Schaffer 1 UbD Unit by Autumn SchafferTitle of Unit Elements of a Story Grade Kindergarten LevelSubject/Topi Reading Time 3 weeks c Area Frame Key Words reading, story Designed elements, beginning by Autumn Schaffer middle end, main idea School Griffin Spalding Co School Anne Street Elementary District SchoolsBrief Summary of Unit In this introductory unit to the story elements of literature, the students will learn toidentify the characters, setting, problem, and resolution. The students will be able to recognizethese elements in stories that are read aloud to them. They will also learn to recognize anddevelop these elements in their own stories. The students will learn to identify the beginning,middle, and end of a story by giving a short statement as to what is occurring during eachsection. As performance tasks within this unit, the students will have to watch stories via vodcastsand determine the main story elements within them. They will also create their own stories bydeveloping all of the story elements along with a plot with a clear beginning, middle, and end.Unit Design Status*Completed template pages- Stages 1, 2, 3*Completed blue print for each performance task*Completed rubrics*Directions to students and teachers*Materials and resources listed*Suggested accommodations*Suggested extensions Stage 1 – Identify Desired ResultsContent Standards:Georgia Performance Standards: Reading Comprehension ELAKR6: The student gainsmeaning from orally presented text. The student will:a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational textsand materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.
Schaffer 2b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end, setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words. UnderstandingsStudents will understand that:Understanding 1: Events occurring in the beginning, middle, and end of a story are usuallyinterrelated and the outcomes of each event determine what will happen next in the story.(Explanation- Students will be asked to explain the parts of a story as well as describe howthey build from one another.)Understanding 2: Pictures and illustrations in storybooks provide insight about what isoccurring, as well as what will occur, within the plot of the story. (Interpretation- Studentsare asked to interpret, make judgments and predict what the story will be about based upon theillustrations within the story.)Understanding 3: A character’s decisions and actions within a story are based upon his/herunique characteristics and perception of the story’s events. (Perception- Characters havedifferent perspectives of the events occurring within the story and students should be aware ofthem. The students should also understand how to use their own perspective to makejudgments about the events and characters in the story.)Understanding 4: Characters in a story are not completely “good” or “bad.” They simplyview the events of the story in another way than what is being expressed to the reader. Thereader can gain insight into the character’s motives by considering the events of the storythrough the eyes of that specific character. (Empathy- Students imagine that they are anothercharacter in the story in order to understand that character’s personal motives and feelingsabout the events in the story.)Understanding 5: Authors use the characters’ decisions and actions about problems withinthe story to teach a moral to the readers. The reader should question how the moral can beapplied into their specific life. (Self Knowledge- Realizing how morals apply to one’s ownlife.)Understanding 6: The events of the story lead up to the end, which may or may not be easilypredicted based upon what has happened in the story or what the reader may expect to happen.The reader can only apply what seems logical in order to predict the ending of the story.(Application- Students apply their knowledge of how stories lead to an ending to provide analternative ending to the story).
Schaffer 3Related Misconceptions:*Sometimes there are several problems within a story and not all of these problems areresolved by the story’s ending.*The illustrations within a story do not always explicitly detail what will happen within theplot of the story.*Stories are usually told through one character’s perspective. The perspectives of the othercharacters are not always obvious.*The person who is telling the story is always the “good guy.” There is also a “bad guy” in thestory. The point of the story is for the “good guy” to succeed despite the “bad guy’s” attemptsto stop him/her.*The moral of a story is not explicit. It can be interpreted and applied differently by thereaders.*Stories do not always end the way that one would expect them to. Essential QuestionsOverarching Questions: Topical Questions:EQ 1: What is a story? EQ 5: What if the story was told from(Explanation- Students describe what makes another perspective? (ie- What if the story,up a story as well as provides examples.) The Three Little Pigs, was told from the wolf’s perspective?)EQ 2: Why do we read stories? Empathy- Students have to consider the(Explanation- Students express why they, and other characters in a story to decide uponother people, read stories as well as determine their point of view of certain events.)the purpose of the story.) EQ 6: What is a different way this story mayEQ 3: Why do authors/illustrators include end?pictures in their books? (Application- Students have to create a new(Interpretation- Students evaluate, judge, and ending to the story based upon their existingdraw conclusions about how pictures are understanding of how stories are formed.)related to the story plot.) EQ 7: What was the author (of any of theEQ 4: How can you tell what will happen in a stories in the unit) trying to make us see?story? (Interpretation- Students try to make(Perspective- Students have to analyze the meaning of the plot of the story so they canevents in the story to propose and predict what understand why the author wrote it and whatwill happen in the story.) they are supposed to take away from the story.)
Schaffer 4 EQ 8: How do I feel about the moral of the story (of one of the specific books)? (Self-Knowledge- Students are to reflect on the moral of the story and decide how it addresses their personal life.) Knowledge and SkillsKnowledge SkillsStudents will know: Students will be able to:. Knowledge 1: Key terms- characters, setting, Skill 1: Use their listening skills to listen toproblem, resolution, plot and then engage in class discussions of age- appropriate stories.Knowledge 2: Most story plots contain at leastone major problem and end with some type of Skill 2: Make predictions about a story’sresolution. plot by reading and observing the title and illustrations in the book.Knowledge 3: Characters in a story interactwith one another to cause and resolve Skill 3: Name the characters, setting,problems. problems, and resolution of specific age- appropriate stories.Knowledge 4: Stories are made up of eventsthat occur in the beginning, middle, and end of Skill 4: Describe and retell the beginning,the story’s plot. middle, and end of specific age-appropriate stories.Knowledge 5: Pictures used in storybooks areused to enhance the story’s plot. Skill 5: Determine the moral of common fairytales.Knowledge 6: Many stories are based uponmorals that are not explicitly stated but the Skill 6: Provide a logical, alterative endingreader can remember and apply to their to an age-appropriate story.personal life. Stage 2 - Evidence Performance Task(s)
Schaffer 5I. Performance Task 1: Writing a “B.M.E.” Story (Facet- Application)Goal: Your goal is to create your own “B.M.E.” story with a clear beginning, middle, and end.Role: You are a new writer for a famous book company.Audience: The audience is other students ranging in the grades from pre-k to second gradewho may want to read or buy your story from the store.Situation: You have been asked to write a story titled, “The Best Day Ever.” This story musthave a clear beginning, middle, and end. It may also have a moral at the end.Product Performance and Purpose: You need to create this story by using a graphic organizerfirst. After you have determined the characters, setting, and problem in the story, then you willneed to develop the story plot. Use the graphic organizer to develop the beginning, middle,and end of the story. You will then design the book by writing the words and drawingillustrations on a blank booklet.Standards and Criteria for Success: Your story needs to include:- A title, “The Best Day Ever.”- At least two characters.- A setting.- At least one problem.- A clear beginning, middle, and end.- Illustrations that allow the reader to predict what will happen in the story.Standard demonstrated within this Performance Task:ELAKR6: The students:c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words.II. Performance Task 2: Story from a Different Point of View (Facet-Perspective/ Empathy)Goal: Your goal is to analyze the story of the Three Little Pigs and then imagine how the storymay be different if told from the wolf’s perspective. You are then to re-write the story basedupon how the events would occur if the story was told by the wolf.Role: You are a member of a committee designing new perspectives from older stories. Yourcommittee works to re-create favorite fairytale stories from the perspective of anothercharacter.
