelata, covered by layers of overlapping sugar for subsequent dampening. The pill keeps the form of seed almond, strongly flattened. The outer surface is smooth, white porcelain reflections. The size and weight of the sweet vary according to size of the almond used. The soul of the sweet can be provided by other ingredients (hazelnut, cinnamon, chocolate, candied different, pistachio, dried fruit) coated with layers of sugar and or chocolate. Shape and size of the sweet in this case will vary depending on the soul. To get the zuccheratura use of these machines Bassin, they are hot preferably copper or steel in continuous rotation, where they are processed almonds with sugar. The first use of confetti in celebration of births and marriages, date back to 447 BC at the rich
  • 41. Roman family of Fabi. From 1500 onwards the confetti became the ideal conclusion of every great lunch for their prestige and high cost. Knowledge of that product contributed the great names of literature both ancient and contemporary, among the many examples Leopardi, Carducci, Verga and Pascoli. Much is still alive the custom of throwing rice and silver confettini by the guests, the spouses at the end of the ceremony when leaving the church. Tradition has it that the color is white confetti. But no one forbids you to choose the color according all'abito of the bride, approach to ecru or pastel shades. During the ceremony, tradition has it that the bride invited to distribute confetti with a silver spoon. The bridegroom will follow and will help in bringing a confetti a bowl, also silver. The number of confetti, as well as those contained in bomboniere and those distributed by the husband is always odd. The number, according to popular belief, is a bad omen for the spouses to remain without children. Precious bags packed in a time of tulle and lace today should be included, along with the card with the name of spouses. You can pack into confetti to obtain a small flower. Today you can also opt for confetti "signed" or plaited with colored engraving of the name of spouses. There is a wide choice about the quality of confetti, especially those with almond. While in the confetti of good quality chocolate is only essential that there is a good chocolate inside and an outer coating of sugar with little starch, for the almond confetti is not so simple. It 'important to the quality of sugar that should not have the taste of starch, but is determining the type of almond used: First, its provenance (the Sicilian are the most valuable), then we must make sure it is whole and pelata, finally A pill is better where there is little sugar and almond pretty big. In evaluating the quality and thus the price of the almond confetti must always bear in mind that the price is determined by processing and almonds but not by the sugar, which is virtually irrelevant Bomboniere marriage A symbol for those invited, to thank and honor to welcome the event, is the bomboniera marriage. The bomboniera, whose name derives from the French "bon-bon" (sweet), was born in Italy in the late fifteenth century by the use of noble always carry the caskets store where sweets and candy sugar, imported substance from Indie and, in economic terms, very expensive. The less wealthy will be satisfied with bags of paper and cloth. E 'in 1896, the marriage between Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples and future king of Italy, and Elena of Montenegro, which became the subject of
  • 42. bomboniera gift of the spouses invited to, just like today. The bomboniere marriage are not only part of the Italian tradition. Other countries such as Greece, Portugal, Great Britain, Ireland, the United States, Africa and even 'Australia is increasingly closer to this culture. The choice of bomboniere marriage lies with both boyfriends. Order at least three months before the date, the number of bomboniere of marriage should be equal to the number of calls distributed, plus a small reserve for any unexpected. Today more than ever is wide variety on the market. You can entertain in the search for an object that is customized or particularly unusual. The traditional wedding bomboniere by resisting the strong current of news: silver, crystal Swarosvki, Murano glass, porcelain of Limoges. To this list, add candles and crafts, culinary items and lottery tickets that, for the occasion, become original cadeaux. Still, useful items including watches, glasses, ashtrays, vases. The important thing is that gifts are sober and tasteful. Even donations and gestures of generosity are part of the catalog of bomboniere marriage. Scrolls and letters of thanks from the entity which has benefited from this gesture, will come into the hands of guests. To pack of bomboniere from marriage, preferring better tone similar to those in the bouquet and all'abito of the bride, or bags of lace, silk or net closed with a wisp of raffia. Usually, the relatives and friends who attended the reception, reserve bomboniere the same series and the same style. According to witnesses, who have an important role during the civil ceremony and / or religious, will give bomboniere more valuable, while people who participated in the joy of the couple with a gift or a telegram, give bags of tulle embroidered with flowers for decorations in cloth. There is a right time for the delivery of bomboniere marriage. More and more couples choose to make this gift to the guests at the end of the day with the latest greetings. The rule is that if they deliver one per household and a head for engaged couples. The confetti is a natural complement in the composition of the bomboniera marriage. This tradition dates back to Roman times, consume the usual confetti packed with honey to celebrate births and unions. Historical traces are found in a News of Boccaccio and a sonnet of Folgore St. Giminiano composed in the fourteenth century. The manufacture of confetti and most popular classic starts Sulmona in the fifteenth century. Even today the city Abruzzo is among the largest producers of confetti.
  • 43. Here, among other things, arose the Museum of art and technology confectioners, now a national monument. Regarding the right amount, typically is used to put confetti in every five bomboniera marriage, but is not required. The important thing is that the number remains odd. According to tradition, 5 confetti representing health, fertility, long life, happiness, wealth, 3 confetti symbolize the couple and their first child, 1 candy symbolizes the uniqueness of the event. In any bomboniera is inserted, finally, a simple card with the name of baptism of the spouses, why the name, and date of the wedding. What is silver, porcelain, ceramic or any other material, the bomboniera is the memory that the spouses leave at the end of the most beautiful day of their lives represent a significant gift that the bride and groom invited to offer as remembrance of the great day. The tradition wants the classics made in crystal, silver, and especially limoges same for everyone, You can choose between: a portrait door, a small box, an ashtray, an object of practical use as a corkscrew, a small alarm clock, a small salt shaker, un'agendina, a teaspoon of sugar. For the materials entrusted to: pottery, porcelain, crystal, silver, but also materials such as synthetic resin, cork, wood. Any object can customize with their names or initials and date of marriage. Objects can also be different from each other to meet the tastes of each guest, provided they have the same value. Only for witnesses can provide a bomboniera more valuable. The bomboniere will be wrapped all in the same way and combined in the same bag. The package must be particularly cared so content buying the item value and can show whoever receives as a surprise. Bearing in mind the color and style of the event, you can choose between boxes, colorful cards or single, raffia or strips of satin, decorative flowers. Or you could use small pots with fragrant herbs to be placed on tables as places to leave marks to the guests. The bags must contain over five confetti that symbolize health, wealth, happiness, fertility and long life even a small card with just names baptism of the spouses. Wedding Gifts The list of wedding The invention of the Wedding List dates back to origins rather remote configurable exactly at the beginning of the century just ended. Born in the USA by a shrewd intuition of enterprising committed a china shop, it was initially accepted with that touch of diffidence (which almost always are accompanied by the most innovative ideas) as it was considered "not very elegant" that the spouses ask your guests to a "special gift" of which, however, already knew the price rather than a gift chosen by the guests. We must consider, from the beginning, "which" and "how" are the advantages in compiling a list Nozze following, of course, the criteria suggested by us: - It saves time; - It helps to avoid unnecessary duplication; - It solves the choice made less laborious and therefore more enjoyable purchase the wedding gift; - You can buy at discounted prices compared to those list items that are listed but no other guests donated; - You can take advantage of "discount vouchers" to buy items not selected by the guests; A list of wedding that could be truly comprehensive must first offer various buyers a wide range of
  • 44. possibilities and simultaneously it cover all items that may serve to furnish the new home of the bride and groom, so that, in various possible combinations, it can easily reflect character and personality. Articles for inclusion in the Wedding List: Some examples of gifts include: porcelain and ceramics for the table important "service flat major, coffee service, the service, breakfast; burriera; marmellatiera; spaghettiera, serving dishes, dinner service standing; cheese plate ; pan from fire, from fire and microwave, flat cake; pinzimonio service; sottopiatti; antipastiera; carafe thermos, ice cream service, service macedonia glass or porcelain. Crystal table service complete with glass key, a second service of glasses for all uses; olier, tasting glasses, water jugs, wine jugs. Items table in stainless steel, silver alloy, silver: Service cutlery important silver candlesticks, chalices, sottopiatti; shovel cake, pair cutlery to serve; pair salad cutlery, cutlery from fish; sottopiatti; basket for bread; Table for daily service of meals (6/8/12 for individuals) in porcelain, ceramic sottopiatti; service utensils for daily use; cups of coffee, service glasses of water and wine; pan from oven with stand; olier 4 pieces; formaggiera; salad bowl with utensils. For breakfast: Full service breakfast with sugar; biscottiera; breakfast tray, tray with stand from the bed. Service - bar: liquor bottles, liquor bottles from glass, champagne bucket, ice bucket with tongs, mixing with spoon; thermal carafe, jug-door ice service for cocktail glasses, glasses for the service of liquor; service bicchieri smaller for sweet liqueurs; service bowl and ladle for sangria; tray bar. For the kitchen: full battery of pots (10 pieces, colander, pressure cooker, 4 pots of various sizes), set of pans, set of ladles in steel, set of wooden spoons, set of kitchen knives, set of chopping boards (meat, bread, cheese);-based ladles, chopping board, service dish, fish, coffee and coffee service for 6 persons, kettle and balance; basket, set of kitchen canisters (sugar, coffee, salt and salt, various spices (...); Small kitchen utensils: spring spaghetti, grated; peppermill; grinder, butter knife, cheese knife, corkscrew, nutcracker, oil / vinegar, salt / pepper; sottopentole; trays of various sizes and for various foods (...); warming table; mats. Fancy furniture: glass jars or china, ashtrays, lighters deskstand; lamps, umbrella or portavasi; cart; objects Murano glass or silver, wall clocks, desk set (magnets, pencils, magnifying glass, port-cards, desktop clock, the collector- sensitive mail table). Small Appliances: Toaster, slicer, mixer, centrifuge, blender, mixer, food mixers, hand mixer, electric knife, juicer, coffee machine, deep fryers, ice cream; yogurtiera; passaverdura electric; mincer, slicer, machine for pop - corn, kettle, electric cheese grater, electric knife, electric grill, electric can opener; sbattitore; contaminated timers and timers for the mass; ingredients to balance vacuum
