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Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
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Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs

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By tweaking the molecular structure of banned chemicals, new drugs have been developed to circumvent the law. Despite little information about their toxicity, these new and emerging drugs have been ...

By tweaking the molecular structure of banned chemicals, new drugs have been developed to circumvent the law. Despite little information about their toxicity, these new and emerging drugs have been sold online and in Australian adult stores. They are typically professionally packaged and labeled as ‘not for human consumption’. This presentation aims to provide participants with a brief overview of the context within which this phenomenon has developed and the types of products that have been available in Australia. This is a rapidly shifting market – each time one of these new drugs is banned, it seems like two more drugs emerge to replace it. As such, the limitations of legislative responses will be explored and alternative policy options considered. The presentation will also explore the need for better monitoring systems that are able to help us remain abreast of the rapid changes in the market.

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    Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs Presentation Transcript

    • Not For Human Consumption Plant food, bath salts, research chemicals and incense Stephen Bright
    • Introduction Rapid increase in the availability of new drugs – ECMDAA: from 24 in 2009 to 49 in 2011
    • Outline • Brief History of Designer Drugs • New and Emerging Drugs in Australia? oVarious powders/pills:  Plant Food, Bath Salts, Research Chemicals … o Synthetic Cannabis (incense) • Reasons For Use • Harm, Prevalence and Monitoring Systems • Policy Options
    • Borrowing ideas... Cialis Crestor Zocor/Lipex Levitra
    • First Designer Drugs 1925: 2nd International Opium Convention (revised) - controlled the manufacture & sale of heroin - new drugs (e.g., benzoylmorphine) 1930: First „analogues act‟ introduced
    • Opening Pandora’s Box
    • Not For Human Consuption
    • The Legal Highs Industry Legal High’s “Party Pills” containing BZP
    • 2008/2009: Plant Food Plant food (e.g., “Dove feeder”)
    • Cathinone
    • 2008/2009: Plant Food Phthalimidopropiophenone
    • 2008/2009: Plant Food 4-methylmethcathinone “Miaow Miaow”
    • Video slide deleted for online publication.
    • Bath Salts Flephedrone: 4-fluromethcathinone MDPV: Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Bath Salts
    • Bath Salts
    • Synthetic Cocaine
    • 2nd Generation Synthetic Cocaine • • • • May 2012: MDPV Banned in Australia by TGA No published analysis of “synthetic cocaine” Shaman’s dust  “white bull”, etc. After US banned MDPV, new bathsalts contained: • α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) • Methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (Shanks et al., 2012)
    • Research Chemicals Methoxetamine (MXE) “Overdose pair had luck and an expert on their side” (Canberra Times, April 13 2013) 25I-NBOMe “NSW teen dies after taking LSD” (National Nine News, December 6 2012)
    • How harmful are these new drugs? • >1 alleged death • Little data Is this a public health crisis waiting to happen?
    • Synthetic Cannabis
    • What is synthetic cannabis? 2004: “Spice” (Deluca et al., 2010)
    • Kronic 2011: Kronic emerged as a new drug in Australia Produced in New Zealand
    • Kronic April: First indication of media interest, which quickly grew June: WA government bans 7 synthetic cannabinoids – – – – – – – JWH-018 JWH-073 JWH-122 JWH-200 JWH-250 CP 47,497 The C8 Homologue of CP 47,497
    • Google trends: Searches for Kronic Bright et al. (in press)
    • Social Media
    • Smoke ‘em up Party
    • Federal responses May 2012: 8 broad groups of synthetic cannabinoid agonists Benzoylindoles, Cyclohexylphenols, Dibenzopyra ns, Naphthoylindoles, Naphthylmethylindoles, N aphthoylpyrroles, Naphthylmethylindenes & Phenylacetylindoles Synthetic cannabinomimetics
    • How harmful are these new drugs? • At least 1 Death reported in the media • Little data: new blends more harmful? – Barratt, Cakic & Lenton (2013) – 2012 Global Drug Survey • No Cannabidiol (CBD)  psychosis/seizures • Shorter duration of effect  dependence
    • Why do people use this stuff? • • • • They work! Media and online user forum It’s apparently legal & safe Avoid drug tests
    • Scoring Online
    • Why do people use this stuff? • • • • • • They work! Media and online user forum It’s apparently legal & safe Avoid drug tests Availability of new drugs vs. Ecstasy Unwittingly
    • The Merry-Go-Round Policy • Banning individual chemicals as they emerge: - No “real” decrease in availability - New and more harmful drugs enter market
    • Alternative Policy Approaches • Analogues Laws - Problematic to enforce - Impede medical research - Unintended consequences
    • Alternative Policy Approaches • Consumer/Medicine Law • Regulation
    • Early Warning System • Current Monitoring Systems - EDRS - Wastewater analysis - Acute presentations • An Ideal Monitoring System: - Monitoring the web Monitoring stores Verification via current systems Strategic Communication
    • Conclusion “Drug taking is here to stay and one way or another, we must all learn to live with drugs” (Gossop, 2007, p. 207) Stephen Bright – PenDAP & Youth sbright@phcn.vic.gov.au 03 9784 7108