Schaffer 6Audience: The audience is a group of students, in the grades kindergarten to second grade,who have already heard the original story but would like to hear it from another perspective.Situation: You have been asked to re-read the Three Little Pigs. As you read it make sure tofocus on how the events and situations involve the wolf. After finishing, you are to use agraphic organizer to re-write the story from the perspective of the wolf.Product Performance and Purpose: You need to use a graphic organizer to design and thenwrite the Three Little Pigs from the perceptive of the wolf. You will need to use the samebasic events of the story but analyze how they would have occurred through the eyes of thewolf. Create a booklet with words and illustrations titled “The Three Little Pigs: From theWolf’s Eyes.”Standards and Criteria for Success: Your revised story needs to include:-The main character of the original story (the 3 pigs and the wolf)-The main events of the original story (the three houses falling down)-A different story plot told from the eyes of the wolf.-A different ending that correlates to the new plot.-Illustrations that help the reader predict what the events may be about.Standard demonstrated within this Performance Task:ELAKR6: The students: c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words. Performance Task(s) Rubric(s)
Schaffer 7I. Teacher Rubric for Performance Task 1: Writing a “B.M.E.” Story
Schaffer 8 Beginner Intermediate Successful Mastery Total (1 pts.) (2 pts.) (3 pts.) (4 pts.) Pts.Characters □ The student □ The student □ The student □ The student has an has a practical has an has a fluent appropriate understanding efficient understanding understanding of what a understanding of what a of what a “character” is of what a “character” is “character” is, and is able to “character” is and is able to but is unable develop flat, and is able to develop to develop one-sided, develop characters one of their non- characters that interact own. expressive that interact with each characters. with one other as well No characters another. as engage in are present One or two the plot, within the characters are Two or more problem, and student’s present, but characters are resolution of composed they are one- present and the problem. story. dimensional, interact with flat, or non- each other Two are more expressive or through characters are responsive. dialogue. A present in the problem is story. They also present interact with among or one another, between the as well as in characters. the setting, to cause/solve problems and develop a resolution. Setting □ The student □ The student □ The student □ The student has an has a practical has an has a fluent appropriate understanding effective understanding understanding of what a understanding of what a of what a “setting” is of what a “setting” is “setting” is, and is able to “setting” is and is able to but is unable provide a hint and is able to provide, to develop of a setting provide, through one of their within the through illustrations own. beginning, illustrations and words, middle, or and words, the location No setting of end of the the location or and time of the story story. time of the the story. (place or story. time) is The story’s The story’s provided setting is only The story’s illustrations
Schaffer 9 Other Evidence (e.g. tests, quizzes, work samples, observations)*Dictated Observation/ Journal: Students will individually be assessed on their ability to“picture read” or predict what will occur in a story based solely upon the illustrations. Theteacher or parapro will have each student look at a book, page by page, and predict what isoccurring on the page. The student will then predict, verbally, what will happen next on thepage. When the student reaches the middle of the book, the students will then make ajudgment based upon how they think the story will end. The student will draw a picture andwrite a few words, with the aid of the instructor, to translate their prediction of how the storywill end.Facet- Interpretation/PerspectiveStandard demonstrated within this assessment:ELAKR6: The students:b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.*Work Sample- Graphic Organizer Book Analysis: After listening to a read-aloud bookstudents will then complete a graphic organizer based upon the story elements of the book.The student will have to describe and draw the characters in the story, the setting of the story,the problem(s) in the story, as well as the resolution in the story.Facet-Explanation/ApplicationStandard demonstrated within this Performance Task:ELAKR6: The students:a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational textsand materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.*Journaling: Self-Regulation and Reflection in Understanding Morals: Students will keepa journal of their ideas about the morals of each story that is read aloud. The teacher willscaffold this activity for the students. The students will be expected to draw and write a fewwords about the moral, or what should be taken away from each story. The students will alsoexplain how they came to that moral and how it could affect them in their real life. Thestudents will answer the following questions:1. What do I think is the moral of this story?2. What about the story (character’s actions, problems) made me come to this conclusion?3. How does this moral apply to my real life? What is a situation when I could use this moral?Facet- Self-Knowledge, Interpretation, PerspectiveStandard demonstrated within this Performance Task:ELAKR6: The students:h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words.*Role-Play/Drama of Little Red Riding Hood: In small groups students will role-playdifferent roles of the characters in the Little Red Riding Hood story. After the play, which willbe child-friendly and easy-to read, has been completed, the students will use their journals to
Schaffer 10record their feelings about that character and why they feel the character made the decisionsthat he/she made. Then, the students would role-play the same story again, but each studentwill be a different character. The students will then journal their feelings that they felt as thatcharacter as well as what they felt was that character’s motives.Facet- EmpathyStandard demonstrated within this Performance Task:ELAKR6: The students:a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational textsand materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text. Student Self-Assessment and Reflection*Self assessment of the students’ “B.E.M.” story (see student rubric above)(Facet-Self Knowledge, Perspective) Students will self-assess their own story using a child-friendly rubric. This rubric will beclosely based upon what the teacher uses to assess the story; this rubric is aligned with thestandards and the understandings of the unit. The teacher and parapro will then have adiscussion with each student as both parties share their rubric and why they completed it theway that he/she did. This will be the time that specific feedback will be given about theassignment.*Self assessment of the students’ “Story from a Different Point of View” story (seestudent rubric above)(Facet-Self Knowledge, Perspective) Students will self-assess their own story using a child-friendly rubric. This rubric will beclosely based upon what the teacher uses to assess the story; this rubric is aligned with thestandards and the understandings of the unit. The teacher and parapro will then have adiscussion with each student as both parties share their rubric and why they completed it theway that he/she did. This will be the time that specific feedback will be given about theassignment.*Self assessment of Journaling: Self Regulation in Understanding Morals (as viewed in“Other Evidence”)(Facet- Self-Knowledge, Interpretation, Perspective) As a part of this designed assessment, the students will self-assess their ability todetermine, interpret, and use morals of specific stories. Through journaling, students will haveto answer several questions that will prompt their self-assessment of the story and its morals.*Self assessment of Role Play/Drama of Little Red Riding Hood (as viewed in “OtherEvidence”)(Facet- Empathy) As a part of this designed assessment, the student will self-assess the characters in the
Schaffer 11story via journal entries. The students will describe the characters’ emotions and motives asthey role play them. Stage 3: Plan Learning ExperiencesWeek 1Before Beginning Unit Pretest:1. The Three Little Pigs by Golden Books Pre-Test: Students are given a pre-assessment todetermine their existing knowledge of the goals and standards of the unit. This pre-assessmentcontains and is administered in two parts.Part 1: Students complete a “prediction story” as they “picture-read” the book Three Little Pigsby Golden Books. On an individual basis with either the teacher, parapro, or graduate student, thekindergarten student will use the images in the book to describe what they feel the book will beabout.Part 2: Students will be asked questions by the teacher, parapro, or graduate student about theelements of the story, which include the characters, setting, problem, and resolution. The studentwill also be asked to write/draw an alterative ending to the story.*This pre-assessment is located at the end of this unit guide. It is labeled “Appendix A”.(All standards, goals, knowledge, skills, and understandings are assessed within this pre-test.)Monday:2. Draw the Next Scene:Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.*Understanding 2- Interpretation, Understanding 6- Application*EQ 3-Intepretation, EQ 4- Perspective*Knowledge 5*Skill 1, Skill 2Entry Point: Foundation Entry Point: The teacher tells the students that they will be making
Schaffer 12“smart guesses” today. The “smart guesses” are called “predictions.” Sometimes predictions areeasy to make and sometimes they are not so easy. Also, sometimes, your prediction is correct andwhat you think will happen actually does happen. Sometimes that is not true. Ask the students toclose their eyes and think of a time when they thought something would happened a certain way,but then it actually turned out differently. The teacher should provide several examples similar to:-“I thought my favorite football team would win the game because they were winning at halftime,but they actually didn’t because the other team started working very hard after the halftimeshow.”-“I thought my brownies would be delicious because I followed the recipe just right. They didn’tturn out how I predicted, however, because I left them in the oven too long and they burnt.The teacher should allow the students to share their “prediction incident” with a classmateneighbor.W: Where & Why: The teacher tells the students that they will listen to a story. She will read italoud to them and they will get to look at the pictures and ask questions. She should also tell themthat she will be asking questions about the story as she reads it to make sure that they werelistening. As she reads the story, the teacher should tell the students to ask themselves after eachpage, “What will happen next?” Then, the student should check their thoughts with what reallyhappened and then ask themselves again, “Did what actually happened make sense? What led upto that? Could I have guessed that would have happened?” Finally, the teacher should tell thestudents that they will use their journal every time she says “scene” to draw what they feel willhappen next in the story. Then they will check their drawing with what actually happened in thestory.H: Hook & Hold: The teacher should complete the following think aloud activity. The teachershould have the students close their eyes and imagine what she is saying to them. The teachershould tell the students, “Close your eyes and imagine your best friend. What does he/she looklike? Then ask the students to imagine themselves standing beside their best friend. Do you look alot alike? How would you feel if your friends only wanted to be around people that looked likethem, and you didn’t? What if you didn’t have any friends because you didn’t look like anyoneelse? Would you feel sad or lonely? This story is about a little duck who feels that way.”E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should read aloud the story The Ugly Duckling byHans Christian Anderson. The students should have their prediction journals open and ready.After every page or so the teacher should say, “Stop! Draw!” and give the students a few minutesto draw what they predict will be the next scene in the story.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: After the students complete the drawing, the teacher then continueswith the story. After the next scene unfolds, the teacher should stop and ask the students if theirdrawn prediction matches what actually happened in the story. This is the time that the studentsare asked to rethink what lead up to the event and if they could have predicted in another way.They are asked to think about the clues that hinted at what would happen next in the story. Thestudents are also reminded that sometimes there are not any clues about what will happen in thestory. Finally, the students are given the option to revise their drawings on a new page of thejournal and actually draw what did happen.