  • 45. cleaner, iron steam boiler, steam iron, iron, travel goods, electronic balance scales; hairdryer; toothbrush electric, whirlpool, hot-air fan for the bathroom. Large household appliances: Washing machine, dishwasher, refrigerator, freezer, microwave oven, air conditioner, fan ground; fan to ceiling. Video and hi-fi: TV, VCR, stereo, CD player, CD wall, door or wall-CD column, radio, radio alarm clock, camera, DVD player. Luggage: Bag for clothes and jackets, set of hard bags, set of leather bags, luggage sets for hand (purse, bag, beauty - houses for men and women); suitcase 24 hours, 48 hours suitcase, backpack for hiking ; hat; trunks. Leather Goods: Diaries, wallets, purses, door checks, door cards, door documents; bag work. The wedding banquet The wedding banquet was, in all ages and from all classes, an important occasion in which the festive purely culinary reasons they intertwine and other culinary had very little: ostentation of power and wealth, or social statement effort, ritual and symbolic elements related to the wedding itself. Still, more than you think, sitting at the table during a lunch wedding will take part in a ritual. Obviously, some data are more evident in other eras when the differences between the various classes were much more marked: in addition to wedding banquets for between royal families to demonstrate power and wealth but at the same time passion for unbridled luxury, we find examples of wedding among farmers that seal their pact with wedding banquets far more modest and far from pomp and luxury. In any case, despite pomp and luxury are typical of all ages, the triumph of scenic wedding lunch was one that was held in 1600 in Palazzo Vecchio in Florence for the marriage of Maria de Medici and King Henry IV of France, which remained in story especially for theatrical wonders devised by the famous architect Buontalenti, and the statues of sugar modeled by Giambologna. It seems that after the fruit, calarono from the ceiling clouds swollen with Juno and Minerva, and their dileguarsi tables were changed with a view mirrors and crystals, which in turn is transformed into valleys with trees, hedges and fountains. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance eras in which allegories and symbolism made by the owners in every moment of human life, dating back many of the customs observed today during the wedding lunch. In addition to the number of convitati, which must never be odd, it is very important the presence of sweets and sugar, the current confetti, as a symbol of a sweet and happy future. Nor may miss some fruits such as apple, the symbol of the dedication of the bride, and the pomegranate, symbol of fertility. Must be on the table even spicy foods and aphrodisiac for bringing about the physical act of the union. In all eras, and within the limits of their means, as we have said before, even the middle class and the classes have given great importance to wedding banquets. Famous, for example, the popular Italian tradition, the so-called "Panarde" Abruzzese, devoted to literature by Edoardo Scarfoglio and held in the same way today. In turn, small middle class and wealthy nobility of toga and trade, not joking. One need only recall the banquet held in Verzago in 1569 for the wedding of Hippolyta Dugnani with Count Ottavio Giovio, during which they were served five ports respectively 145, 105, 105, 140 and 110 meals each. The wedding lunch in the folk tradition. The culmination of the feast is reached over lunch on weekdays, it takes many hours, with quantity
  • 46. and variety of food truly exceptional, even among the poor. In some regions the bride and groom eat the same dish. In Basilicata and Abruzzo, it is customary to give diners that offers cash and gold objects to the bride and groom. In the Tiber Valley, during lunch, is traditionally launched with confetti violence to break some glass: the port wine spread joy, the break of a few dishes and clearly alluding. Similar traditions are found in other regions. After the festival, weddings, especially in the countryside, do not start, but recede to spend the first night and retain young people under the window to make the serenade. In some conservative areas, some friends of the bride and groom during the festival, prepare some joke, for example: the double bed with the sheets annodate, or some household tools hidden in the bed itself. According uses of Basilicata and Sicily, the morning after the wedding, the mother of the groom, or both mothers visiting spouses, offer them lunch, and build the bed to see signs that the alliance and have proof of virginity the bride, for the first eight days the new spouses remain at home, served by family members and board room. At one time, in Romagna, (and in a wide beyond the Alps), after eight days, the bride returned for another eight days in the house Music by marriage An element not to overlook the music is never in marriage. There is nothing better than music to create a magical atmosphere during a solemn moment like that of the wedding.
  • 47. Its origins go back in time. It is said that Princess Victoria, daughter of Queen Victoria of England, was the first to introduce the wedding march on the occasion of his marriage to William of Prussia in 1858. The music that is surrounding the ceremony, first of all, must adapt to its spouses who want to create. But we must also think about the kind of more spiritual aspect that music from marriage can have. On that day so important, the music marriage becomes a message of love and intense key to the whole ceremony. In selecting music from marriage, spouses can turn to, in advance, with the specialized agencies and their local musicians. To avoid the possibility of recruiting friends or organists amateur singers and sbaraglio. Among the most popular, the violin, cello, harp and the timeless body. Articulated or not, the music must provide at least one song to be performed while the bride and another piece, preferably more touching, to be reserved for the exchange of rings: two moments, usually lived in the most absolute and embarrassing silence. What not to do absolutely is to distribute a program of music of marriage to those present. We are facing a sacred celebration and not a concert. Wagner, Schubert, Vivaldi, Handel and Bach are some of the classical authors that married couples usually choose. Their songs emphasize the most touching moments of the ceremony. The etiquette, however, recommend some songs "standard" to include music from their marriage. The Wedding March by Richard Wagner accompanies the entrance of the bride to church, the wedding march instead of Felix Mendelssohn, announces the release of the spouses at the church. Finally, the Ave Maria di SHUBERT should be reserved for the moment, ceased the function of religion, spouses and witnesses are called to sign the documents to formalize, even for civilians, has union in marriage. Once the sacred ceremony, you move to the place chosen for the reception. The wedding music will accompany us too long this second part of the day. Should be chosen with great care. Upon receipt can be somewhat 'formal and less rigid about music from marriage, but still and always attentive to taste. Many local restaurants, now aware of the importance of music by marriage, are predisposed to this type of entertainment venues and facilities for amplification. It 'important to take into account the time when the music goes. At the banquet table and the advice is to choose a soft music, a little intrusive background that allows guests to converse with each other without having to raise the voice too. In mid-lunch / dinner, or when guests begin to leave between scope and the other is good to revive the environment by choosing a wedding music more lively. The repertoire should still look quite large to satisfy the variety of tastes of guests. A fine meal is allowed to involve the various guests in a celebration dance. At the start then, but only if considered appropriate and really for fun these, a Latin American dance, waltz, polka. The whole direct maybe a dj expert. The important thing, whatever the choices, is that the repertoire of music from marriage is of good quality. The watchwords in this case the 'fun but with elegance. "
  • 48. Customs and traditions The things that bring good What the bride should never forget: "Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue" Wear something old represents the link with his family and then with his life before marriage. Usually the bride is wearing a jewel of the family or the veil belonging to the mother or grandmother passed by. Bring something new means luck and success for the bride in her new married life and often is dall'abito itself, as new. Wear something provided, usually from a happily married, is intended to bring luck and happiness to the couple. It may be an accessory or a jewel. Get off at something blue dates back to the Bible, in the belief that the color blue represented purity and fidelity. Through the years, this belief has evolved: first the bride wore blue clothes, then we simply bring a blue band around all'abito wedding. Tradition dictates that the bride bring with them the day of marriage 6 things: - Provided one thing: to indicate 's affection of loved ones who remain close in this transition from old to new. - Donated one thing: to remember the good care of people. - Something blue: the ancient blue was the color that symbolized the purity and was the color of 'dress of the bride. - An old thing: that symbolizes the life that is left behind and the importance of the past that must not be forgotten in the transition to the new. - Something new: that symbolizes the new life that is about to begin, shows all the new achievements and innovations that will bring with it. - It is not a good omen for the future spouses face before the ceremony. - Do not sleep in the new house before marriage. - The bride's bouquet must be given. -- - It 's good omen for the bride wear as follows: something old, a symbol of tradition, something new, symbol of life that begins, something given, a symbol of complicity, something blue, like wishes for serenity and something given as a symbol of love. - A 'popular tradition has it that her husband cross the threshold of the new house with his wife in his arms so that no obstacle in crossing the entrance, avoiding the fate of adversity. - During the early hours of wedding celebrations have been several changes and influences.
