Not For Human Consumption
Plant food, bath salts, research
chemicals and incense
Stephen Bright
Introduction
Rapid increase in the availability of new
drugs
– ECMDAA: from 24 in 2009 to 49 in 2011
Outline
• Brief History of Designer Drugs
• New and Emerging Drugs in Australia?
oVarious powders/pills:


Plant Food, Ba...
Borrowing ideas...
Cialis

Crestor

Zocor/Lipex

Levitra
First Designer Drugs
1925: 2nd International Opium
Convention (revised)
- controlled the manufacture & sale of heroin

- n...
Opening Pandora’s Box
Not For Human Consuption
The Legal Highs Industry
Legal High’s “Party Pills” containing BZP
2008/2009: Plant Food
Plant food (e.g.,
“Dove feeder”)
Cathinone
2008/2009: Plant Food

Phthalimidopropiophenone
2008/2009: Plant Food
4-methylmethcathinone
“Miaow Miaow”
Video slide deleted for
online publication.
Bath Salts
Flephedrone: 4-fluromethcathinone
MDPV: Methylenedioxypyrovalerone

Bath Salts
Bath Salts
Synthetic Cocaine
2nd Generation Synthetic Cocaine
•
•
•
•

May 2012: MDPV Banned in Australia by TGA
No published analysis of “synthetic co...
Research Chemicals
Methoxetamine (MXE)
“Overdose pair had
luck and an expert on
their side”
(Canberra Times, April 13 2013...
How harmful are these new drugs?
• >1 alleged death
• Little data

Is this a public
health crisis
waiting to
happen?
Synthetic Cannabis
What is synthetic cannabis?
2004: “Spice” (Deluca et al., 2010)
Kronic
2011: Kronic emerged as a new drug in Australia
Produced in New Zealand
Kronic
April: First indication of media interest, which
quickly grew
June: WA government bans 7 synthetic
cannabinoids
–
–...
Google trends: Searches for Kronic

Bright et al. (in press)
Social Media
Smoke ‘em up Party
Federal responses
May 2012: 8 broad groups of synthetic
cannabinoid agonists
Benzoylindoles, Cyclohexylphenols, Dibenzopyr...
How harmful are these new drugs?
• At least 1 Death reported in the media
• Little data: new blends more harmful?
– Barrat...
Why do people use this stuff?
•
•
•
•

They work!
Media and online user forum
It’s apparently legal & safe
Avoid drug test...
Scoring Online
Why do people use this stuff?
•
•
•
•
•
•

They work!
Media and online user forum
It’s apparently legal & safe
Avoid drug ...
The Merry-Go-Round Policy
• Banning individual chemicals as they emerge:
- No “real” decrease in availability
- New and mo...
Alternative Policy Approaches
• Analogues Laws
- Problematic to enforce
- Impede medical research
- Unintended consequence...
Alternative Policy Approaches
• Consumer/Medicine Law

• Regulation
Early Warning System
• Current Monitoring Systems
- EDRS
- Wastewater analysis
- Acute presentations

• An Ideal Monitorin...
Conclusion
“Drug taking is here to stay and one way
or another, we must all learn to live with
drugs”
(Gossop, 2007, p. 20...
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs
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Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs

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By tweaking the molecular structure of banned chemicals, new drugs have been developed to circumvent the law. Despite little information about their toxicity, these new and emerging drugs have been sold online and in Australian adult stores. They are typically professionally packaged and labeled as ‘not for human consumption’. This presentation aims to provide participants with a brief overview of the context within which this phenomenon has developed and the types of products that have been available in Australia. This is a rapidly shifting market – each time one of these new drugs is banned, it seems like two more drugs emerge to replace it. As such, the limitations of legislative responses will be explored and alternative policy options considered. The presentation will also explore the need for better monitoring systems that are able to help us remain abreast of the rapid changes in the market.