Schaffer 13E: Evaluate Work & Progress: After the teacher is finished reading the book aloud and thestudents have finished drawing and revising selected scenes from the story, the teacher will giveeach student the option of sharing one of their predictions. They will be asked to describe whatwas going on before the scene, what they predicted would happen (by also showing the image),and then showing their revised image based upon what actually did happened within the story.The class will then be allowed to ask questions and comment on the student’s work.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: Depending on the ability of the students,some students will be asked to write a few sentences or words describing the scene that they drewin their journals. Some students will be able to write sentences, some may only be able to writewords. Some students, however, will not be able to write words and will simply be allowed todraw their thoughts about the scene and explain their predictions verbally. The paraprofessionaland teacher will work together to record what they student verbally describes on their journalpaper. This will help in informal assessment as the teacher reviews the journals at a later date.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity is arranged in a whole-to-part-to wholesequence. The teacher brings the students’ attention to the overall theme of the story during thethink-aloud hook. The students then analyze specific parts of the story during the prediction-basedreading activity. The theme of the overall story is then resumed at the end of the activity as thestudents discuss how the parts of the story combined to form the overall plot of the story.Tuesday:3. Felt board Creation Center Activity: (See Appendix B for Materials)Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.*Understanding 2- Interpretation, Understanding 6- Application*EQ 3-Intepretation, EQ 4- Perspective*Knowledge 5*Skill 1, Skill 2Entry Point: Experiential Entry Point: The teacher should tell the students that she is going to tellthem a story by using a book and something else. She should show the students the felt board andlet them touch it. She should ask them what it is and what they think she will use it for. Sheshould tell the students that this will be like the stage for some of the characters or people in thestory. The teacher should then show the class some of the felt characters she will be using, likethe gingerbread man, the old man, the fox, etc. She should tell them that these will be thecharacters in the story because they will be the ones using the felt board, or stage. She should thenlet the students touch and practice putting the felt board characters on and off of the felt board.W: Where & Why: The teacher should explain that this activity will be used in the “dramaticplay” center for the rest of the week and that everyone will get a chance to use it. She should alsosay that it is best to work with a partner; so that one can tell the story and another can guess what
Schaffer 14will come next. She should tell them that she is going to show them how they should do theactivity when it is center time. She should tell them that she is going to tell the story with herbook and the felt board as the students listen and participate.H: Hook & Hold: The teacher should ask the students if they have ever eaten gingerbread. Letthem describe how it tasted, smelled, or when/where they tasted it. Also, ask the students havethey ever made a gingerbread man. Ask them, “Well, when you made it, did it jump up from yourplate and run away from you? What do you think would happen if it did that?” Then tell thestudents that the gingerbread man in this story does just that!E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should begin reading The Gingerbread Man byCatherine McCafferty and making the scenes on the felt board using the felt characters. Sheshould explain what is going on in her scene and ask the students if that is what is happening inthe story. Then, the teacher should ask the students, “What do you think will happen next in thestory?” Based on their responses, she should build the predicted scene with the felt characters. Asshe reads to the next scene, the students should check to see if that is what actually occurred in theplot of the book.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: If the scene that the students predicted is not correct, the studentsshould then be asked how their predicted felt board scene was different than what actuallyhappened in the story. They should be asked, “What made you think that would happen in thestory?” as well as “Did what really happen in the story be something that you could have actuallypredicted?” The students will then be given the opportunity to revise their scenes and make a feltboard scene that matches with what actually happened in the story.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: As the students make the scenes using the felt board, theyshould also be instructed to draw the predicted scenes in their prediction journal. Below theirpredicted drawing, they should draw what actually happened in the book. They should alsoattempt to write a few words or sentences to describe what is happening in each scene and howthe predicted scene and what actually happened in the story are different.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: Since some students express difficultyreading, various levels of books will be available in the center. All of these texts will be age-appropriate for a kindergartener to read on their own, however. Also, the students have beengrouped by their center rotation so that higher functioning kids are in the centers with lowerfunctioning kids. This allows for some peer tutoring and modeling. For example, the higher levelfunctioning student may read the story as the lower functioning student makes the felt scenes.Also, the higher functioning student should be able to help the lower functioning student writesentences or words about what is going on in their prediction journals.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity is actually a center activity that will occuras the teacher and parapro are individually assessing the students ability to predict what comesnext in a story on an individual basis. (This Dictated Observation Journal is described withinthe Stage 2 assessment section of the unit plan). Students will be called individually as theothers work within their centers, one of which includes the felt board activity. Students are given15 minutes at each center and they rotate twice a day. By the end of the week, all students should
Schaffer 15have had the opportunity to participate in the felt board activity center.Wednesday:4. Movie Stop and Go:Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational texts andmaterials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.*Understanding 1- Explanation, Understanding 2- Interpretation, Understanding 6-Application*EQ 3-Intepretation, EQ 4- Perspective*Knowledge 5*Skill 1, Skill 2Entry Point: Aesthetic Entry Point: The teacher should show pictures (via PowerPoint orActivboard or just print photos) of images from the book Cinderella (any of the versions by anyauthor is acceptable). They should also incorporate images from Disney’s movie Cinderella. Theyteacher should then aid the students in sorting which images come from the movie and whichcome from the actual book. The students may also pair the images of the book and movie scenesthat look alike, with the same action occurring. Finally, the teacher should tell the students thatinstead of reading a book about Cinderella they are going to watch a movie! (The teacher can alsochoose to use the vodcasts of “The Best Day Ever” or “The Princess’ Friend” for this activitiy)W: Where & Why: The teacher should tell the students that she is going to show a movie aboutCinderella. At points in the movie she is going to stop it and let the student predict, using theirpredication journals, what they think will happen next in the story. They will then get to watch themovie some more and see if what they predicted actually happens in the story. The teacher shouldalso make a note of specifically stating that while this is a movie, it is very similar to the bookbecause it still has scenes and characters, or people in it.H: Hook & Hold: The teacher should ask the students if they have ever saw a pumpkin turn intoa carriage, or a ragged dress magically turn into a beautiful gown. Ask the students if they haveever saw a mouse turn into a horse. Then, ask if they think that could ever really happen. Theteacher should tell them that things like that do happen in this movie, so that means this movieisn’t really based on real things that happen. Instead, tell them that this movie is called a fairytale,which means it is told just for fun.E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should begin the movie and stop it at significantpoints in the film where students would be able to make a prediction, such as when Cinderella istold that she cannot go to the ball. Some students may predict that she gets angry; some maypredict that she cries, some may even predict that she goes anyway. As the movie is paused, letthe students draw the next scene. Then, resume the movie and stop it when the real event actually