  • 49. Nell'Ottocento on taxation of the clergy, spouses Italians could not choose it as religious marriages are celebrated only in the evening, home of the bride (followed dances and banquets). Twenty years in fashion began to marry at fourteen. Subsequently, the French introduced the custom of celebrating the wedding on time antimeridiano. The real couples from around the world use to celebrate their wedding between eleven and twelve o'clock in the morning. - It is not a good omen that the wife packs her own wedding dress. - It 's considered harmful to the bride dressed entirely look at his wedding dress in the mirror. To avoid malasorte simply omit some in clothing accessories (gloves, shoes, etc.). - Tradition suggests a preference for a veil used rather than a veil again. In particular, if it belonged to a woman happily married, that luck is handed to the news wife. - Recites a proverb: "wet bride, lucky bride." -- - It is considered the lucky bride who is woken up by the chirping of birds or find a ragnetto -- hidden in wedding dress Older people suggest to prepare the nuptial bed by unmarried girls. - The successful maiden flight that takes the bunch to the bride runs in the crowd, you marry within a year. The same goes for the lucky guy who manages to retrieve the wife of the Garter. - Tradition has it that fit into five confetti bomboniere. This stems from the fact that five are the ingredients for a good marriage: health, wealth, happiness, fertility and longevity. TRADITIONS AND THE ART OF MARRIAGE DOLCIARIA The wedding cake Like any party that respects the marriage has its moment "sweet"! There is, today, the wedding feast that does not end with the tasting of delicious desserts and wedding cake designed to dazzle the eyes and delight the palate! Cakes and sweets cheer the tables of major events since ancient times, formerly the ancient Romans used to offer a sweet young wife round made of honey and fruit, such as fertility and wish the same were the Greeks that when consumed marriages sesame cakes and honey as a sign of hope and
  • 50. fertility. In the Middle Ages, however, marriages of nobles was used to prepare the White Eat a sweet made of flour, eggs, cheese and ginger taste very special. It 's just the first of the twentieth century that the wedding cake, as we, appears on the tables prepared for the wedding and it looks almost shyly, as long his "performance" was considered synonymous with lack of sophistication ... From the fifties fashion will change and with it the views: the wedding cake becomes part of the holiday menu and then is seen as completing unique and essential to every wedding dinner. Even when there was little to spend, the economies of poor rural areas, the wedding cake could not miss a conclusion of the banquet. They were just sweet, because the ingredients were not packaged for economic, prepared by the wise hands of the mother of the bride or the closest relatives often met since the week preceding the wedding to cure all the preparations. In most cases, the cake was made of sponge cake soaked Vermouth, stuffed creams and covered with frosting, but no region in Italy has not developed one or more traditional recipes to celebrate the wedding day. Sardinian confectionery in art, for example, in addition to the amaretti, small traditional cakes that could not miss the wedding, was used to prepare the cake of the bride. This dessert from very ancient origins was already mentioned in documents of the seventeenth century and its preparation was very long and delicate. The pasta made of flour, water, salt and lard contained a filling of honey, walnuts, cinnamon and orange rind. What struck most of the sweet was the final appearance: a white rose that remained perfectly intact even after cooking. A Boccassuolo, in Modena, there is still the tradition of cake Flippa the Flippa, a sister or a close relative of the bride, was formerly responsible for the success of the festival. It was she who oversee the kitchen, the habit of the bride, the choice of ladies of honor but especially cured cakes: the cake of Flippa was to be the most beautiful, the most good, and was served at the end of the banquet the evening at home husband. Contrary to the traditional rule of non-ostentation, the wedding cakes are, in addition to spouses means, the protagonists of modern marriages. Showing a triumph of form and decoration that is unprecedented even come to steal the scene, but for a few seconds, the bride ... But under under the good confectioner knows that, beyond the forms, to celebrate the solemnity of the moment we must rely on tradition and rarely suggest to a wedding cake, other than a millefeuille or a cake with whipped cream. The wedding cake has a greeting and is rich in symbolism: its circular shape symbolizes the heavenly protection that spouses claiming the pair, the various layers, whether they are superimposed on one another whether they are supported by alzatine, forming a scale to represent the path of life that spouses along together, on top of the classic figurines to represent the spouses, or Swan, a symbol of monogamous relationship, or rose representing love! The cutting of the cake is an important moment: joining their hands weddings enshrine the beginning of their married life that, at least for that day and for that banquet, continues gently with the distribution of confetti and bomboniere to relatives. The tradition of offering guests bomboniere is very old and dates back at the end of'500. Bomboniera The term comes from French bon-bon means precisely that little sweet, it was because of small objects in miniature accompanied by sweets which the spouses give to the guests. The first bomboniere were packed with rare materials and therefore had a great artistic value. With the spread of used spread the tradition of preparing bomboniere at home and, once again, were the
  • 51. skilled hands of mothers, or those of the bride, for building small embroidered handkerchiefs in which wrap home-made biscuits. The bride's biscuits were preparing at home more than two centuries ago. It is lined with a mixture of sugar, flour, salt, oil and eggs which are added almonds and walnuts. The dough was worked carefully before being divided into narrow and long loaves that were baked for half an hour. Then let cool, cut into small pieces and go back in oven to toast. Even today in Trentino is usually distribute cròfani small cakes called 'confetti of the spouses'. They are fried cakes, shaped oval, with a kernel inside the nut and sugar outside. There are many testimonies, including century, mentioning the cròfani between distributed sweets during the marriage by spouses to relatives and friends. The wedding cake, was developed at the wealthy classes from the seventeenth century. The custom batch of cookies and pastries brought by invited to form a heap, whose height corresponded to the future prosperity 'spouse, according to a belief would be transformed from "mountain" dolce ungainly in a Glassato plans after the goal' '600 by a French chef. Royalties's symbolic wedding cake, instead were born in the late Anglo-Saxon countries. The circular, is the heavenly protection evoked the spouses, the ring symbolizes a promise without end. The raise that underpin the various plans, or the layers that overlap each other, are a kind of scale of married life, where the spouses deal with a path made of joys and difficulties'. The wedding cake, whole scope before the celebrated, should have started by cutting the first husband (with the laid her hand on her) and completed by the bride. Then the wife should serve the cake to neo-husband, the mother-in-law, the mother, the father-in-law, father and witnesses, thus symbolizing 'acquisition of the role of mistress of the new family. In Italy until the first goal 'of'900 tradition of the wedding cake has not attracted large consensus, because' marriages more ' "in" at the time (those gifts or high representation) ended with a simple dessert. But by the fifties this kind of sweet and 'become "a symbol" of the celebrations of every social class. The wedding and marriage in the popular tradition Marriage in the Abruzzo In the culture of our region marriage, which was a ritual with important consequences in society, was presented with a rich variety of incidents, which began from the choice of partners in accordance with rules and customary rules which are difficult regardless, continued with the formal request made by the parents of the bridegroom consuoceri future, with the engagement, during which the boyfriend brought serenade the morning or the future bride, and the transport of dowry in the house of the bridegroom, who lived with active participation of women especially near the bride; The wedding ceremony with the coronation with the garland of flowers and the ritual of the cover, the posting of the bride moving from the house
  • 52. father, the contrast in which the payment was symbolic of the bride, the blessing of the bride with bread and an overnight stay at the marital home stating the final transition to the status of married. Even today many married couples asking to cheer the banquet with sound, music, rites and tradition of poetry ... and so many couples who celebrate the anniversary ....... The schedule adjusted Traditional Marriage suggested here is very general but credited. We hope that the spouses of Abruzzo is scordino of orpelli of marriages by soap (very far from the sense of etiquette) and remember the beautiful weddings, full of meaning, their ancestors. 1-Singing departure (the procession of the bridegroom with the complicity of relatives of the bride brings the serenade). In reality this is not a serenade as we want but a consolatory or instructive provided by the local bride about to leave the family home and face an unknown family ... .. eeee cows fija my cows cuntént caaa Lloc them truve n'ata buna Agenda and cows fija off my nu put C. you impire the use of them paise .... 2-compliment of the bridegroom in the afternoon are offered strictly mostaccioli and liquors combined red and yellow, white mint with confetti (for the etiquette of this stage it in detail later but it is nice). Singing the mother of the bride. The bridegroom gives a flower brooch or a bouquet of silver to the bride. "We offer this pledge of flower in my love". The mother-in-law gives the palm with silver or presentation. The 3-bolt (wedding procession: The father with the bride, the groom with the mother-in-law, then all the others) 4-Blessing of the spouses with bread, rite of the mantle, unveiling and crowning of the bride. Trallallero. Ring (around the country in the parade with traditional drums), contrast with the blue ribbon, payment of tolls and saltarello sung. The 5-Sciarra (rain of confetti, flowers and mites, is the presence of children who collect them) on the way back before entering for lunch you can also make the outbreaks (crackers). Gifts to spouses. 6-lunch 7-The penessella and verses of praise, declamation under bride, Brindisi sung 8-Zinna blanket and ties of love. After 9-dinner dance (quadrille, and songs saltarello apotropaici Important is the table! the menu suggest that basis but if you want you can do much better: 1. 2 as a wine montepulciano and a slight sweet and frizzantino for the ladies, 2. meats, cheeses and stress (eg chillies round tuna), 3. coratella ovo and cheese, vegetables, 4. broth with real pasta with parsley, 5. herbs and boiled, 6. òrapi and ricotta ravioli (spinach would be wild) 7. Pallottino guitar with the castrato 8. lamb with baked potatoes, 9. polpettone (roll) stuffed, cooked vegetables 10. pizza doce 11. confetti (the confetti leghorn passes helped by the bride groom a spoon) 12. cigarettes and cigars (even for married ladies and navigate), and bitter coffee
  • 53. MARRIAGE IN A Million'50 (Basilicata) IL MATRIMONIO A MIGLIONICO NEGLI ANNI '50 The union between a boy and a girl was often bound by very different motives from which parents often forced their children to marry and fidanzarsi for economic or social interests. The girls promised in marriage could not absolutely oppose the will and family were then forced to marry a man not loved. Normally, the marriage was combined in this way: the mother of the groom chose the girl for their son, called "the ambassador of the country" and sent the home of the girl to the father's request of the hand of her daughter. His father, examined the proposal, gave the answer and, after taking the decision, communicated to his daughter. Since then, she had to keep attitudes reserved in public and at home. Furthermore, young married couples had promised not wear short dresses and leave the house alone, but should always be accompanied by someone. Second stage was very important that the engagement official, who was the first of marriage. On this occasion, traditionally called "trasút '", namely "entry", families of the two boyfriends and you know, done with a reception at home of the bride, made "official" report of the children, not only among themselves, but especially the whole country. Followed, then, premarital contracts, with the presence of a notary. Singular is an example of the "Charter of clothes," which listed the dowry that the girls had to have at the time of marriage (sheets, blankets, towels, dusters, furniture, land, etc.).. Often, during these meetings the families and argued the figure of the mother of the bridegroom emerged for his arrogance and his claims, distinguished by mother of the bride, who seemed more docile and more inclined to support the consuocera, always possessive against child male. Often there were disputes that led to the rupture of engagement, in that case, it quickly sought other substitutes, because the mentality of the time did not see eye to good men and women not married. After the engagement is going to agreements for the day of the wedding: invitations, and invited festivities, lunch. Singular was the delivery of calls. Parents of the bride and groom, usually fathers, went personally to invite relatives and friends on three occasions! The first inform the date of the wedding day, to remember the second and third to take the response of participants in the marriage. The celebrations lasted three days: the first day at home celebrating the wedding with friends and relatives, the second and third home of the bridegroom, always with friends and relatives. But it was also very unique wedding lunch that included: • Zitoni the sauce sheep; • Boiled in rural chicory with pork; • Roasted Lamb with salad; • Sighs (local sweet); • Tarallucci, wine and browned.
