The French in North America


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The French in North America

  1. 1. The French in North America<br />Richard Ustick<br />
  2. 2. Spain held monopoly on Central and South American colonies<br />French discovered Florida during the 1560’s <br />North America safer but offered less profit<br />Indians became dependent on European trade, but European trade held hostage by Indians<br />Indians craved alcohol, believed it to be an “animate force”, so drinkers were not responsible for their violent actions.<br />American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia<br />
  3. 3. In Indian diplomacy, words were cheap unless accompanied by presents.<br />Europeans differentiated trade and diplomacy.<br />Indians captured and taken to Europe to sell. The Indians would lie and make promises about locations of gold and silver to get home quicker. European disease would kill them before they ever returned to America.<br />St. Lawrence river ideal for fur trade for 5 reasons: Safely distant from Spanish power, location in the north meant thick furs, local Indian groups were skilled hunters, deepest Atlantic access, and Quebec provided a good harbor for ships and a high ground for forts to ward off competitors. <br />Introduction to firearms revolutionized Indian warfare as wood armor and mass formations were rendered useless <br />American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia<br />
  4. 4. Success in war boosted male prestige and influence<br />Material rewards and increased hunting territories were important but secondary goals were t obtain scalps and prisoners from the enemy.<br />“Mourning wars” were conducted, where enemies were raided for prisoners. They were distributed to grieving Iroquois families. Women and children usually adopted. Males were tortured to death and then served in a stew to the village. <br />Iroquois culture required enemies<br />1633-1635, half the Iroquois killed by smallpox and measles <br />American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia<br />
  5. 5. “Mourning war” was a vicious cycle, every family suffered causalities which demanded more captives. Every capture provoked a counter-attack from the enemy, which resulted in more family causalities. <br />Dutch company established a year round trading post on the upper Hudson. Iroquois could obtain guns faster from the Dutch than from the French.<br />French depended on Iroquois hostility to keep other Indians from reaching the Dutch trading post.<br />American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia<br />
  6. 6. Seventeenth century Europeans recognized non-Europeans as socially and culturally inferior, but not racially incapable of equality. Europeans looked at social rank, not as much at skin color.<br />Natives did not believe in a concept of “heaven” and “hell”, but rather a dream world where they lived an identical life to the present world.<br />1648-49, Iroquois attacked the Huron villages, By 1650 all Huron villages were destroyed, to deter their thousands of captives from running away. Iroquois hunted down to kill or capture all Huron survivors. <br />American Colonies 5 - Canada and Iroquoia<br />
  7. 7. Canadian French protected by colder climate and difficult access from invasion, and limited numbers reduced friction with Indians<br />British colonies grew, French turned to Indian protection<br />French claimed and affected more of the continent than did any other empire. <br />Until 1663, Canada belonged to the fur-trading Company of New France, and not to the French Crown<br />Due to slow growth rates, the crown began a series of subsidized emigrations. This program failed and between 60-75% of the French returned to Europe.<br />American Colonies 16 – French America<br />
  8. 8. New France failed to develop a self-sustaining and self-financing chain migration.<br />French peasantry remained rooted in their land and refused to leave it, with 85% of French families owning fewer than 13 acres during the mid 1600’s<br />Most French preferred the better climates of the West Indies than Canada.<br />In most years, the military expenditures exceeded the value of the fur trade.<br />Most French who emigrated to Canada and stayed improved <br /> their status and standard of living. There was regular <br /> intake of meat and white bread, the New French were<br /> warmer in the winter due to smaller houses and <br /> plenty of firewood, the New French could afford horses, <br /> and they were allowed to hunt, which wasn’t allowed in France.<br />American Colonies 16 – French America<br />
  9. 9. French adapted to the cold and transformed winter into a cherished season of festive visiting, facilitated by horse-drawn sleighs, this festive visiting called “carioles”<br />French law treated wives as equal economic partners with their husbands, in contrast to English law, which dissolved the wife’s identity into that of her spouse. <br />Due to entry cost and the demanding lifestyle, fewer than 4 percent of Canadian women became nuns.<br />To govern New France, the crown appointed a military governor-general, a civil administrator (known ad the intendant), and a Catholic bishop. <br />The crown regarded Catholic uniformity as essential to the political subserviency of its subjects.<br />American Colonies 16 – French America<br />
  10. 10. New France conducted no witch-hunts and executed no one for occult practices, in contrast to New England. <br />French established no elective assembly to represent the colonists. Instead the crown appointed a sovereign council, consisting of 5 to 7 seigneurs, as well as the governor-general, bishop, intendant and attorney general. <br />Church and state saw any point in educating the common people, and the result was no schools beyond the 3 major towns, and less than a quarter of the habitants could read and write.<br />New France lacked the town or country governments that permitted so much local autonomy in the British colonies. Chronic Warfare and the law required every male between 16-60 to serve in the militia. <br />In New France, the crown worked to reinforce social rank <br /> with assured prosperity. When officers or officials died, their <br /> widows received annual government pensions to uphold their <br /> noble standard of living. <br />American Colonies 16 – French America<br />
  11. 11. Canadian Indians remained sovereign peoples rather than French subjects.<br />In the native world, there was no mediation without presents.<br />Louisiana founded by convicts and military conscripts and failed to develop a profitable export staple. <br />Company of the Indies surrendered Louisiana to French crown in 1731.<br />French employed black slaves to fight in militias. Courageous ones won their freedom. Rebel slaves punished by being turned over to the Indians for burning to death.<br />Soldiers treated poorly. Their payments were embezzled and their equipment was sold.<br />American Colonies 16 – French America<br />
  12. 12. Blacks and natives relied on to control the lower-class whites.<br />French expanded their tobacco plantations up the Mississippi and built a fort near the Natchez villages. This provoked hostility among the Natchez. They staged an uprising on November 28, 1729, and killed the commander of Fort Rosalie, after he ordered them to displace. This was a double blow to the French because African slaves sympathized with the Indians and took up arms against the French.<br />During the 1600’s, the Catawba, Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw and Choctaw formed a loose confederation for protection.<br />British constantly had trade advantage of Price, Quantity and quality in the supply of cloth, guns, and alcohol.<br />Due to the financial drain of New France and Louisiana, the crown ordered a withdrawal from upper-country posts in 1696. <br />Indians became dependent on trade and considered cessation to be an act of war.<br />American Colonies 16 – French America<br />