Schaffer 16unfolds. Ask the students if that is what they predicted would happen. Below their prediction intheir prediction journal, have the students draw and write what really happened.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: Before resuming the movie, have the students discuss whether ornot their prediction was correct. Knowing what actually happened now, could they have actuallypredicted that? Did anything happen that you never would have guessed? (Particularly in this filmcertain things occur that seem so outlandish that a child who has never read or watched the moviemight not have ever guessed what would happen.) Also ask the students if what they drew as theirprediction was logical, meaning that it could have happened in real life. Then ask them if whatactually happened could have happened in real life. Then restate the purpose of a fairytale.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: As the students draw their predictions during the activity, theteacher and paraprofessional should monitor and ask the students to describe what they aredrawing. They should also ask questions like, “What made you think that?” or “How did you getthe idea that this would be the next scene?” If the prediction is illogical with what is happening inthe plot, then the teacher may choose to summarize what happened again to help the student makea better prediction.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: Some students may need more promptingwhen deciding what will come next in the story. As the teacher’s monitor the activity, they willneed to be especially aware of these students to make sure they that have not gotten lost withinthe details of the movie and are actually following the plot of the story. The teacher orparaprofessional may choose to give the students options of what they think will happen next. Forexample, the teacher may give the student three scenarios of what might happen based on the plotof the story. After the student chooses one, the student will then need to explain why he made thatchoice based upon what he has watched in the movie.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity is based upon a learning-doing-reflectingmodel. At this point in the week the students have learned that a story follows a sequence and thatwhat happens earlier in the plot affects what will happen later. Also they have learned that theycan sometimes make predictions about what will occur next, but sometimes the plot is not soobvious. The students practice reinforcing this learning through the “movie stop and go”. Finally,the students are given the opportunity to reflect on their predictions as they continue to watch themovie.Thursday:5. Character’s Naughty/Nice List: (See Appendix C for Materials)Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational texts andmaterials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.*Understanding 3- Perception, Understanding 4- Empathy
Schaffer 17*EQ 5-Empathy*Knowledge 1, Knowledge 3*Skill 1, Skill 3Entry Point: Logical-Quantitative Entry Point: Before beginning the lesson have the studentsguess how many “bad guys” there are in the stories you have read this week. Then, ask thestudents how many “good guys” there were in those stories. Ask them to decide if there was more“good guys” or more “bad guys” in the story. Allow them to discuss which characters were “badguys” and which ones were “good guys.”W: Where & Why: Introduce the term “character.” The teacher should explain that a “character”is a person or animal in the story. There are usually several characters in the story that interactwith each other. Tell them to think of a character as a person in a play that does the talking andinteracting. Also, have the students remember some of the characters in the books that you haveread earlier in the week. Tell the students that they will be looking more specifically at thesecharacters and why they act the way that they do. When they get finished with this activityperhaps they will have a better understanding of the characters and what makes the act a certainway.H: Hook & Hold: Tell the students that just like Santa Claus, they will be making a naughty andnice list. They will look at some of the characters from the books this week and decide whether ornot they belong on the naughty or nice list. They have to be careful though, because someone hasto be completely nice or completely naughty to be placed in either category.E: Explore through Experience: Allow the students to work with partners in making a list of“naughty characters” and “nice characters” from the stories read in the previous week. Theteacher may choose to post pictures of these characters on the board and explain a little aboutwhat they did within the story. Also, ask the students to think carefully about where and why theyare placing each character within each category. Also, give them a hint by asking, “Do any ofthese characters seem like they might not fit in either category?”R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: The teacher should then review each character with the entire classas a whole group. Many of the students will have classified certain characters as “good” or “bad.”It will be the teacher’s goal, however, to ask deeper questions about the characters to help thestudents see them from another perspective. For example, some may say the fox in TheGingerbread Man is “bad” because he ate the gingerbread man. The teacher should ask, however,“What if the fox was very hungry and hadn’t eaten in days. If you hadn’t eaten in days would youeat the gingerbread man?” Hopefully this should help the students see that while a character mayseem good or bad, he/she usually is not completely one or the other. The teacher should point outthat if you look at the story from the “bad” guy’s perspective, he might not seem as bad after all.Perhaps through this prompting the students will realize that characters are usually not completelygood or bad. The student should be given time to revise their “naughty” and “nice” lists by alsolooking at other aspects of the story-as the teacher has encouraged through the discussion.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: The teacher will collect these papers and look to see if thestudents verified the placement of characters on each list. The students still may choose to qualify
Schaffer 18a certain character as “naughty” or “nice” but they will need to explain why they feel that way.Also, some students may revise their answers and say that while a character may seem “naughty”or “nice” in the book, if you look at it from another perspective, their actions might not be totallygood or bad.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: Students will work in pairs to completethis assignment. Students who have difficulty reading or who have poor analytical skills will beaided by another student selected by the teacher. The partners will discuss the characters anddecide as a whole where the place of the character should go. Students who have higher orderthinking skills should be able to help the lower functioning students view the characters fromvarious viewpoints.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity is based upon an inquiry model. Thestudents are allowed to make their lists before the teacher really explains and reveals the goal ofthe assignment, which is to discover that characters are not usually completely “naughty” or“nice.” Only after the students have made their lists will the teacher describe other aspects of thestory to make the students re-think their lists and their previous notions. As they question theirown answers based upon the teacher’s prompts, the students will revise their overallunderstandings of characters as a whole.Friday:6. What’s the Problem?Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational texts andmaterials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.*Understanding 3- Perception, Understanding 4- Empathy*EQ 5-Empathy*Knowledge 1, Knowledge 2, Knowledge 3*Skill 1, Skill 3Entry Point: Experimental Entry Point: Have the students close their eyes and think of a scenethat occurred within their life within this past week. It can be something that was happy, sad, oreven angry. Knowing now what characters are, ask the students to determine who the characterswere in those scenes. (The student themselves will more than likely be a character and maybe afriend or a mother will also be characters.) The teacher should ask when it happened- in themorning, afternoon, or night. Also, ask where it happened- at school, home, playground, etc. Thisis called the setting of the story. Finally, what exactly happened? Usually stories have some typeof problem in them that makes them interesting. Either something bad happens or the characterscannot get along. Usually, however, by the end of the story, the characters have reached aresolution- which means an agreement has been made and everything is better. Ask the students
Schaffer 19to determine their problem and resolution within their own personal scene.W: Where & Why: Tell the students they will be working with story scenes. It will be their jobto determine the setting, problem, and resolution of the scene. They may also want to pay specialattention to the way the characters act when dealing with the problem. The students might alsowant to determine if there is anything they can take away from the mini-story as well as who thecharacters were in the story.H: Hook & Hold: Tell the students that their lives are made up of many story scenes, and theyare the characters within their own life story. Tell them that their life scenes are made up of maydifferent settings seeing as they commonly change where they are. Also, their life scene is madeup of many different problems that they all deal with differently. Finally, they also resolve theproblems in their life scenes so that they can move on to the next scene.E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should read aloud simple scenes that students mayencounter within their daily lives. For example, a teacher may read a scene about a little boytaking a spelling test and coming to a word he doesn’t know how to spell. He sounds it out andspells it correctly! Within their prediction journals the students will need to record the characterswithin the scene, the problem, as well as the resolution of the scene. After the teacher hasmodeled a few of these scenes, the students in groups of 3 will be continuing the activity in asmall group setting. The students will be given several scenes. They will take turns reading themout loud and then record who the characters were, what the setting was, as well as the problemand the resolution.