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William shakespeare


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  • 1. Mr.Ojeda
  • 2.  William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564, in Stratford-onAvon (Warwickshire,England). The son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, he was probably educated at the King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford, where he learned Latin and a little Greek and read the Roman dramatists.
  • 3.  Summer school for William Shakespeare started at six o'clock in the morning and finished at five o'clock in the evening. Elizabethan Education was hard work!  Because of the dark nights the hours changed during the winter starting at seven in the morning and finishing at four o'clock in the afternoon  Education for William Shakespeare consisted of a five full days and a half-day on Thursday for 40 to 44 weeks of the year - 2,000 hours in school per year (more than double the current
  • 4.  William Shakespeare was withdrawn from education in 1577 at the age of fourteen due to his father's financial problems  Boys would normally attended Grammar school until they reached the age of fourteen when they would have continued their education at University  William Shakespeare therefore missed any form of higher education where he would have had the choice of studying the Arts, Philosophy, Rhetoric, Poetry, History,
  • 5.  It is amazing that William Shakespeare achieved so much after leaving school at the age of fourteen - with only seven years of formal education !
  • 6.  At eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway, a woman seven or eight years his senior. Together they raised two daughters: Susanna, who was born in 1583, and Judith (whose twin brother died in boyhood), born in 1585.
  • 7.  While Shakespeare was regarded as the foremost dramatist of his time, evidence indicates that both he and his world looked to poetry, not playwriting, for enduring fame. Shakespeare's sonnets were composed between 1593 and 1601, though not published until 1609. That edition, The Sonnets of Shakespeare, consists of 154 sonnets, all written in the form of three quatrains and a couplet that is now recognized as Shakespearean. The sonnets fall into two groups: sonnets 1-126, addressed to a beloved friend, a handsome and noble young man, and sonnets 127-152, to a malignant but fascinating "Dark Lady," whom the poet loves in spite of himself. Nearly all of Shakespeare's sonnets examine the inevitable decay of time, and the immortalization of beauty and love in poetry.
  • 8.  The Fair Young Man  Sonnets 1-126 seem to be addressed to an unnamed male friend considerably younger than the poet. At first (1-17) the poet seems driven or commissioned to urge this fellow to marry and breed. But the interpersonal friendship grows in intensity, and separation causes grief. The Young Man belongs to the upper class, is more than handsome, and is somewhat given to wantonness. We end up with true love poems here, causing commentators to fret about whether this was a homosexual relationship or if Elizabethan men simply expressed close friendship in this sort of language. Ultimately, the gender of addressee becomes irrelevant given the intensity of the poetic meditations, and so the
  • 9.   The Dark Lady The poet has a "black" mistress, which can mean anything from a African woman to simply an English non-blonde (127-152). These sonnets range from the rapture of Romeo and Juliet to the disgust of Troilus and Cressida and Hamlet. Again, there have been numerous proposals as to historical identity, including Lady Penelope Rich (Sidney's inspiration) Mary Fitton (the Earl of Pembroke's mistress, but whose portraits show her as fair), Anne Hathaway (yeah, right), Mrs. Jane Devanant (wife of an Oxford innkeeper whose dramatist son Sir William was rumored to be Shakespeare's), and Lucy (an African prostitute). It has been suggested that she never existed historically but functions as an anti-Petrarchan construct. This affair, fictional or not, brings about conflicting emotions: an obsession but a sexual nausea. Some sonnets (35, 40, 41, 42) refer to affair between the male friend and a woman who seduces him, presumably
  • 10.  In his poems and plays, Shakespeare invented thousands of words, often combining or contorting Latin, French and native roots. Changing nouns into verbas and verbs into adjectives.He invented 1,700 or more words.His impressive expansion of the English language. Shakespeare of course had a huge vocabulary, and in his writings there are hundreds of words no-one before him had used,but how could his audience know what he was talking about if he kept on making up words?
  • 11.       
  • 12.  Shakespeare wrote plays and poems. His plays were comedies, histories and tragedies. His 17 comedies include A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Merry Wives of Windsor. Among his 10 history plays are Henry V and Richard III. The most famous among his 10 tragedies are Hamlet, Othello, andKing Lear. Shakespeare’s best-known poems are The Sonnets, first published in 1609.
