2. We are going to have a little pre-test (not assessed!) to find out what you already know There are 25 questions Answer each of the following questions True or False. Your answers should reflect what you understand that biologists think, not your personal opinion
3. 1. Evolution is as much a fact as the fact that planets go around the Sun. 2. Evolution is something a person should either believe in, or not believe in. 3. Evolution is a process that includes the origin of life. 4. Evolution is primarily concerned with the origin of humans. 5. According to evolution, people came from monkeys a long time ago.
4. 6. Evolution was first proposed and explained by Charles Darwin. 7. Evolution is also known as "Natural Selection". 8. Evolution is something that happened only in the past; it is not happening now. 9. Evolution is something that happens to individual organisms. 10. Evolution is a totally random process, a series of accidents.
5. 11. Evolution was developed as an idea to destroy or undermine religion. 12. In order to accept evolution as a real process, you cannot believe in God. 13. Most major religions have officially declared that they have NO conflict with evolution. 14. Evolution simply means "change." 15. Evolution is only a theory.
6. 16. Evolution is like a chain, with each group of organisms evolving into the next "link" in the chain. 17. There are many transitional fossils, with traits intermediate between different groups, as expected if evolution happened. 18. Fossils reveal many problems that evolution cannot explain. 19. Biological, medical and agricultural research increasingly assumes that evolution occurs. 20. Evolution has been tested and challenged many times, but has always been supported by the results.
7. 21. Big dinosaurs were common during the time of early humans. 22. Evolution involves individuals changing in order to adapt to their environment. 23. According to evolution, new species usually result from major mutations in a single generation. 24. Most of the major groups of animals suddenly appeared in the "Cambrian Explosion." 25. The formation of complex structures, like the eye, can now be easily explained by evolution.
8. Biological Evolution.. 1. is NOT a theory...(it is a FACT; it has been observed directly, and its extension to all life is supported by more evidence than there is for the spherical shape of the planets, and there is no evidence against it.) 2. is NOT something one should believe in...(its based on science, not faith). 3. Is NOT concerned with the origin of life... (it deals only with the origin of species). 4. Is NOT just concerned with the origin of humans...(no more than any other species).
9. Biological Evolution.. 5. was NOT discovered or first explained by Charles Darwin... (there were others) 6. is NOT the same thing as natural selection...(which is the how of evolution, the real "Theory of Evolution ...by Natural Selection", also deeply confirmed). 7. is NOT something that happened only in the past... (its still going on). 8. is NOT something that happens to individuals...(it happens to populations).
10. Biological Evolution.. 9. is NOT an accidental or random process...(there are built-in limited options and selective aspects; even mutations are influenced by environmental factors). Its complex patterns are just as natural as the randomly generated and diverse patterns of snowflakes and crystals. 10. does NOT have any evidence against it... (all observations support it). 11. was NOT contrived to undermine religion...(rather, our awareness of it grew as we tried to make sense of many observations of life ithat were not consistent with traditional explanations.
11. Biological Evolution.. 12. does NOT deny the existence of God...(It is neutral; God is neither required nor eliminated; for all we know, evolution could be part of Gods creation, or it might not, but science cannot determine that). 13. does NOT conflict with any religion...(It cant, since it is only another way of trying to make sense of the natural world, based on scientific observation and critical analysis. Most religions have no problem with evolution, and those that do typically base their objections on an inaccurate view of science and evolution).
12. Biological Evolution is essentially the process whereby new species arise from earlier species by accumulated changes. This is often referred to as "descent with modification." At the species level, this speciation process is sometimes called microevolution.
13. By extension, as this process of speciation proceeds with time, increasing numbers of species appear, becoming increasingly different. The pattern of this, over time, looks like a branching tree; all the species we see today are like the growing tips of that tree, except that each tip has become somewhat different from the others (unlike a real tree). Close clusters of tips are most similar, and have most recently branched (evolved); more distant tips are more different, and can be traced to much lower (earlier) branchings in the tree.
14. The recognition of this pattern of change of life-forms over time was developed from many observations. It has even been directly observed in some species, and inferred in many others from clear independent evidence mainly in comparative anatomy Embryology Paleontology Geology Biogeography molecular biology. Although there are some curious examples of evolution, there are no empirical observations of life, living or extinct, that evolution cannot explain, and there is no evidence against evolution.
15. The mechanism for how evolution happens has been largely explained by natural selection. In 1859, Charles Darwin published his best known book (out of some 25 books he wrote): On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. In it, he presented the results of some 20 years of work pulling together massive amounts of evidence showing how natural selection must be the primary working mechanism for evolution. Natural selection is observed constantly, and its role as the main driving force of evolution has been observed, tested and challenged many times and in many ways, and has survived fully intact.
16. In short, evolution as a real phenomenon is scientifically solid; it is a scientifically demonstrated fact; and the scientific theory for how evolution happens is so well documented by the evidence that this explanation is as close to a scientific fact as any explanation can be. Remember: scientific facts refer to observed or demonstrated natural phenomena, e.g., evolution; scientific theories are the best explanations we have for how those phenomena occur, e.g., the theory of natural selection.