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: After all the scenes have been read, the students will discuss theirindividual answers. If there is a discrepancy, the students will re-read the scene and talk about itas a whole group. The students may then choose to revise their own analysis of the scene after ithas been discussed.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: As the students complete this assignment the teacher willmonitor and ask questions to check to see if the students are on target and deciphering the correctinformation from the scenes. If need be, the teacher may also choose to collect the predictionjournals and evaluate the progress based upon their actual recordings.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: The teacher will group the students basedupon their abilities. Each group will have a high functioning student, a grade-level student, aswell as a lower-functioning student. This will hopefully provide various perspectives of the dailyscenes. Also, students should be grouped together by various cultures, races, and social economicstatuses. This will not only provide a wide range of understandings and interpretations of thescenes, but it will also help those who have difficulty reading English understand what thetemplate providing the information means. As the students discuss the scene they will be able toadd in their own subculture beliefs, practices, and understandings.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity will be conducted in a whole-part formatwhere the teacher models the activity at first. She then allows for their whole group assistance inanswering g the questions. Finally, the students become completely involved as they are divided
Schaffer 20into small groups and discuss the information on their own with teacher monitoring.Week 2Monday:7. Graphic Organizer (Assessment of Characters, Setting, Problem, and Resolution): (SeeAppendix D for materials)Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.*Understanding 3- Perception, Understanding 4- Empathy*EQ 5-Empathy*Knowledge 1, Knowledge 2, Knowledge 3*Skill 1, Skill 3Entry Point: Narrational Entry Point: Tell the students to imagine that they are going to beanalysts today. Analysts are people who look at different things and make conclusions aboutthem. Remind the students that they have learned about the characters, setting, problem, andresolution in the story. Now it is there time to analyze the story and see if they can determinethese parts of the story.W: Where & Why: The teacher should tell the students that she is going to show them how tocomplete this assignment first. She is going to read one book to them and help them complete thegraphic organizer that determines the characters, setting, problem, and resolution. Then, she willread them another story and they will have to complete the graphic organizer on their own (as partof the Stage 2 assessment process).H: Hook & Hold: The teacher should ask the students to imagine that they are shoemakers,which means that they make shoes for people to buy. Ask them did they know that long time agopeople had to make their own shoes by hand? Tell them that it was very hard work, but the peoplewho made the shoes still didn’t have a lot of money. It took a really long time for someone tomake a set of shoes, but if someone wanted them, then the shoemaker would certainly try. Whatwould happen, however, if a lot of people wanted you to make them a pair of shoes, but it took areally long time to make them? Would you say that you would, so you would have the money,even though you knew that you might not be able to make them on time? Tell them that is verysimilar to the plot of the story.E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should read aloud the story The Elves and theShoemaker to the students. After she gets finished reading she should ask the students if they feelthat this story is real or fake. Most should say “fake” because little magical elves cannot appear to
Schaffer 21make shoes in the middle of the night. The teacher should then give the students a few minutes tofill out the graphic organizer. She should ask them to do this independently, since they will sooncomplete an assessment similar to this all by themselves.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: After the students have completed the graphic organizer about theread aloud book, the teacher should review the correct answers. She may have a sample copyscanned on the activborad so that the students can match their answers to hers. She should reviewthe main characters in the story, which are the elves and the shoemaker. She should review thesetting, which was in the shoemaker’s shop, long ago. She should point out that the setting is bothwhere and when the story takes place, even though you might not know a specific date, like inthis story. The teacher should then allow feedback from the students to describe the problem,which was that the shoemaker couldn’t make all of the shoes in time. The resolution to the story,however, was that the little magical elves came to help. The students should be given time torevise and “fix” their answers. They will also be given time to ask any questions about the graphicorganizer, how it works, and how they should fill it out. Next, the teacher will read aloud TheThree Billy Goats Gruff. The students should listen first, and then fill out their graphic organizerindependently.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: The teacher will collect The Three Billy Goats Gruff graphicorganizer and evaluate it based on the correct answers. The teacher will check to see if thestudents can determine the characters, setting, problem, and resolution of the story. If over half ofthe class does not seem to grasp a certain element, the teacher will make modifications to theschedule to re-teach that certain element. If only a few students seem to struggle with thisassignment, the teacher will work with those students in a small group format during interventiontime.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: While everyone will work together in awhole group setting during the modeling task, certain students will be pulled to the back of theroom during the assessment time. The teacher will provide these students, who are not able toread yet, the topic and titles of the graphic organizer. They will be provided more prompts thanthe rest of the students due to their lack in abilities. The teacher, however, will not provide themthe answer. Also, some students will be able to write the names of the characters and setting aswell as describe the problem and resolution in words. Some students will only be able to drawpictures of these. The paraprofessional will help in dictating the students’ verbal description oftheir picture.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity begins as a whole group modeling activityso that the students will know exactly what is expected of them on the assessment. Theassessment itself, however, is individual because it will be used in evaluating the students’progress on the particular subject and goal area. Some students will receive small group help dueto their inability to effectively read for meaning. The whole group to small group or whole groupto individual will hopefully allow the students to understand the meaning and directions of theassignment.Tuesday:
Schaffer 228. Story Sequencing:Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words.*Understanding 1- Explanation*EQ 1- Explanation, EQ 4- Perspective*Knowledge 4*Skill 4Entry Point: Foundational Entry Point: Tell the students that every story, or every scene,including scenes in their lives, have a beginning, middle, and end. Every situation has to beginwith something, have something going on in the middle, and then a final end to something. A lotof times something that happens in the beginning leads to the middle, which leads to the end. Forexample, when you brush your teeth in the morning, it has a beginning, middle, and end. The firstthing, or first scene, would be you picking up your toothbrush and putting tooth paste on it. Themiddle of the activity would you brushing your teeth. The last thing would be you rinsing yourmouth and toothbrush out. In this case, the middle certainly led to the end. Having the toothpastein your mouth lead to you spiting it out and rinsing your mouth out.W: Where & Why: The teacher will tell the students that they will be putting scene puzzlestogether today. They will be given a set of scenes based upon a certain event, like making asandwich, getting dressed in the morning, or even the daily class schedule. Just like a puzzle, theywill have to put them together to make the correct sequence of events. They will then record intheir prediction journals what occurred at the beginning, middle, and end of the certain event.H: Hook & Hold: The teacher should ask the students, “What do you do before you get ready forbed?” Some of the students will suggest several answers. The teacher should then ask thestudents, “If I wanted to write a story about how to get ready for bed, what would I have to writefirst?” Then, making a list on the board as the students suggest answers, the teacher will list thesequence of events that the students suggest lead up to their bedtime. As these answers arerecorded on the board, the teacher should ask, “What is the beginning of this activity? What is themiddle of this activity? What happens at the end of this activity?”E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should then provide groups of students (about 3 or4 in a group) with a set of sequencing activities. This activities should be pictures placed on indexcards, such as a student putting tooth on a toothbrush, a student brushing his/her teeth, and astudent rinsing their mouth out. The teacher should tell the students that they are to put the cardsin order of how they occur. Put them in their “beginning, middle, and end” placement. Then, afterthey all have agreed that this is the correct sequence the students should record their sequence intheir prediction journals. After they have completed this sequence their will be given another setof cards to try.