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Not for human consumption: new and emerging drugs in Australia - Stephen Bright - DrugInfo seminar - New and emerging drugs

  1. 1. Not For Human Consumption Plant food, bath salts, research chemicals and incense Stephen Bright
  2. 2. Introduction Rapid increase in the availability of new drugs – ECMDAA: from 24 in 2009 to 49 in 2011
  3. 3. Outline • Brief History of Designer Drugs • New and Emerging Drugs in Australia? oVarious powders/pills:  Plant Food, Bath Salts, Research Chemicals … o Synthetic Cannabis (incense) • Reasons For Use • Harm, Prevalence and Monitoring Systems • Policy Options
  4. 4. Borrowing ideas... Cialis Crestor Zocor/Lipex Levitra
  5. 5. First Designer Drugs 1925: 2nd International Opium Convention (revised) - controlled the manufacture & sale of heroin - new drugs (e.g., benzoylmorphine) 1930: First „analogues act‟ introduced
  6. 6. Opening Pandora’s Box
  7. 7. Not For Human Consuption
  8. 8. The Legal Highs Industry Legal High’s “Party Pills” containing BZP
  9. 9. 2008/2009: Plant Food Plant food (e.g., “Dove feeder”)
  10. 10. Cathinone
  11. 11. 2008/2009: Plant Food Phthalimidopropiophenone
  12. 12. 2008/2009: Plant Food 4-methylmethcathinone “Miaow Miaow”
  13. 13. Video slide deleted for online publication.
  14. 14. Bath Salts Flephedrone: 4-fluromethcathinone MDPV: Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Bath Salts
  15. 15. Bath Salts
  16. 16. Synthetic Cocaine
  17. 17. 2nd Generation Synthetic Cocaine • • • • May 2012: MDPV Banned in Australia by TGA No published analysis of “synthetic cocaine” Shaman’s dust  “white bull”, etc. After US banned MDPV, new bathsalts contained: • α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) • Methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (Shanks et al., 2012)
  18. 18. Research Chemicals Methoxetamine (MXE) “Overdose pair had luck and an expert on their side” (Canberra Times, April 13 2013) 25I-NBOMe “NSW teen dies after taking LSD” (National Nine News, December 6 2012)
  19. 19. How harmful are these new drugs? • >1 alleged death • Little data Is this a public health crisis waiting to happen?
  20. 20. Synthetic Cannabis
  21. 21. What is synthetic cannabis? 2004: “Spice” (Deluca et al., 2010)
  22. 22. Kronic 2011: Kronic emerged as a new drug in Australia Produced in New Zealand
  23. 23. Kronic April: First indication of media interest, which quickly grew June: WA government bans 7 synthetic cannabinoids – – – – – – – JWH-018 JWH-073 JWH-122 JWH-200 JWH-250 CP 47,497 The C8 Homologue of CP 47,497
  24. 24. Google trends: Searches for Kronic Bright et al. (in press)
  25. 25. Social Media
  26. 26. Smoke ‘em up Party
  27. 27. Federal responses May 2012: 8 broad groups of synthetic cannabinoid agonists Benzoylindoles, Cyclohexylphenols, Dibenzopyra ns, Naphthoylindoles, Naphthylmethylindoles, N aphthoylpyrroles, Naphthylmethylindenes & Phenylacetylindoles Synthetic cannabinomimetics
  28. 28. How harmful are these new drugs? • At least 1 Death reported in the media • Little data: new blends more harmful? – Barratt, Cakic & Lenton (2013) – 2012 Global Drug Survey • No Cannabidiol (CBD)  psychosis/seizures • Shorter duration of effect  dependence
  29. 29. Why do people use this stuff? • • • • They work! Media and online user forum It’s apparently legal & safe Avoid drug tests
  30. 30. Scoring Online
  31. 31. Why do people use this stuff? • • • • • • They work! Media and online user forum It’s apparently legal & safe Avoid drug tests Availability of new drugs vs. Ecstasy Unwittingly
  32. 32. The Merry-Go-Round Policy • Banning individual chemicals as they emerge: - No “real” decrease in availability - New and more harmful drugs enter market
  33. 33. Alternative Policy Approaches • Analogues Laws - Problematic to enforce - Impede medical research - Unintended consequences
  34. 34. Alternative Policy Approaches • Consumer/Medicine Law • Regulation
  35. 35. Early Warning System • Current Monitoring Systems - EDRS - Wastewater analysis - Acute presentations • An Ideal Monitoring System: - Monitoring the web Monitoring stores Verification via current systems Strategic Communication
  36. 36. Conclusion “Drug taking is here to stay and one way or another, we must all learn to live with drugs” (Gossop, 2007, p. 207) Stephen Bright – PenDAP & Youth sbright@phcn.vic.gov.au 03 9784 7108

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