  • 13.  William Shakespeare started writing tragedies because he thought the tragic plots used by other English writers were lacking artistic purpose and form. He used the fall of a notable person as the main focus in his tragedies. Suspense and climax were an added attraction for the audience. His work was extraordinary in that it was not of the norm for the time. A reader with even little knowledge of his work would recognize one of the tragedies as a work
  • 14.  There are a number of poets,writer,dramatists and playwriters who have benefitted from having read a line,phrase or paragraph from the great William Shakespeare.There is one actor/writer/comedian/dramatist who made his living often imitating Shakespeare……
  • 15.  He wrote a number of plays, and contributed dialogue for scripts of films and television shows in Mexico, as well as some character acting work before he became famous. His stage name of Chespirito was given by a producer during Gómez Bolaños' first years as a writer and was concocted from the diminutive form of the Mexican pronunciation of the name of William Shakespeare or Shakespiercito, meaning "Little
  • 16.  The BLACK DEATH, also known as the bubonic plague, is a contagious, often fatal epidemic disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis, transmitted from person to person or by the bite of fleas from an infected host, especially a rat, and characterized by chills, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and the formation of buboes.
  • 17.  The Black Death first appeared in London in 1348, brought there by the fleas living on rats which came ashore from ships arriving from Asia. Already this terrible epidemic had killed millions people before reaching the European continent where the initial outbreak occurred in and around Italy. The disease struck and killed people with terrible speed. In October, 1347 an eyewitness account claimed:
  • 18.  "Realizing what a deadly disaster had come to them, Italians were driven from their city. But the disease remained, and soon death was everywhere. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left to care for the sick, and monasteries and convents were soon deserted, as they were stricken, too. Bodies were left in empty houses, and there was no one to give them a Christian burial."
  • 19.  By the following August, the plague had spread as far north as England, where people called it "The Black Death" because of the black spots it produced on the skin. A terrible killer was loose across Europe, and Medieval medicine had nothing to stop it. In the winter, the disease seemed to disappear, but only because fleas--which were a major connection in spreading the disease, --are dormant at this time. Each spring, the plague attacked again, killing new victims. After five years 25 million people were dead--one-third of Europe's people. 75 million in total.
  • 20.  In towns and cities people lived very close together and they knew nothing about contagious diseases. Also the disposal of bodies was very crude and helped to spread the disease still further as those who handled the dead bodies did not protect themselves in any way.  The filth that littered streets gave rats the perfect environment to breed and increase their number. It is commonly thought that it was the rats that caused the disease. This is not true – the fleas did this. However, it was the rats that enabled the disease to spread very quickly and the filth in the streets of our towns and cities did not help to stop the spread of the disease.
  • 21.  Lack of medical knowledge meant that people tried anything to help them escape the disease. One of the more extreme was the flagellants. These people wanted to show their love of God by whipping themselves, hoping that God would forgive them their sins and that they would be spared the Black Death.
  • 22.  William Shakespeare was terrified of the Bubonic Plague - and who can blame him?  England had been ravaged by outbreaks of the plague since the 1300's  He lost his sisters Joan, Margaret ( just babies) and Anne (aged 7) to the deadly plague  He also lost his brother Edmund (aged 27)  But the greatest loss to William Shakespeare was his only son, Hamnet, who died when he was just eleven years old
  • 23.  So many people from just one family (the number increased after Shakespeare's death when his grandsons, Shakespeare Quiney died in infancy, aged 6 months old, in May 1617 and his brothers Richard and Thomas Quiney died of the plague aged 19 and 20 years of age)  No-one knows how many friends, fellow actors and acquaintances of Shakespeare died of the Black Death, but given the number of his close relatives who died, it must have been a significant number  There were constant outbreaks of the Bubonic Plague and every time this occurred the Theatres were shut down. The closures occurred in 1593 , 1603 and 1608
  • 24.  Very few victims of the plague survived  Shakespeare really was living with death  He must have been in constant fear  The number of outbreaks must have been terrifying  The whole of the life of William Shakespeare lived under this terrible Cloud of Death
  • 25.  The cause of death is not known, but some scholars believe that he was sick for over a month before he died. On March 25 1616, Shakespeare signed his dictated will with a “shaky” signature, evidence of his frailty at the time. Also, it was customary in the early seventeenth century to draw up your will on your deathbed, so Shakespeare must have been acutely aware that his life was coming to an end.