  • 54. In Calabria Customs and rituals for the wedding and marriage. Weddings and parties in matrimonial tradition passed start'900. The wedding ceremony also presents us with exceptional forms of tradition. The Scapigliati, for example, still survives in some countries of Calabria, and regards the case that family members show a determined opposition to marriage: The pretender then expect the girl to the church after Mass on Sunday, and in public, the tears from Head of the veil, a gesture that undermines the girl which will end with her husband. Yet in many places where a widow or widower, convolano a new wedding, groups of villagers gather at night in front of their house and, armed with bells, locks, horns and tamburacci make a noise indiavolato that extends for several hours , Until the newlyweds opened the door and offer a drink to the group. This protest of the community originates in beliefs regarding the presence of the souls of the dead in this world, not only at the November 2, for which the deceased spouse may attend the daily lives of others, which has remarried. In past centuries, the noise is added insults, scorn, protest, launching pieces, satirical songs, for three consecutive evenings. "Of vènnari and marti not spus and not parties". Then, the day set for the wedding was Saturday and Sunday. As for months, in May was excluded because dedicated to Our Lady but also because in the same month "ràgghjanu the Ciucci," that is braying donkeys. November, dedicated to the dead, not encouraging the joy that every marriage attorney. Even Lent was "forbidden time for marriages, as requested the church. The white dress, a symbol of purity and innocence, was packed "d''a Maistra" (the seamstress). If we make a leap back in time and bring us to the beginning of the century, we see that the bride's dress had different characteristics from the current photos, still preserved, the witness. The dress of the time. packed with damask cloth and soberly colored, was garnished with Trinity and lace in the neck on the bodice and skirt around the plissettata heels. The parade, colorful and pompous, like a real procession, started walking from the house of the bride to go to church. This, as was the tradition, was raised to stem from his father that if missing, was replaced by big brother. The husband, however, was accompanied by her mother. The bride and groom in the procession were followed by the first "shoulder" very close relatives, her brother or him, which traditionally had to be the most elegant and profile. The first led the parade usually on a shiny black dress, a fox fur with a muzzle, glass eyes and a long tail and was full of jewels; completed all with the handbag and gloves. He was delegated to wear a classic black suit and white shirt. Behind the shoulder after the second ever relatives, but not close; off the third and fourth that ultimately could be just very intimate friends. The neighbors put up with trays full of confetti, flower petals and a few mites, all'apparire of spouses him lanciavano him, to wish them happiness and prosperity, creating the boys' un'acchjappa acchjappa "namely confusion, jostling, quarrels , As Soldini, damned, often ended up in the cracks
  • 55. of basalt or under the skirts of the ladies, leaving a dry mouth and knees peeled. But not entirely, because then were rewarded with "pastetti" (biscuits) and white vermouth. Then the scene and continued the family lacked reciprocate the kindness and affection of those who had launched confetti and flowers with wide smiles, while the father of the bride launched "fists and Manatí" of confetti inside shops or on balconies, making tremble windows and mirrors. It 'worth recalling at this point a peculiarity: the confetti had not dell'anteguerra the present, that is big, cute and the almond pelata, but were about three centimeters long, inside with a thin piece of cinnamon and covered with a patina of hard sugar, commonly called "cumbetti 'Ilinu pipe. " The ladies invited to the wedding invitation all'estetica is "ndoravano" for that day as Madonna in procession: white gold mixed with yellow topaz earrings, rings with ruby. At that empties " 'on tafarèja", the little basket where commonly, in every family, was guarded gold. The party, until the fifties, was done at home and chairs were standing on the wall around the room to leave a larger space for the free dance. In large trays called "spasi" sweets were served home- made or bought: macaroons, pasta with the actual tack of pink, with sweet almond paste, while small in small glasses ( "bicchereji") rosolio was offered, a sweet liqueur low alcohol made with essences. Remember the Prunella, the flavor of plums, the mandarinetto, the witch, the ANISETTE, mint, drop of gold, (because yellow), Mille Fiori Cucchi with the tree and sugar hardened to the idea Snow inside the bottle, mentioned snowy mountains and used to heat, force, do feel more in shape. The tray with sweets, finished making the rounds of all the guests, was placed above the moving higher, away from children or too gluttonous. For education, for confidentiality, it took a tray, at most, two cakes, but when the waiter for a moment, distracted many are extending the hand of hide and filled the bags. The family had also offered economic opportunity 'Hard cuts "in ice cream cups with different tastes, cases Sicilian, sorbets, granite or, sandwiches and beer accompanied replaced with lunch today, offered at the restaurant. In ancient times it was " 'a tavulata" among family members and relatives, lunch was usually based pasta "zzita pezzijàta" with meat sauce, sausages and "pizzateji' i Nunn." All obviously prepared at home. All possessed the radio-bar, perhaps not had the necessary to eat, but to exorcise misery, suffering, grief, music and should be used to distract, away from the everyday realities certainly not rosy. He had just emerged from war to the music, poured out from the radio, helped to forget. Dances of the festival were in vogue at that time: polka, samba, waltz, tango, mazurka, while the melodious songs were those of Claudio Villa that dream was to open eyes, and those of Beniamino Gigli ripping tears in rivers. The gifts were services glasses, cutlery, cups of coffee or tea, but the most pleasing was " 'a bag," that is an offer in cash enclosed in an envelope by letter. The anxiety of opening the envelopes was that this rite is consumed well before "the other". At the end of the festival there were allusions, laughter, double-meaning phrases. Finally spouses remained alone for the first time. Can imagine the embarrassment of two people who are in an intimate situation, which came nearly perfect strangers! The next morning came in the house of their spouses suocere under the pretext of bringing coffee or adjust the bed, but in fact tried to get dall'umore the auspices of the two for a happy married life fully. The penetrating gaze of the mother-in-law was established by the behavior of the child as he was at heart: the virginity of the bride. Marriage in Friuli It was habit, in view of marriage by the husband, go home with the mediator of "her" to contract the dowry. Sometimes could happen that the father of one of the two will oppose the marriage because the family considers the applicant does not meet its aspirations ... economic.
  • 56. In this case two were the solutions: Scappare far along, or leave forever. Rare! Typically, negotiations are successfully closed, a mortar fired into the air announcing what. Hurry, these formalities are fixed the wedding day: tradition and convenience for you chose on Saturday. Therefore already the previous Thursday began preparations, governed by a specific rituale. Begins with the transport of "bala" a kind of support on a cart pulled by oxen. This was also the moment when the groom with his friends celebrating the farewell to celibacy, the bride task was to prepare for the friends of the bridegroom "struc" which replaced the confetti. Also on this occasion, the groom paid the "stivanka" to the youth of the country, because otherwise we would not have allowed the transport of bala. The average charge stivanka was the equivalent of fifty liters of wine. If they were engaged in different countries, each paying the stivanka to the youth of their country. Followed the gifts between the two pledged. He gave her the "kurdon" (the golden cord, sometimes passed from mother to child). Sometimes together with kurdon had also donated a large red ribbon, with which, on the day of the wedding, she would belt to life was a kind of charm against the possible bleeding of the first birth. On Friday, the eve of the wedding rite, both went to confession, the priest gave the bride a new white napkin. For what concerns the home of the bride's sister or best friend was going to settle the nuptial bed, to decorate the bedroom. Typically, the promised, it gave the best room of the house. On the wall above the bed, had attacked a sacred: The Holy Family or the Virgin Mary and Jesus separated in the direction of their pillows. Here the wedding day. The bride was helped by friends to dress, while her husband was by himself. When the groom came to take it, sometimes jokingly, she was hidden in a room with other women that prevented the husband from entering. At this point, the groom, according to the game, describing it asked the girl, but say the name. Her friends, pretended not to understand: one by one out of the room under his eyes, last appeared for the bride who, taken under the arm husband, s'incamminava, with the result, towards the church. Followed the ceremony. Then departed for the honeymoon that lasted several hours. In return, the bride made her entrance into its new home for lunch solemn. The mother-in-law daughter-in-law waited on the door and delivered the "meskul" (mixed) and "Medlar" (broom). Followed, of course, lunch at the wedding which included more close relatives and friends. All male guests wore a success story, and the bridegroom was a bundle wrapped by "you". Even women, but only if unmarried, had flowers from her hair. On that day does not eat cheese, but soup, pasta chicken or turkey. There was no cake, but the struke and gubana. The day closed with the dance festival. At bedtime the family offered the keys to the wife because closed the door before ascending the stairs outside. Sunday hereafter acquired relatives accompanied the entry to marry. This served as a public presentation is as a demonstration of good agreement. The following Monday, she put in place his things, then began his working life in the new family. For eight days, the bride was not quite back to where his father was born and lived until the day of marriage, otherwise people would have thought that was not faithful to her husband and that ultimately it ran away from him. Finally, the first celebration of Easter - after the wedding - the mother of the bride was the daughter
  • 57. personally lead the "pogaza" or "zegnanca" which consisted of a basket containing bread blessed, dishes, cutlery, etc.. Officially, everything was finished here, but now truly began to understand that life, mutual help, love true that resulted in silent activity, in which new life is lit in a love purified in its emphasis outside, but pure and profound and only death, and perhaps even death, could eliminate. Sardinia The day of the wedding the bride will wear a pleated skirt (on manteu "), the jacket (on gipponi"), the handkerchief cross on the chest ( "sa perr'e evening), the apron (on ventalicciu") , And will be cloaked by a veil of fine wool (about pannicciu and choir "), a handkerchief with floral designs (on macaroi mannu") or a shawl with embroidery silk ( "sciallinu on the evening). It is the evocation of marriage, to be celebrated as a time Santadi, a small country in south-west of Sardinia, organized by the pro-site which is celebrated every first Sunday in August, after a little curious; Marriage Mauritania. The name evokes ancient migrations, which mankind probably from North Africa landed in this part of Sardinia, the ritual is derived Sardinian and pastoral, punctuated by a series of traditions and customs that end with mothers who break the dish contained "Gratz knows." Old Marriage Selargino The Sardinian campidanese wedding ceremony, full of archaic symbols, gestures touching and mysterious beauty and culture that manifests itself in pomp and style of clothing, jewelry and accessory adorning the spouses and parades of men and women who make the wing two married. For this holiday throughout the country mobilizes many people are wearing the costume Sardinian, the streets are decorated with flowers, we expose tapestries at the windows and offer sweets in the streets. The night before the wedding takes place the Palio of the Bride who is the removal of household of women, including the nuptial bed, the future home of coppia.La first phase of the ceremony includes the habit of the spouses that take place in large and old peasant houses of Ramsbury, the so-called pollas campidanese. When spouses have worn the wedding dress, traveling from their parents for blessing. At this time linked a series of ancient rituals, such as the blessing of the head with salt and grain and the breaking of a dish in the presence of the bridegroom. Marriage itself takes place in the parish church of Assunta, where the marriage is celebrated according to the Catholic rite. The spouses are accompanied at the ceremony by relatives and friends of the players invited launeddas earlier. The spouses are dressed with the old wedding dress and Sardinian are chained with each other at the end of the ceremony. Finally, traveling the ancient church of San Giuliano, where they exchange the promise, and write a parchment in a message for future heirs, to be guarded and delivered to the children of the couple the 25th anniversary of marriage. Mauritanian Marriage Santadi It was called marriage Mauritanian with explicit reference to African nations that certainly in the past for various reasons, not least the confinement, landed at ports of South santadese close to the territory.