Schaffer 23R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: Before the students are given the next set of cards the teacher or theparaprofessional will evaluate the groups’ work. They will make sure that the sequence is incorrect order. If they are not, the teacher should ask the students to describe what is happening ineach picture. She should then read the sequence of events as they have placed them. Hopefully,since these are common task sequences that students should be familiar with, they will realize theflaw in sequencing.At this time the students should also be asked, “Based on what you are doing now, what do youthink makes up a story?” Perhaps the students should be prompted to answer, “A list of events ina certain order (like a beginning, middle, or end) make up a story.”E: Evaluate Work & Progress: The teachers may choose to informally evaluate the student’sjournal as they check for the groups’ understanding. The teacher may also choose to use thestudent’s journals as evidence for understanding or misunderstanding. If the students seem tostruggle sequencing some of the activities, the teacher may want to provide special interventiontime to practice this skill on a one-to-one basis.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: Some students will have difficultywriting the events within their journals. They should be allowed to mimic the pictures on theindex cards and draw the sequence of events. The important element is that they are able to putthe events in order. Also, students who struggle with this sequencing may need to haveintervention aid during another time in the day when the practice can be in small group or one toone. Also, the sequencing activities and subjects should be extremely general so that all studentshave been exposed to them. If the students are having difficulty sequencing the events from thepreviously formed sequences, perhaps the teacher will need to choose and event, such as a cultureor social-economic commonality, that students are more familiar with and are therefore able tosequence adequately.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: The activity is organized into a small group format.This is so that students can use each other’s prior knowledge understandings of the sequence ofactivities. Also, students are able to build upon each other’s sense of logic as they determine theorder of common activities in daily life.Wednesday:8. Film Scene Sequence:Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.*Understanding 1- Explanation*EQ 1- Explanation, EQ 4- Perspective*Knowledge 2, Knowledge 4*Skill 4Entry Point: Aesthetic Entry Point: The teacher should ask the students how they would feelabout making their very own movie. Also, the teacher should remind the students that actors are
Schaffer 24not the only people involved with making a movie. Movies also have editors that look at thedifferent parts of the film and decide what order they should go in. (Because, believe it or not,films are not shot in the exact order that they appear when you actually watch them.)W: Where & Why: The teacher will tell the students that they will continue working with thebeginning, middle, and ending of the stories, but they will use some technology today to maketheir own films! They will use the hand-held cameras, from the library, to make their own videos.The students may choose to be singing, dancing, doing a trick, or even telling a story during thefilm. They will then download the film onto the lab computers. Using Windows Movie Maker thestudents will divide the scenes and place them out of order. They will then watch the new videothat they made, which was completely out of order, and then practice putting the scenes backtogether using movie maker. By watching the film out of order the students should see howhaving a clear beginning, middle, and, end that build upon one another truly is.H: Hook & Hold: The teacher should ask the students if they have ever made a video before.(She should also ask if they have ever used the mini-camera technology that many will need to bebriefed upon). The teacher should also ask the students to describe their favorite movies, usingjust the bare minim information. The teacher should then ask the students to imagine if theywatched the movie in reverse, or only saw a piece of the movie- like from the middle to the end.The teacher should ask, “Would the movie make much sense? Would you have a clearunderstanding of what is happening in the story? Would you be able to adequately predict whatwould happen next in the story?”E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should give the students a mini tutorial of how touse the mini-cameras. In groups of 3 or 4 the students should be allowed to use the camera to flipsome type of event, which may involve all students or just some of the students in the group. Thestudents should then be escorted to the computer lab where they are aided in downloading theirfilms into Windows Movie Maker. There, the students should break their film into several scenes.They should then rearrange the scene and watch, via Movie Maker, the scenes out of order. Thestudents should then place the film back in order and determine the beginning, middle, and end ofthe film.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: After rearranging the film scenes using the appropriate technology,the students should decide what the true beginning, middle, and end of the film are. They shouldthen reflect upon the importance of having a sequence of events as well as how these events buildoff of one another and are not completely random. The students should reflect on perhaps thereason why they are able to predict what will happen next within the plot of the story is becauseeach scene within the story builds upon and helps to develop the next. The teacher may provideprompts for these questions as well as allow the students to reflect upon them using theirprediction journalsE: Evaluate Work & Progress: The teacher will informally evaluate the students as they mixand match the film scenes in movie maker. She may verbally ask the students questions like,“How difficult is it to watch the story out of order? Does it make sense at all? Was it difficult toput the story back in order? How is the order of the story important for readers to understand it?”For those who are unable to answer these informal questions, the teacher may need to review
Schaffer 25aspects of the other beginning, middle, and ending lessons.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation: When beginning this assignment, itwould be wise of the teacher to pair students who are more likely to know how to use thetechnology effectively with those who do not. Also, some students may need extra help whenmanipulating the technology- so the teacher will need to make sure that a specific watch is kepton them. This will be an activity that many students who may struggle with reading have theability to show their expertise. This specific activity does not require a lot of reading, so studentswill be able to focus on other aspects of the lesson verses the reading portion of the assignment.Also, the arranging and rearranging of the scenes are not considered an extreme assessment, somost students should be able to complete this task with ease and little anxiety.O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: The organization for this activity is rather loose. Whilethe teacher should explain how to use the technology, the students are pretty much given theoption to utilize it and create their own unique products. As they use the technology within thecomputer lab the teacher will certainly be monitoring and investigating the usage and the abilitiesof the technology itself. While the students will film in the classroom, the computer lab will bethe area in which the students download their creation as well as practice sequencing and un-sequencing it.Thursday:9. Write a BME Story: (See Appendix E for materials)Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.*Understanding 1- Explanation, Understanding 2- Interpretation, Understanding 5- SelfKnowledge*EQ 1- Explanation, EQ 3- Interpretation, EQ 4- Persepective*Knowledge 2, Knowledge 3, Knowledge 4, Knowledge 5, Knowledge 6*Skill 3, Skill 4Entry Point: Foundational Entry Point: The teacher should tell the students that since they haveread several books over the past few weeks, it is their turn to be the author! They are going to usethe skills that they have learned over the past few weeks to become an author. Being an author isan important job, however, because they have to make sure that their story is entertaining butbelievable. They must also keep their audience happy. Tell the students that their audience will beother classmates around their age. The title of their story will be “The Best Day Ever!”W: Where & Why: The teacher should tell the students that their story will be a BME story,which stands for a “beginning, middle, and end” story. This means that their story should havethose three elements. Also, however, their story should have characters, a setting, a problem, anda resolution, just like they have studied over the past week. It should also include pictures thatstudents can predict from. (This is Performance Task 1 in the Stage 2 Assessment section.