  • 26.  The tombstone is inscribed with the following words, which are believed to have written by Shakespeare:
  • 27.  Holy Trinity, Stratford, on the banks of the River Avon, is probably England's most visited Parish Church. As well as being a thriving Parish church, it receives many thousands of visitors each year due to the fact that William Shakespeare was baptised here, worshipped here, and is buried in the chancel.
  • 28.  The word “sonnet” simply meant little song or a short lyric song.  Sonnets are 14 line poems  Shakespearean form goes like this: ABABCDCDEFEFGG *Quatrain- a stanza made of 4 lines,it can have any rhyme scheme (AABB,ABAB,ABBA)
  • 29. Key Difference: Poem is a literary creation made from arrangements of words forming rhythmical lines whereas Sonnet is a specific kind of poem having 14 lines and a strict rhyming scheme.
  • 30.  Poetry is a word of Greek origin meaning “to make, to create”. A poem can be described as “something made or created”. A poem is a rhythmical composition that is written or spoken for communicating beautiful, imaginative or elevated thoughts; they are used in the same context.
  • 31.  Poem as a work of poetry comes out as a literary creation made from arrangements of words forming rhythmical lines. Poem can be also be described as a composition written in metrical feet and contain meaning and musical elements. Poems can be found in these three main genres of poetry: lyric, narrative, and dramatic.
  • 32.  The term sonnet derives from the Italian word sonetto and means "little song". A sonnet comprise of 14 rhyming lines of same length. The rhyme scheme of sonnet generally follows patterns like Italian sonnet, English sonnet and Spenserian sonnet. In Italian sonnet a group of eight lines, rhymed abbaabba is followed by a group of six lines with various rhymes. In English sonnet three groups of four lines with cross-rhyme pattern (abab, cdcd, efef) are followed by a final couplet (rhymed gg).
  • 33.  First quatrain: An exposition of the main theme and main metaphor.  Second quatrain: Theme and metaphor extended or complicated; often, some imaginative example is given.  Third quatrain: Peripeteia (a twist or conflict), often introduced by a "but" (very often leading off the ninth line).  Couplet: Summarizes and leaves the reader with a new, concluding image.
  • 34.  1. Decide on a purpose and audience of the sonnet. 2. Choose a specific topic (no title). 3. List things you could say about your topic. 4. Find a relationship between the ideas, audience and purpose. 5. Write down a 14-line sequence of statements. 6.Make sure the 14 lines ryhme with the proper scheme (ex ABAB…..) 7. Correct specific problem areas. 8. Edit the sonnet. 9. Title. 10. You’re done, don’t correct it!!!
  • 35.  Couplet-The main purpose is to make a poignant point that leaves a lasting impression with the reading.  Like any literary device, if the couplet is used too frequently, it loses its effect and becomes mind numbering rather than thought provoking.
  • 36.  Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date. Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed;
  • 37.  But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest, Nor shall death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou growest. So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
  • 38. First quatrain: Shakespeare establishes the theme of comparing "thou" (or "you") to a summer's day, and why to do so is a bad idea. The metaphor is made by comparing his beloved to summer itself.  Second quatrain: Shakespeare extends the theme, explaining why even the sun, supposed to be so great, gets obscured sometimes, and why everything that's beautiful decays from beauty sooner or later. He has shifted the metaphor: In the first quatrain, it was "summer" in general, and now he's comparing the sun and "every fair," every beautiful thing, to his beloved. 
  • 39. Third quatrain: Here the argument takes a big left turn with the familiar "But." Shakespeare says that the main reason he won't compare his beloved to summer is that summer dies — but she won't. He refers to the first two quatrains — her "eternal summer" won't fade, and she won't "lose possession" of the "fair" (the beauty) she possesses. So he keeps the metaphors going, but in a different direction.  And for good measure, he throws in a negative version of all the sunshine in this poem — the "shade" of death, which, evidently, his beloved won't have to worry about. 
  • 40.  Couplet: How is his beloved going to escape death? In Shakespeare's poetry, which will keep her alive as long as people breathe or see. This bold statement gives closure to the whole argument — it's a surprise.