  • 58. The Pro Loco of Santadi again the celebration of the rite of marriage Mauritanian, a pure and pastoral tradition of Sulcis, according to the most ancient traditions handed down for centuries. A pair of young people join in marriage with religious ritual wearing the costume of the local people, "is Maurreddus", as it usually identify the inhabitants of the Santadi and Basso Sulcis; The costume worn by married couples is simple, austere, beautiful for its simple elegance: the bride wears a skirt pleated loose "on manteu," the jacket "on gipponi", the handkerchief cross on the chest "knows perr'e evening" the apron "on ventallicu" The fabric used is silk or silk brocade. The head of the bride is covered by a rectangle of wool fine trip clear blue tone on tone "on panniciu 'and chorus, or a large handkerchief floral designs" on mucaroi mannu ", or a finely embroidered shawl with wire silk "on sciallinu 'and evening." The bride wears shoes stained with the dress, usually of the same fabric, and jewelry received as a gift from the bridegroom. The costume of the bridegroom is predominantly Orbachi (lamb wool, white cotton shirt, "sa camisa" trousers "is cracionis" waistcoat "to cossu" (silk); red handkerchief (silk) "on turbans; headgear "knows berritta" leggings "is craccias" the waistcoat is closed by silver coins, buttons from the shirt of gold or silver. The spouses wear their costumes in their homes early in the morning and then reach over "is traccas "(carts hauled by oxen), together with relatives and friends in the parade, the great square of the country where the marriage will be celebrated. A ceremony was the mother of the bride and the father of the bridegroom offer newly married couples a glass of water to drink and spread over them and invited "knows Gratz, rose petals, grains of wheat, grain of salt, coins: a wish for happiness, prosperity, prosperity for the new family; mothers then break the dish that contained "Gratz knows." You are returned to the house where the bride will be the wedding banquet Romanian Wedding Traditions Wedding is one of the most interesting family traditions, in all cultures around the world. It supposes different customs for different peoples, which can be of religious, economical, legislative and folklore nature. The Romanian folk rituals are performed in order to bring about happiness, prosperity, social integration and fecundity to the young couple. These rituals vary from region to region, but one of common elements is the popular costumes the bride and the groom have to wear and which are full of symbolism. In Moldavia, for instance, the wedding traditions are in accordance with the common belief that a person who didn't manage to build a home, to raise kids, to dig a proper well and to plant a tree has failed in his life. This explains the beauty of Moldavian houses, the green abundance of vegetation there and the great number of wells found in that area. One of the typically Moldavian traditions still kept nowadays is that of showing respect and thanksgiving to the parents by a bowing gesture. The traditional wedding is rich in adornment and has also strong moral elements. Apart from that, the party is meant to last until daybreak, and it consists of having plenty of delicious food and wine, performing traditional dances and singing songs. Also, as a symbolical gesture, when the party reaches dawn, the bride has to hold a child in her arms, to ensure having a houseful of children. Before passing the threshold of their new home, the two are sprinkled with a grain shower, in that is the symbol of a prosperous life.
  • 59. In Maramures (county in the north of Romania) the wedding has many symbolical values and several stages that are to be followed as such in order to respect the ancient custom. All in all, the ceremony is quite simple. The first step is taken when a person of trust from the groom's family goes to the bride's house to propose to the girl. The positive answer usually comes after having asked for three times, then the proposing person and the girl parents talk about the bride's dowry and decide together the date of the engagement ceremony. The whole walk to the wedding place and the entire ceremony is based on symbolical elements, way of dressing, gestures, a certain order of events that needs to be fully respected. The way of dressing naturally plays an important role for the young couple and their desire to follow the ancient customs. Thus, the bride needs to wear a white shirt and skirt, with a white apron over it, then a sleeveless woolen coat over it, and a red belt at the waist. The groom simply has to wear the traditional "large pants", a white shirt made of hemp, and the same sleeveless coat over them. There is also an emotional part to the whole ceremony, especially during the so-called "forgiving moments", when the bride and the groom have to ask for forgiveness from the part of their parents, for possible mistakes they've made before this special occasion. When the groom comes to the girl's house to pick her up, he is usually accompanied by the godfather, by another man carrying a flag, and some more people. There are certain rituals to be performed during the act of proposal, and one of them is performed by the mother-in-law. She washes the cheeks of the groom and of the bride when the girl comes to her future parents-in-law's house. This is supposed to suggest the fact that the future bride is accepted in her new family. Of course, there are some more post-marriage rituals, implying some specific practices and beliefs. Such is the act performed by the newly-wed woman when she has to chop a piece of wood by just one hit with the help of an axe. This is believed to ensure an easy birth to the young lady. Another such custom would be the action of spinning the wool, so that the young bride would be a hostess of good name and status. These are but a few examples of traditional elements for this sacred ceremonial act. Many are still preserved these days, while others are lost back in history. Romanian Marriage There is an old Romanian proverb that asks the question “What does the Romanian like?” And the answer is “Fresh bread, old wine and a young wife”. Perhaps because life for the Romanian people has been a struggle throughout history, when there is cause for celebration, especially surrounding life’s essential moments like birth and marriage, the Romanians certainly know how to party. A typical Romanian marriage will last all night long, and in the past; the celebration would have lasted for as long as 3 days and nights! Romanians typically marry quite young, often in their early twenties. Romanian girls however, begin preparing for their marriage at a very early age. Some are only six years old when they begin collecting and making accessories for their hope chests. In the mountains of Romania, an annual
  • 60. festival is held on June 29 for the families of young girls to get together and display their daughter’s trousseaus. A Typical Romanian Marriage Most Romanian marriages are held in the Fall because many of the foods served at the wedding feast are harvested at that time and prepared at home. The wine is also aged and plentiful in the Fall. No wedding feast is complete without much wine being consumed by all. It is not permitted to have weddings during the 40 days leading up to Christmas or Easter. Some Romanian Traditions Romanians are primarily Christians and their marriage ceremony is very similar to that of Christian marriages. They do, however, have several unique traditions of their own, such as the ones below: • The groom’s parents must ask the bride’s parents permission for their son to wed their daughter • At dawn, the bride is given a child to hold in her arms in hope that she will have a house full of children. When the bride and groom are about to enter their new home together, they are showered with grain as a sign of prosperity THE ORTΗODOX WEDDING SERVICE IN CYPRUS Most Cypriots are Greek Orthodox, there are a few that are Catholic. The Bride and Groom sometimes arrive at the church together; usually the groom waits outside the church, with the bride's bouquet. In a village they will arrive on foot, but in a town it is likely they will arrive in a car and walk the last few yards. Parents of the bride give the bride away outside the church. Guests wait outside for the couple to arrive. The bride's father often walks his daughter to the church. The bride and groom walk up the aisle together, both sets of parents stand with the couple. The chief bridesmaid is called koumera, the best man, Koumbaros. The koumbaros, traditionally the groom's godfather, is an honored guest who participates in the wedding ceremony. Today, the koumbaros is very often the best man, who assists in the crowning of the couple, and in the circling of the alter three times. Other attendants may read Scripture, hold candles, pack the crowns in a special box after the ceremony. To be sure of a "sweet life", a Greek bride may carry a lump of sugar in her glove on wedding day. Most things happen in threes; this is to symbolize the God, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The Service of Betrothal The priest starts by blessing the rings and the couple. The cause the rings are placed on the right hand is because it is the right hand of God that blesses, and to which Christ ascended. The Ceremony of the Sacrament of Marriage the Priest joins the right hands together of the Bride and Groom, and they stay joined until the end of the ceremony to signify the union of the couple. The Crowning The bride and groom wear headbands called stefana, the Koumbaro or Koumbara also plays a part by interchanging the crowns on the couples heads. These along with the wedding rings, which are worn on the right hand, forth finger and are
  • 61. exchanged three times. In traditional Greek Cypriot weddings wreaths were made with olive tree branches because of the belief that through this wreath God's blessings were transmitted to the couple. The Common Cup They drink from the common cup three times, followed by the reading of the Epistle and the Gospel. The Gospel reading describes the marriage of Cana at Galilee, which was blessed by Christ and where he performed his first miracle. (Converted water into wine.) The Ceremonial Walk The Priest will lead the couple round the table table 3 times on which are placed the Gospel and the Cross. The Koumbaro or Koumbara walks behind the married couple holding the Stefana in place. Often called the dance of Isaiah. The Removal of the Crowns The priest blesses the couple. The priest then removes the crowns and asks God to grant the couple a long, happy life together. He then separates the couples joined hands, reminding them that only God can separate the couple from one another. This concludes the ceremony and the Bride and Groom are officially married. During the service the priest will say "woman shall fear her husband" (but in Greek) the first one, bride or groom to put their foot on top of the others will run the house, that is the theory, the truth might be somewhat different. Some nifty footwork can be witnessed at this moment. The ceremony consists of two parts which are distinct and separate from each other: The service of the Betrothal and the Ceremony of the Sacrament of Marriage. The candles, Lambades each held by the bride and groom during the service, symbolizes the warmth of their faith in Jesus Christ and their true love for each other, which they pledge to uphold forever. When then couple is lining the church the guests are throwing them roses with rise. Romantic Weddings Around the World If you are planning a religious, symbolic or civil destination wedding ceremony in Europe, the Pacific, the Americas or other exotic destination our wedding planners can make arrangements in thousands of locations all over the world. Weddings around the World Premier international destination wedding coordination service plans, organizes and manages bridal ceremonies and wedding receptions in several different romantic locations for weddings abroad and out of the country better then anyone else.
  • 62. Even if you are planning a religious, symbolic or even a civil destination wedding ceremony abroad or out of the country and would like it customized to some certain specifications we can do it in a lot of the most important marriage locations of the world for your wedding. International weddings in Europe, the Americas, Europe, Pacific, Caribbean and other renowned destination wedding locations are planned in order to make the day of your marriage exactly what you dreamed. We plan international weddings with onsite staff so that those who desire to marry in foreign countries will have all the necessary arrangements made for them in a few of the best wedding locations of the world. From luxury Celebrity Weddings abroad to affordable bridal ceremonies in scenic town halls, we work hard to please even difficult couples that marry with us as dozens of letters we receive every year testify. Our goal is to find you a good spot to get married and organize a satisfactory-planned foreign wedding ceremony abroad so that you and your spouse and his family will be completely satisfied. Our number one specialties are European Weddings; especially weddings in Spain, France and Italy, and Europe. Weddings in Eastern Europe A wedding in Eastern Europe is an important celebration amongst friends and family, where ancient marriage traditions are combined with modern customs such as flowers and a white wedding dress for the bride. Traditional music is often part of the festivities, as is dancing and a feast of delicious Eastern European food. Some Eastern European countries, such as Greece and Croatia, incorporate the tradition of the money dance into wedding receptions. Men will pin money to the bride's gown to earn the privilege of a dance with her. Eastern Europe is a region where European culture is blended with influences from neighboring Middle Eastern countries. This results in a fascinating cultural mix which influences all aspects of life, from cuisine to local handcrafts. There is a huge amount of history to be discovered, from the ancient architecture of Cyprus and Poland to the historic ruined cities in Greece and Croatia. The diverse scenery of this part of the world includes some stunning mountain vistas and lovely beaches along the coast. Archipelagos of beautiful romantic islands lie just off the coasts of Croatia and Greece. There are countless picturesque towns and villages to discover, alongside some lively and historic cities. These include Krakow and Warsaw in Poland, medieval Zagreb in Croatia and Athens in Greece, one of the oldest cities in the world. This is a unique and historic part of the world, with an immense amount of scenery to admire. A wedding in Eastern Europe will be special, unusual and romantic, an experience never to forget.
  • 63. Weddings in Crete A wedding in Crete is a big celebration. The bride will arrive at the church accompanied by the groom, family and friends. There will also be musicians playing traditional Cretan instruments such as the lyra and the laouto, reciting poetic mantinades. After the wedding ceremony the festivities begin in earnest with much more Cretan music and celebrations which continue into the early hours! A traditional delicacy offered at Cretan weddings is Baklavas. These are layered and shaped filo pastry, filled with nuts and spices and dipped in light honey syrup. Endless varieties of this sweet make a delicious and unusual accompaniment to your wedding celebrations. Crete is a picturesque island with lovely beaches and a very mild climate which makes swimming in the sea possible from April to November. It is a land with an ancient history, home to the earliest European civilization, the Minoan. Some fascinating sites remain from this period. The most magnificent Minoan site is the palace of Knossos, situated just outside Iraklio, the largest city in Crete. You will also find Roman ruins at Gortys, Venetian forts at Réthimno and Byzantine churches at Krítsa, illustrating the lively past of the island. The mountainous interior of Crete is a very scenic region where many remote villages are nestled. To the southwest of the country tower the stunning White Mountains, with the 18 kilometer long Samarian Gorge just below. You may choose to spend a day trekking along the gorge, admiring the amazing view. A wedding in Crete is the chance to celebrate the most romantic day of your life on a beautiful and historic island - an unforgettable experience. Weddings in Croatia The central figure in Croatian wedding culture is the bride, and weddings include many ancient traditions. The most common of these is the use of rosemary, which symbolizes welcome to your
  • 64. guests. Sprigs of rosemary tied with ribbon will be pinned onto their left hand side, in place of the corsage which is common in the west. Your wedding reception is the chance to really celebrate, with Croatian schnapps traditionally offered to your guests as they arrive. A very popular custom is the "dance with the bride" - the maid of honor will hold a basket, and men will put money into it. They then have the right to dance with the bride - and the more money they give, the longer they can dance. In years gone by, this was a prestigious way of signifying one's wealth and importance. Croatia is a charming country which attracts increasing numbers of visitors every year, drawn by its mild climate and great beaches. The most picturesque coastal town is the fishing port of Rovinj, which has an archipelago of 13 tranquil islands. If you appreciate stunning views and delicious seafood, this is the place to stay. The capital of the country is Zagreb. Much of the medieval city remains here, and there is also a neo-gothic cathedral. Croatia is home to some of Europe's finest Roman ruins, the most impressive of which are in Split where you will find the huge Diocletian Palace. Dubrovnik is completely encircled by intact city walls, which were built between the 13th and 16th centuries. Some say they are the finest in the world, and the views are superb. The old town, Stari Grad, has also recently been restored. Croatia is a wonderful place to get married, a historic country which contains many hidden delights. Weddings in Cyprus Your wedding in Cyprus is sure to be full of romance, home as the island once was to Aphrodite, the goddess of love. A widely-held belief on the island is that if you swim around Aphrodite's rock near Paphos, your love will last forever. Weddings in Cyprus are usually informal, and always attract many well-wishers. You will be garlanded with flowers during the ceremony, and exchange rings. Many hotels are available for your reception, which traditionally starts in the early evening and goes on until late! Your guests will greet you and be presented with a gift upon their arrival. Then everybody will celebrate with Cypriot food, music and dancing.
  • 65. Cyprus is an island which has undergone 9000 years of invasion, and the resultant culture is a fascinating mix of European and Middle Eastern influences. The country enjoys an exceptionally mild climate with many stunning beaches and unspoiled landscapes which are ideal for walking. The city of Famagusta was once the richest in the world. The glory has now faded, but glimpses still remain, especially in the old town which has some elegant churches and is surrounded by a Venetian city wall. Paphos, on the western coast, is a must-see for its incredible 3rd century mosaics, only uncovered in the 1960s. The town also has an ancient ruined fortress. The Troödos mountains in the south are overwhelming in their stature, and are popular for skiing in the winter. Frescoed monasteries dating from the 12th to 15th centuries lie at their feet, alongside some picturesque wine villages. With its sandy beaches on the coast, ancient towns and cities, plus some stunning interior scenery, the island of Cyprus is a truly romantic place to celebrate your wedding. Weddings in Poland Weddings in Poland, a country at the heart of Europe where east and west meet, are an important family celebration. A key tradition at a Polish wedding reception is the presentation of salted bread and a cup of wine by the parents of the bride and groom. As the newly married couple, you will eat the bread and drink the wine. The bread symbolizes the hope of your parents that you will never be in need. The salt represents that life may not always be easy, but that you must learn to cope with troubles that come your way, and the wine is offered in the hope that you will never be thirsty and have a life of happiness with many friends. Poland is a country where historic towns and villages dot a picturesque landscape. The capital, Warsaw, is divided in half by the Vistula river. Mostly postwar in appearance, the city does have some historic sites, which have been restored with meticulous care. Poland's second city, Krakow, is where most of the country's historic sites are concentrated. The royal capital for 500 years, Krakow was virtually untouched by the second world war, and has a fascinating variety of architecture. There are many museums and churches to visit, some dating back as far as the tenth century.
  • 66. Poland's only alpine range is the Tatras, a region which offers numerous opportunities for walks and treks. Many traditional villages are scattered amongst the towering mountains, at the foot of which lie glacial lakes. Another popular region of Poland is the Great Masurian lakes area, ideal for yachting and boating. This part of the country is well suited to being explored on bicycle. However you choose to experience Poland, your wedding here will be a day never to forget. Traditional Bulgarian Wedding Marriage was considered one of the most important changes in the life cycle and therefore the marriage rituals were supposed to last for quite some time - from several days to a year and even more. Many Bulgarian wedding rituals have been almost entirely preserved. Others are now lost. However, in the 21st century, Bulgarians tend to reject marriage in great pomp. Most of the original rituals are still carried out but many young people do not follow the "old-fashioned" customs. Originally, marriage consisted of a series of festivities, containing elements and symbols that were impossible to omit. Not to follow the procedures was inconceivable. The main elements of a marriage can be divided into three cathegories - "engagement", "marriage" and "post-marriage" rituals. I plan to present them to you in three articles. The Visit of the Parents It is important to point out that even though the father was considered as the most important person in the family, the bride's opinion has always been taken into consideration and her wishes were always carried out. A girl who would not accept marriage would never be forced into an arranged one. Sometimes a girl would have some requirements which her future husband had to carry out. Those are often refered to in tales. Sometimes the bride would ask her future husband to bring her some kind of gift in proof of his attachment. Sometimes, young men from the North-West would go far to the South ( and some would even reach Greece ) to buy sheep or other cattle - a journey that could turn out perilous for many especially at the time of the Turkish presence. Until the 1940-ies there existed one exciting ritual that preceded the wedding. It was called "sgleda" and consisted of a prearranged meeting between young people who wanted to get married. Young men would go after young women who, every morning, went to the river to do the washing or to take water. Water was carried in large pots called "mentsi". Those were carried on the shoulders and if a man wanted to give a sign of love to a young woman, he would attempt to drink some of the water she carried back to her house. Then, the young man sent his father to the home of the chosen girl. If the young man was an orphan, he would send his mother or his closest friends but he would never go on his own.
  • 67. They would usually bring "rakia" ( a very strong home-made beverage which is made of plums or grapes and resembles the german "schnapps" and the French "eau-de-vie" ), a small bouquet of "zdravets" ( an evergreen plant with no flowers nor buds, which is considered a symbol of health and prosperity ) as well as some gifts for the girl and her father. The girl's father, considered the master of the house, offered the guests a drink. If he approved the match, he would give his blessing. Then he was supposed to ask his daughter three times if she could accept the marriage. If she confirmed, the family sent small gifts, cookies and wine back to her future groom and his family. Sometimes a girl would propose to a young man by leaving him her kerchief or a flower. She would drop it somewhere near him and would not turn back. If he accepted, he would send his parents to the girl's family. The Engagement The engagement was often held at the girl's house and this on a specially chosen holiday or on a Sunday. Relatives and neighbours were invited and were normally supposed to have a great feast, overeat and drink as much wine as they could... An important moment during this ritual was the agreement on the details of the wedding. This ritual was the equivalent of a legal act. The period between the engagement and the wedding lasted from one day to a year or even more. It depended on the local customs and the income of the families. Some would take their time and save money for the future family or even start building a house! During that period, the girl was allowed to see her future husband but the young man was not to go to the girl's house without prior arrangement. The girl was supposed to stay at home, weave, knit and sew. She had to make the costumes for the marriage, the bedclothes for her first wedding night and everything she might need at home. The Party and the Hen - a Bachelor's Party or a "Farewell Dinner" After the engagement party, people were supposed to have two farewell parties. The first party was thrown at the groom's house ( the bride was not present ) and the second one - at the bride's ( the groom was not present ). Normally, both families would kill a hen in honour of their future family-in-law. In some regions, families would go around the village ( or town ) and would give sweets and food to everyone they saw ( an article on traditional food will be published later ). Those parties have lost their original ritualistic meaning but they are still symbols of the separation of a single person from a group of unmarried men or women. They mark a period of transition and entrance into active life. At the same time, the week prior to the wedding was full of many complicated rituals which are no longer practiced and most are forgotten.
  • 68. The Ritual Bread and the Wedding Three The Bread was made on the Thursday prior to the wedding. It was called "Pita" and was considered a very important part of the preparations. ( Such bread is made on almost every holiday. For every occasion, there exist different types of forms and ornaments. The top of some "pita"s is covered with ornaments representing grapes, animals, people, crusifixes, etc. There are thousands of pattenrs possible but each carry a different significance and has a predefined purpose. ) The Bread was prepared by the oldest woman of the bride's family. She would prepare it while singing ritual songs one after the other. When the dough was ready to bake, she would place a cross on it and would bless the bread. During the last week before the marriage, the tradition required the preparation of the object to be carried in front of the wedding procession - the "wedding tree". This time, somebody close to the groom was in charge of preparing it. Often this was a brother or a cousin. The pole for the so called "tree" was cut off from an orchard tree. The branch had to be chopped off with one swing and the pole had to be about 2 meters long. A hand-woven kerchief and an apple were attached to the pole. An onion was fixed on top of it. This was also decorated with popcorn and bunches of "zdravets" ( the plant I mentioned above ). Ivy was tied with interwoven red and white threads ( this is called "martenitsa" and Bulgarians belive it brings health and happiness, there is a special holiday on the 1st March every year in connection with the "martenitsa" - I envision a special article about it ). The wedding tree is still preserved in some regions. It is carried in front of the wedding procession. Some Bulgarian Roms ( gypsies ) have this same tradition. In some regions we can see a flag ( normally red ) or even both a flag and a wedding tree. Braiding the Bride's Hair & Shaving the Groom Hair braiding was an important part of the pre- marriage ritual. Everything was done by the friends of the bride, who sometimes accomplished entire chef-d'oeuvres. Many jewels were put in the girl's hair and were often quite heavy to wear. Most of the jewels were made from wrought iron and silver. At the same time, the hair of the future groom was shaved which was thought to serve as protection from evil forces. Both these rituals were accompanied with dances and music, supposed to protect the couple. These were the last rituals that preceded the wedding. The Best Man Early on the morning of the wedding day, all the guests, relatives and friends of the groom would gather at his house. Usually, there was a table set with snacks for the guests. The main concern at that moment was the best man.
  • 69. The best man and the maid of honour were ( and still are ) chosen among the married couples of the town or village. They had to be close friends of the young couple. The "taking" of the best man from his own house was very a jovial and noisy procedure, which was accompanied with music and dances. The groom and his friends, headed towards the best man's house, followed by musicians and the crowd of guests. They danced dancing all the way to the best man's house and if there was a carriage, ( as in some wealthy parts of the country ) the whole procession was obliged to run after the vehicle... Even at this time, in some villages we can see a large croud, following some musicians, who, on their turn, run after a carriage, in which there tries to stand upright a very happy ( and most of the time very drunk! ) fellow - the groom. There was another table set at the best man's house for the guests... The groom brought wine and a roasted chicken. From that moment on, the best man's word was said to be "law" - whatever idea he had, everyone had to follow him. The procession headed towards the bride's house, the best man carrying his own wine, the bride's maid waving the bride's veil. If the best man suggested it, this procession could run around the village for as long as it physically could endure it and until they had no more wine... This procession went to church to take candles and a small basket of baked candy. Taking the Bride Before the groom left the house, his friends poured barley over his head and shot with rifles in the air. Then the groom's father stood at the gate and blessed his son and the marriage. The order of the ceremony procession towards the bride's house was the following: • at the head of the procession was the flag-bearer, • then the dancers (young men and women who play "Rachenitsa" - a popular folk dance), • then come the best man and the groom, • then come the musicians, who were supposed to make as much noise as possible. The rest of the guests followed at the end. There was a special messenger who served as a "hostage". He would go first to the bride's house. Usually this was a man with a great sense of humor who told jokes and tried to divert the attention of the bride's parents by trying to buy a rooster from them. This has a particular purpose, however. It was because the bride was hidden somewhere in the house and if her parents' attention was diverted, someone might come and steal her. There was a rooster on every wedding. It was decorated with wreaths of white popcorn and chili peppers. Its wings were tied with red cloth and people usually bargained a long time on its price. The groom's wedding guests were stopped at the front gates. They had to jump and do all sorts of crazy things in order to be allowed to enter the bride's house. Sometimes, if the "hostage" was successful in diverting the parents' attention, he would open the gate or would even steal the bride and take her outside right away! But if we follow the normal procedure, after the procession was allowed to enter, the most honored guests sat down around tables in the yard. The attention shifted to the young couple. The bride was locked in a room somewhere, and only the bride's maid could visit her.
  • 70. Later, after some bargains for admission, the best man and the groom could join them too. The maid's obligation was to "veil" the bride. She veiled the bride three times; two times the bride would reject the veil, on the third time she would agree to keep it. In the meantime all the wedding guests were singing and dancing outside, expecting the groom and the bride. The "hostage" continued to make jokes, play with the rooster and brag about anything. At the same time, the girls were trying to steal the rooster in order to sell it again. The groom and the bride are taken out of the house by the bride's brother (if any) or by the bride's maid. Each held an end of a long hand-woven cloth. At the front door, there was to be another set of protection rituals. The bride threw a dish (a new one and especially brought by the groom) filled with wheat, coins and a raw egg. She threw the dish behind and over her head and she was not allowed to look back at it. It was a good sign if the dish broke into many small pieces. Then the bride had to knock over a copper cauldron with water. People guessed about future crops, by the way the water had spilled. At the front gates, just before the bride and the groom left the house, the mother threw a bucket of water on the road, wishing them a smooth and happy life. The guests threw coins, wheat and candy all over. An essential part of the wedding ceremony were the sad songs that were sung because of the separation of the mother and the daughter or the bride's separation with the girl's life. Singing was very important and that is why the guests sing almost all the time! The songs are full of symbols and are sometimes impossible to translate correctly... An example of some lines of a song is: "A fir tree is being twisted; a lass says good-bye to her kin." Usually in front of the bride's house the groom and the guests dance the "horo". This is a very popular dance, which persist in every celembration. There are different types of "hora" ( the plural ) and one of the best are those arranged by Diko Illiev. The Wedding Procession On the way to the church, the wedding procession was cheerful and noisy. There had to be someone to beat the drum, the guests had to shout and shoot in the air. Occasionally, they would stop on the way to dance and anyone who passed by was invited. The bride was never to look back at her house. It was not a good sign. Another terrible sign was if two brides ( unmarried ) met on the street. It was believed that they would steal each other's happiness, that is husbend... Even today there are occasions when a wedding ( in Bulgaria, the word "wedding" - or "svatba" is often used as a collective noun as in English "the police" or "the blind" etc. When used in this way, it would mean the whole procession AND at the same time every single man or woman who walk along with the bride and groom. Here I use it contrary to the English rule... ;-) )wander and sneak around the neighborhood in order to avoid facing another marriage procession. The Marriage Ceremony
  • 71. The marriage ceremony in church is a very important part of the wedding even though it had nothing to do with the folk rituals! They remain from the times of the Tribal Union ( which occupied the territory of future Bulgaria ) when the population had multiple religions and obeyed the rules of polytheism! Marriage in a Christian Orthodox church ( this is the official religion in Bulgaria ) is very different from the one in a Catholic or a Protestant church. If you would like some details or if you have questions on this subkects, please do not hesitat to write and I will do some research! Now, very often, the bride and the groom would try to enter the church with their rihgt foot first... But that is more of a superstition. Anyway, many people believe that the bride tends to step with the left one first all the time so the groom actually attempts to carry the bride. Later, after signing of the official documents, instead of kissing the bride, the groom tries to step on one of her legs... Sometimes it is she who succeeds to do it on the first place and then, there is a general applause for that is considered a sign that the bride would wear the pants in the family. THE TRADITIONAL BULGARIAN ORTHODOX MARRIAGE IN THE PAST A traditional Bulgarian marriage involved two "cycles": engagement and marriage proper. The engagement was something of a legal event, it represented a form of bargaining, a deal and fulfilment of the material terms and conditions by the two parties. The wedding itself was an official and public confirmation of the contract. Both rituals were characterized by a good deal of theatricalness, especially the wedding ceremony which was characterized by a mixture of elements of a symbolic, magic, and artistic (dramatic, musical, poetical and choreographic ) nature. Irrespective of their "buy-and-sell" aspect, marriages in the countryside were concluded mainly for love, while in the towns the prevalent principle was the class-related and mercantile one. The engagement was initiated with "reconnaissance" visits to the girl's place. Confidants of the candidate tried to find out what either parents and girl thought. The talks were kept in secret, since their outcome was not always predetermined. The moves of both sides were full of mystery and allegory. The guests would give a sign as to the aim of their visit by sitting next to the fireplace and starting to rake the coals with the iron-tongs. Consent was expressed by the phrase "Let us see", acceptance being at least once delayed. The proposal was declined by saying that the girl was too young to be married. Provided an agreement was reached, the messengers of the suitor presented the family with money and gifts, and the girl's family, in turn, gave dowry in cash or kind - goods, livestock, or real property. With this - according to common law - the marriage contract became effective. The festive engagement ritual was already a public event and was accompanied by feasts, music and frolic joined in by many near and dear. Only under most extreme, scandalous circumstances could an engagement be broken off. The period of time between the engagement and the wedding was short - several weeks, as a rule. Intermarriages of people of different religions were not practised. The "breakthrough" in this respect dates back to as late as the 19th century, when Bulgarian students abroad started marrying women of German, Czech, and other nationalities. All wedding rituals had a specific meaning and were performed by strictly appointed persons, although the personage varied from region to region. Along with the bride and the bridegroom, "central parts" were played by the sponsors, the bridegroom's brother and sisters, etc. The marriage proper would begin with a ceremonial invitation of the guests. The people who performed this task were decorated with towels across their shoulders and carried a wooden vessel of wine (baklitsa) and containers of brandy. In smaller communities practically everybody around was invited. Meanwhile, a ritual baking of the festive bread was underway. The baking was done by young women at both places, all the rites being accompanied by "tradition-blessed" songs. The next point
  • 72. was the making of the wedding banner, again by young girls. The banner was white, red, or white and red, its top being adorned with flowers, a gilded apple and an onion. In most places a wedding tree was also set up and decorated with blossoms, ribbons and gold-foiled fruit. It was carried by every wedding procession and was usually placed in front of the most respected wedding-guests. At the sponsor's place wreaths were made to keep from the evil eye and other troubles. During the church service, they were placed on the heads of the young couple, who did not remove them while following the way home. Before taking the bride out of her father's home, a group of girls, her friends, would unbraid her hair, comb it and plait it again filling the room with resounding ritual wails and songs. On his part, the bridegroom would be ritually shaved by his friends, even if he was still beardless. This ceremony also involved singing songs, the ritual being regarded as the end of single state. The boy's or girl's farewell parties popular in Europe were rare in Bulgaria. The dressing of the bride (naturally with her finest garments) and her trimming with adornments, wreaths and other embellishments was also accompanied by heavy ritual trappings. Finally, there came the veiling (with a thick red cloth showing nothing through) - a symbolic "isolation" of the bride from the outer world, and of the world from her. Since the beginning of the 20th century the red fabric has been replaced by fine manufactured tulle
  • 73. bridal headgear /the Eastern Rhodopes/ bridal headgear /the Eastern Rhodopes/ The wedding-guests on the side of the bridegroom, who came to take the girl, would find the gate closed. In order to get in, the lad's company was supposed to show some kind of skill - to get the bride's banner down from the roof of the house, to wrestle with the brother-in-law, or just pay ransom. The bride was also guarded by her girl friends who would have bolted the door and would not let her out until they were paid ransom. Besides, the bridegroom usually presented his bride elect with shoes, which she wore at her wedding Crying, the bride took leave of her parents bowing to them and kissing their hands, and they kissed her on the face. The music would strike up a song full blast: "Fir tree is winding and bending, Lassie's taking leave of her kin folk..." The girl's relatives would throw over the young couple grains of wheat and millet, walnuts, dried fruit, cheap coins - for fertility and wealth. The same ritual was repeated on going out of the church and during the reception ceremony at the bridegroom's place. The priest would meet the young couple outside the church and would lead them to the lectern (a tall narrow table with an inclined surface). The bridegroom stood on the left, and the bride on the right side of the priest who would bless them with two lit candles and offer up prayers to God to bless their love as husband and wife. The exchange of rings was a pledge and sign of the indissolubility of the union they stepped in. Then the priest would crown the bride and bridegroom, bless them once more and read some passages on marriage from Apostle Paul's writings. In conclusion, the couple would drink from the handed glass of wine (a ritual symbolizing also the Holy Communion) and would go round the lectern making three circles "giving expression to spiritual joy and exultation". On the arrival of the newly-married at the father-in-law's place, they entered the house stepping on a white cloth or some other stuff. The mother-in-law welcomed her daughter-in-law with two loaves of bread under her arms (and often with honey or butter and apples). Inside the house, the young wife bowed to the fire-side and "dropped" in it the bread given by her mother-in-law. The young wife was given to carry a little boy - so that she would give birth to a child, a male one at that. For some time she had to keep silent in the presence of her father-in-law, her husband's brother, the sponsor, etc. In the distant past this "silence" would last for weeks or even months, and the rite's ending, termed pardon, was marked by a feast. To break this silence was considered both sinful and disgraceful. The nuptial bed was made ready by the bridegroom's sisters /zalvi/, who would sit on it until he gave them some money. In many places, during what followed there was eavesdropping behind the door and soothsaying about the child to be born. The wedding drama culminated in the moment of intercourse, after which the floodgates were opened for a frivolously joviality, taking very often an orgiastic form.
  • 74. Defloration had necessarily to happen. If the young husband failed to do it, it was believed that some witchery had been done against him. In such case defloration was performed by some experienced old woman. The newly-married husband was to proclaim the success of the act by a gunshot which raised the pitch of frolic fever even higher. The nuptial gown was displayed to the wedding party, every one of them leaving on it some money for the bride, while her parents were given a decorated ram or billy-goat. The attending guests were treated to sweetened, mulled brandy. The bride's relations made sham attacks on the bridegroom (as a form of "revenge" for the lost virginity). If the girl turned out to be "dishonoured", the guests would leave immediately. One of them, however, would get onto the roof of the house and proclaim to all people, cattle and nature around that there was big trouble in this house. Sometimes, the girl was sent back to her parents, and but rarely was there public stigmatization. All this was done in the belief that she had brought misfortune not only to the two families, but also to the whole village. Wedding festivities, which included much feasting, dancing, singing and wasted gunpowder, lasted for at least three days winding up with the unveiling of the bride and her going to the fountain to fetch water. ABDUCTION Stealing a girl with the purpose of marriage against her will was considered a grave crime in local customary law. It was punished with confiscation of the property of the would-be bridegroom and his accessories. Moreover, the stealing could lead to a bloody retribution on the part of the girl's relatives, even if she had not been dishonoured. Indeed, abduction was a common practice, but only by mutual agreement between the two lovers. In such cases the lad gathered a few friends on horseback. They would "steal" the girl either in broad daylight, when she was in the fields, or at night from her father's house. During the wedding ritual, the bride had to confirm to the priest or the local chiefs at the place they had fled to that everything was done in pre-arrangement. "Stealing" was practised when the parents were opposed to the marriage. In such cases the wedding ceremony lacked veneer, relations between the two families that had become kin in this manner were smoothed in a relatively short time. Abductions were also arranged with the purpose of saving too much outlay needed for the usual wedding ritual. In the 19th century almost half of the marriages in the neighbourhood of the town of Kyustendil, Western Bulgaria, were done after this pattern. * * * Nowadays, the rituals from the past have been transformed under foreign influence and as a result of the general process of modernization. Nevertheless, in some weddings the young couples, demonstrating artistism and loyalty to tradition, thoroughly replicate the popular custom. Such was the case of a wedding ritual that took place in Momchilovtzi, Smolyan region, in 2008 These two young poeple, both university students, chose to marry according to the folk tradition. Weddings in Hungary
  • 75. Weddings in Hungary are recognized as significant celebration amongst friends and family. The diverse landscapes, awe-inspiring mountains, wonderful wines and luxury of Western Europe have made this place an ideal wedding destination. Weddings in Hungary are generally accomplished with ancient marriage traditions wonderfully blended with modern customs. The Weddings in Hungary reflect the multicultural nature of this region. You can have a brief idea of the customs related to Weddings in Hungary and you can incorporate them into your own wedding also. The ceremony starts with arrival of the couple in a horse-drawn carriage. They then exchange handkerchiefs and moneybags as a sign of trust. There is also a ritual of money dance in which the bride places her shoes in the mid of the floor and those you would like to dance with her put their money in the shoes. The wedding feast is also a significant part of the wedding celebration in Hungary. Before you plan a grand feast for your wedding, the wedding venue should be chosen. Budapest, the capital of Hungary has many spectacular beaches and a beach wedding is an interesting idea. The beaches like Palatinus Beach, Csillaghegy Swimming Pool and Beach, Paskál Beach and Római Beach are ideal venues for beach wedding. You will get all facilities here to arrange a wonderful wedding. The marriage agencies of Hungary will help in all way. The International Baptist Church and Kaposvar International Church are the two major churches of the country where weddings can be arranged in true Christians' spirit. For arranging a grand feast you can opt for the community center, which can be decorated, according to your wish and you can order food from any good restaurant or avail of catering services. If you intend to make your wedding an extravagant affair then the banquet halls of the luxurious hotels are better choice. The Excelsior group of Hotels, InterContinental group of hotels, Mandarin group of hotels and Holiday Inn group hotels are the major hotel groups of Hungary that offer wonderful wedding services to the guests. The special honeymoon packages of the hotel will definitely make your wedding celebration unforgettable.
  • 76. Weddings in Czech Republic Weddings in Czech Republic offer an exclusive experience to the couples. Situated in Central Europe the Czech Republic is a suitable location to witness the most special event in your life and commence a new journey of your life your partner. Weddings in Czech Republic provide multifarious options and services to make the ceremony an affair to remember. Couples can tie the nuptial knot in the midst of Bohemian forests, the majestic Jeseniky Mountains or the Krkonoše Mountains and make it an unforgettable moment of their life. Wedding venues in this region also include castles such as Kost Csatle, Zbiroh Castle, Cesky Krumlov, and Konopište Castle. Both civil and Protestant ceremonial rites are performed in most of theses castles. Few of the packages available in the castle weddings consist of horse-drawn carriages, a multi-tiered wedding cake, photographers and videographers, and accompaniment of music. Accommodations and transportation facilities in vintage cars for the couples and their guests are also arranged. The couples can also opt for spa massages and other beauty treatments. Czech Republic Weddings in the churches include special packages featuring legal documentation, time management for the final day, transportation facilities, wedding coordination, live music, floral bouquet for the bride, witnesses, wedding cake, photography and a lavish dinner. Apart from these bottles of wine or champagne are provided in the civil ceremony packages. Romantic Weddings in Czech Republic can be held in the Old Town Hall or the New Town Hall which reflect the rich heritage and culture of the land. Many luxury hotels and resorts offer wedding packages to the couples from across the globe. The essential necessities required in the Weddings in Czech Republic include a legal passport with a validity of ten years, birth certificate, Certificate of Celibacy, Decree Absolute, and Divorce Certificate and Death certificate of the Spouse, if any. Couples are recommended to keep the original copies and the photocopies of all such documents. However, it is needed that the couples must undergo an official translation of all such documents. For the overseas couples, the Czech law calls for the presence of an interpreter. German Wedding Traditions German Wedding Traditions are true reflection of their customs that have inherited from centuries. The German Wedding Traditions are so popular among people of different counters that many
  • 77. people come to Germany to get married. Germans value their native rituals. There are many Germans living abroad who wish to marry in accordance with their customs and traditions. German Wedding Traditions are of diversified types. Generally the wedding traditions in Germany vary from one region to the other. May is the favorite month of marriage in German. There are many people, especially the younger generations who prefer a fusion of both the traditional and the contemporary customs. Generally the father of the bride has to bear all the expenses of the wedding. It is an old custom that are still practiced in many families. But today in many families the cost is shared by both the families. During the engagement both the bride and the groom wear ring on the left hand. But after the wedding the ring is worn of the right hand. The rings are made of gold and has no diamonds studded on it. The bride should not wear the wedding dress before the wedding day. It is inauspicious to see the bride in her wedding dress before the ceremony. The bride generally wears white. Often the bride can wears a flowery headband. The groom wears a black suit. The smoking jacket can also be a better alternative. After all the preparations are done the bride and the groom proceeds towards the church. But before the church -wedding, the bride and groom go to the Registry Office to get married. A witness for the bride and also for the groom generally accompanies them. After all the legal proceedings is completed the bride and the groom enters the church. Sometimes the bride carries salt and bread while the groom carries grain. Salt symbolizes good harvests and grain wealth. Generally before the wedding all the possessions of the bride are transferred to the groom’s home After the wedding the first dance is performed by the newly wed. It is known as waltz. After that bride dances with the father of the groom while the groom dances with the mother of the bride. Russian Wedding Traditions Russian wedding traditions are many and are celebrated very pompously and religiously. What is noteworthy about every wedding in Russia is that civil weddings are given much more preference to official weddings. This is why even if a couple ties a knot in a church they have to separately organize a civil wedding ceremony. This reflects the social consciousness of the Russian people. Following is a detailed description of the Russian Wedding Traditions. Russian weddings mainly last for two days and is celebrated lavishly. Though the Russian civil ceremony is a small process yet it is carried out with much fun and enjoyment and is more of a festival. The whole process of wedding involves singing, dancing, feasting and drinking. This explains the fun-loving nature of the Russians.
  • 78. Unlike other wedding ceremonies in the world, Russian wedding ceremonies are attended by close friends and family members. During this ceremony the Russians follow certain customs and traditions. These are: • A relative or a close friend makes a wedding toast in honor of the newlyweds. • Again it is mandatory in a Russian wedding to offer the bride and the groom bread and salt. This is mainly done to ensure the newly-weds have a good health and a flourishing married life. • The bride and the groom must reach the wedding chapel together to exchange the marriage vows. Then they are supposed to stand on a special carpet all through the marriage ceremony. There is more to add to this. Whoever reaches the carpet first is regarded as the guardian of the family. • Again towards the end of the reception the guests throw the champagne glasses on the floor. It is a common Russian belief that if the glasses break into pieces after hitting then the ground then this is sure to bring the couples good luck. Russian weddings are also popular for the exclusive dining that they have. Here the guests are treated with delicious Russian dishes. They can also enjoy romantic Russian music and can dance to its tunes.