Schaffer 26There is a teacher scoring rubric as well as a student self-assessment scoring rubric.) Afterthe students finish their story they will get to share it with their classmates. They will also get touse a rubric to grade themselves, just like the teacher!H: Hook & Hold: Ask the students to close their eyes and think about the best day that they haveever had. Was it Christmas Day? Was it at your birthday party? Was it your first day of school?Was it your last day of school? Was it when you won your football/soccer/baseball game? Was itjust a regular day that you thought was special? Think about who was there. You were the ofcourse. Was you mom, dad, sisters, brothers, friends, or grandparents there? They would all becharacters in your story. Where did it happen? Was it at your house, the park, school, and thefield? When was it? Was it last year, this past weekend, a long time ago? Those elements are thesetting. There has to be a problem in the story, even if you remember it as being “The Best DayEver.” Was your team losing and you helped them win? Were you decorating up to the lastminute and was rushed before your birthday party? Were you nervous about the first day ofschool? Were you sad that it was the last day of school? Those would all be problems in the story.What was the resolution? How did the story end happily? Did you win the game anyway? Didyou party turn out wonderful? Did you realize there was nothing to be afraid of at school? Didyou realize that you would see your friends the next year? Those are examples of the resolution ofthe story.E: Explore through Experience: As an example- show the students the sample “The Best DayEver” vodcast. Give the students their booklet, which can be white pages stapled together. Youmay want to review the student rubric before they begin. Make a list on the board that studentsare to do, such as create a title, list themselves as author, tell their story with all of the elements,and draw pictures that a reader could predict with. Since this is used as a performance taskassessment, make sure that students work independently. They may talk and share a little duringthe task, but make sure there work is truly representing what they can do.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: After the students have completed their books, the teacher mayallow them to share with a partner or the whole class. The students should then self-assessthemselves using the student rubric. It will be at this time that the students reflect on how theyfollow the instructions and fulfilled the requirements of the task. There is a section on the rubricwhere the students can also reflect and describe what they could change about their story to makeit better fit the requirements of the lesson and rubric.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: The teacher will collect the books, the self-reflection rubrics,and the reflections themselves to evaluate the students. She will use her rubric to assess thestudents based upon their creations. She will then look at the self-assessment rubrics to make surethat the students understood the process of grading themselves and judging their work against arubric. Also, the teacher will take into account the reflections that the students complete todetermine if they logically found ways that their current work could be modified for the better.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation Some students may need to work in smallgroups as they complete their books. Specific students in the class do not work well with largergroups or a lot of noise. They will be in small groups or separated from the larger group to makesure their focus is in tact. Some students will not be able to write very many words to describe
Schaffer 27their story, due to their reading and writing disabilities. The paraprofessional and teacher will helpto dictate what the students describe while also allowing the student to write and complete theproject as independently as possible. Some students also may need individual aid in filling out theself-assessment rubric. This rubric will probably be completed in a whole group manner as theteacher reads and the students follow along. Developmentally disabled students, as well as ESOLstudents, may need more independent instruction with this.:O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This assignment is designed to be a mainlyindependent activity seeing as this activity is used as a performance task within stage 2 of theassessment process. The teacher does give the students a brief summary and clear explanation ofwhat is expected of them, as well as examples that they could use, during the instructional part ofthe lesson. The students are also shown their self-assessment rubric that they are to completebefore they begin the task. The majority of the task, however, is independent.Friday:10. Moral Read Around :Alignment:*Standard: ELAKR6 a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) andinformational texts and materials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words.*Understanding 3- Perception, Understanding 4- Empathy, Understanding 5- Self-Knowledge* EQ 2- Explanation, EQ 7- Interpretation, EQ 8- Self Knowledge*Knowledge 6*Skill 2, Skill 5Entry Point: Logical-Quantitative Entry Point: Ask the students to think of all of the stories thatthey have read that really meant something to them. Ask them to think of the top, say, five storiesthat they were able to take something away from. What did you learn from this book? Why was itso memorable to you? Could you use what you learned in real life? If so, that means that thisstory had a moral.W: Where & Why: Tell the students that they will be engaging in a read-around activity. Firstthe teacher will read them a story and they will complete the activity as a whole. Then thestudents will be broken up into three groups and work together to find the moral in other stories.Tell the students not to worry, because the books in each of the stations is something that theywill be able to read (they are easy-reader books). They will use their prediction journals to recordthe moral of the story and how they feel about that moral. They will also record how they feel themoral could apply to their real lives.H: Hook & Hold: Ask the students to think of why people read stories. Do they read because thestory is fun or funny? Do they read to learn something? Are there stories that students can readthat are fun as well as teach them something? Why do writers write? To they try to tell the readers
Schaffer 28something? Sometimes authors use stories to teach the audience about a moral, or anunderstanding that the readers can take away with them and apply it to their real life. Today weare going to be investigators and try to find the moral in several stories.E: Explore through Experience: As a whole group the teacher will read The Tortoise and theHare. The students will talk about the characters, setting, problem, and resolution. They will alsodetermine the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Finally, the teacher should ask thestudents, after they have finished the story, “What do you think the author is trying to tell us inthis story? What can you apply to your real life?” After the students determine the moral, theyshould record it, along with the title of their story, within their prediction journal. The studentsshould then describe how the moral makes them feel and how it applies to them in their real lives.(This journaling is also included in the “Other Evidence” within the stage 2 assessment of theunit. It is titled: Journaling: Self-Regulation and Reflection in Understanding Morals.)The students will then be placed into small groups in different stations in the room. The studentswill be responsible for reading the following books as a whole group: The Boy Who Cried Wolf,The Ants and the Grasshopper, and The Lion and the Mouse. Each station will have a specificbook. The students should read the book, discuss it, and try to determine the moral of the story.The students should then record the story in their prediction journals as well as how they feelabout the journal and how it applies in their real life.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: A part of the major reflection of this article would be to apply it tohis/her real life and decide how it can be used. The students should work as a whole to rethinktheir predictions about the moral of the story. At the end of the assignment, the students are ableto open the special envelope at the end of the book that the teacher has added. This will reveal thereal moral of the story. If the students’ ideas did not match, in some manner, what was in theenvelope, they are encouraged to look back through the story and see if they can determine wheretheir thoughts might have gone array or where they could have made a better prediction.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: The students will record their moral predictions within theirjournaling notebook, which will be evaluated by the teacher on a regular basis. The evaluation ofthis assignment will not only focus on how well the students were able to determine the moral,but also how well they were able to communicate their thoughts about the moral. Also theirability to determine how the moral might apply to his/her real life will be evaluated. If thestudents have difficulty with any of these areas the teacher may need to plan an intervention timeto discuss their thoughts and redirect their understandings of the subject of morals.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation Some students within the groups will notbe able to read the stories on their own. For that reason it is important that the teacher place thestudents in groups so that at least one student will be able to read the book and aid the others.Also, some students may not possess the higher order thinking skills of determining a moral ofthe story. Prompts and suggestions either in a small group or a one-to-one basis may be the bestway for the students to understand how morals apply to the story.:O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This activity is organized in a small group format.First the teacher models the activity and then the students complete it in cooperative groups. A
Schaffer 29large among of scaffolding on behalf of the teacher during the first part of the lesson is used.Students also work together to decided upon and meet the standards of the assignment.Week 3Monday:11. The Three Little Pigs- Part 1 :Alignment:a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational texts andmaterials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.c. Asks and answers questions about essential narrative elements (e.g., beginning-middle-end,setting, characters, problems, events, resolution) of a read-aloud text.e. Retells familiar events and stories to include beginning, middle, and end.h. Retells important facts in the student’s own words.*Understanding 3- Perception, Understanding 5- Self-Knowledge*EQ 5- Empathy, EQ 7- Interpretation, EQ 8- Self Knowledge*Knowledge 6*Skill 2, Skill 3, Skill 4, Skill 5Entry Point: Foundation Entry Point: Tell the students that they will be reading one of the mostcommonly known stories, The Three Little Pigs. They will, however, also look at severalelements of the story. They will have to be investigators again. They will look at the characters,setting, problem, and resolution. The teacher should allow the students to describe what each ofthese elements are and mean. Then, they will also determine the beginning, middle, and end of thestory. They will then look at new things about the story. The teacher should also give the studentsa preview of what is going to happen the next day, which will involve looking at the story fromanther perspective.W: Where & Why: The teacher should continue the discussion with the students and explain thattoday they will be determining the moral of the story. She will advise them that this story canactually have several morals. Depending upon how you look at the story. The students will againrecord their morals and predictions in their prediction journals.H: Hook & Hold: Ask the students if they have brothers or sisters, or even cousins, that theycompete with. Tell them that this story is about three brother pigs that complete with each otherwhen building a house. Ask them, “Which do you think could be built the quickest: a straw house,a stick house, or a brick house?” Then ask them, “Which house do you think is the most sturdy, orstrongest?” These are answers that you will find out in the story!E: Explore through Experience: The teacher will read the story The Three Little Pigs to thestudents. After she finishes she will begin a series of questions that will help the students review
Schaffer 30some of the elements that have been discussed within the unit. She will also ask the students todetermine the characters, setting, problems, and resolution of the story. She will also ask thestudents to determine the beginning, middle, and end of the story.After the story is complete, the teacher should ask that the students record what they think themoral of the story would be. They should also describe the moral of how it applies to their lives.They should be encouraged to look at the moral from different characters and determine the moralfrom their eyes. For example, “What is the moral from the pig who built the hay house? What isthe moral from the wolf? What is the moral from the pig who built the brick house?”R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: After the students have recorded their ideas about the differentmorals from the different perspectives of the characters within the story, the students will beprompted to share their ideas. The teacher may have to prompt the students into viewing themoral from other perspectives. It is suspected that students may not naturally view the plot of thestory from another characters’ perspective, so the teacher may need to say something like,“Imagine you were the wolf- What would you learn from what happened in the story?” Thisdiscussion will allow the students to add to their prediction journals by analyzing journals fromother perspectives.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: Since this is a whole group activity it will be rather easy tomonitor student progress. The teacher and paraprofessional may choose to walk around the roomas the students complete the task to make sure their thoughts are in align with the assignment.Also some students may need extra prompting. At the end of the session, the teacher will collectthe students’ prediction books to evaluate their overall understanding of the lesson, how well theyhave mastered the objective of defining morals, and determine their preexisting skills fordetermining aspects of a story from another perspective.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation Some students may have difficultydescribing the moral in clear sentences are statements. They should use their words to the best oftheir ability as well as attempt to draw images to aid in their explanation. If this is a severeenough problem the paraprofessional may work in a small group with those students so that theirideas are shared and recorded individually. If this is not too large of a problem then the teacherand paraprofessional will work together to dictate the students responses enough so that theteacher can evaluate the journal at a later time.:O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This assignment is based upon a whole group-smallgroup activity. The story and prompting is conducted in a whole group matter. The actual activityitself is in a small group, or individualized session. This is done so that the teacher is truly able toassess the student’s mastery of determining the moral of a story as well as their pre-exisistingskills of determining aspects of the story from various perspectives.Tuesday:12. The Three Little Pigs- Part 2 :Alignment:
Schaffer 31a. Listens to and reads a variety of literary (e.g., short stories, poems) and informational texts andmaterials to gain knowledge and for pleasure.b. Makes predictions from pictures and titles.*Understanding 2- Interpretation, Understanding 3- Perception, Understanding 6-Application*EQ 5- Empathy, EQ 6- Application*Knowledge 3*Skill 2, Skill 6Entry Point: Narrational Entry Point: Ask the students to imagine that there are two newsreporters reporting on two thunderstorms that they are watching first hand, on site. Do you thinktheir reports would be exactly the same? After the students have suggested their answers, tellthem that they probably wouldn’t be exactly the same, because they are not the exact sameperson. Even though they are watching the same events, they will describe them slightlydifferently simply because they are two different people. Now ask the students if a member of awinning football team and a member of a losing football team would describe the game exactlythe same. The football game is the event that both of them are describing, yet one team won andone team lost. They would probably describe the events slightly differently because certain thingsthat occurred were more important to each person. Looking at the same event from other people’seyes is called looking at it from their perspective.W: Where & Why: Tell the students that they will be re-visiting the story of The Three LittlePigs today, but they will be looking at it through a different perspective. The first book was toldby the pigs’ perspective. Now, however, the book read today will be told from the wolf’sperspective. It will be the same story, with the same events, but they will be described in adifferent way. Afterwards the students will determine how this story was different than the otherstory using a Venn diagram. They will then be given the opportunity to give the story a newending, from their own perspective.H: Hook & Hold: Ask the students if they remembered last week’s lesson when they realizedthat characters are not completely good or bad. They will see this again in this story. By show ofhands, ask the students if they thought the wolf in the story was “bad”? Ask them to describewhy. Now ask them to pretend like they were the wolf. Ask them to describe a situation in whichthe events could have happened in the story, but not because the wolf was being mean. Tell themthat this story is going to let them see the story from the wolf’s perspective, and perhaps they willbe able to determine that the wolf is not so “bad” after all.E: Explore through Experience: The teacher should read aloud the story The True Story of theThree Little Pigs. As she read the story she should point out events that seem similar to whatoccurred in the first story that the class read. Then she should point out how the event wasdifferent as it was told through the eyes of the wolf. The teacher should also allow the students todescribe some of these events.After the story is complete the students should aid the teacher in completing a Venn diagramcomparing and contrasting the first and second book. The teacher may organize this by focusingon how specific scenes or events were different in the story. Also, the teacher may choose to
Schaffer 32include how the characters were different within the story as well. The students should record thisVenn diagram in their prediction journal.After the students have completed the Venn Diagram, they will be asked to re-write the end of thestory. The story has remained the same up until the wolf knocks on the last little pig’s door. Theteacher should remind the students of what occurred in both books. She should then tell them towrite their own event that could occur. They have to make sure that it is logical and make sense inthe story.R: Reflect, Rethink, Revise: The students will be given ample time to reflect and review the twobooks as well as analyze the scenes as they complete the Venn diagram with the teacher. Afterthey complete writing their alternative ending, the teacher may choose to read some aloud. Thestudents will then be given the opportunity to share their alternative ending with a buddy. Thebuddy should be able to tell them if their ending makes sense with the rest of the plot. If it doesnot, the students will be given time to rearrange their ending so that it does fit with the rest of theplot.E: Evaluate Work & Progress: The teacher will informally evaluate the students as theyparticipate in the Venn diagram activity. She will be able to tell who is able to determine thedifferences and similarities within the book. Some students may need individualized help and willbe pulled into a small group to complete the activity. This will help the students understand andhave a more vocal attempt in completing the activity. Also, the teacher will collect and read thealternative endings in the prediction journal. She will make comments about them. If thealternative ending is still not logical after the buddy share, the teacher will have a mini-interviewto determine the student’s trouble and aid them in imagining an event that could have reallyoccurred.T: Tailor & Personalize: **Plan for Differentiation Some students may have difficultyfollowing along with the Venn diagram task. They will be pulled aside and worked with on amore individual basis. In a small group the paraprofessional or teacher will help them determinethe differences as well as allow for them to re-look at the pictures to locate specific similarities ordifferences. (Some of these students seem to have short term memory problems.) Also, dependingon the results of the buddy share, the students may need extra help in completing their alternativeending assignment. The teacher may need to meet with them individually and aid them informing a logical alternative ending.:O: Organize for Optimal Effectiveness: This task is organized in a modeling- scaffolding-independent activity. The teacher reads and models, recognizing the difference between the twobooks as a whole group activity. The teacher then scaffolds the students into determining thesimilarities and differences using a Venn diagram. Finally, the students form their own endingindependently.Wednesday:13. Role Play/ Drama of Little Red Riding Hood (Script for the play can be obtained at: