Melia Hanoi, Hanoi Vietnam
Renewable Energy and Rural Development
• Country Data
• Energy Sector of Myanmar
• Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar
• CDM Possibilities
Location:Location: Latitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ NLatitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ N
Longitude 92° 10’ – 101° 11’ ELongitude 92° 10’ – 101° 11’ E
Land wiseLand wise
North to SouthNorth to South 2,060 Km2,060 Km
East to WestEast to West 945 Km945 Km
Area:Area: 67.65 million-hectares67.65 million-hectares
(676,577 sq km)(676,577 sq km)
PopulationPopulation 59.78 million59.78 million
Growth rateGrowth rate 1.84%1.84%
Rural populationRural population 69%69%
EastEast Thailand and LaosThailand and Laos
WestWest India and BangladeshIndia and Bangladesh
Republic The Union of Myanmar
Energy Sector of Myanmar
Oil and Gas Sub-sector -Ministry of Energy
Electric Power Sector -Ministry of Electric Power
Biomass (Fuel wood) Sector -Ministry of Forestry
Coal Sub-sector -Ministry of Mines
Renewable Energy -Ministry of Science &Technology
Policy for Energy Development
Promote the utilization of renewable energy
Prevent deforestation caused by excessive use of fuel
wood and charcoal
Potential Energy Resources in Myanmar
Crude oil ( offshore & on-shore )
( proven + probable )
648.59 MMBBL ( Million barrel )
Natural gas ( offshore & on-shore )
( proven + probable )
122.5391 TSCF ( Trillion Std. Cubic Feet )
Hydro power 108,000 MW ( Mega Watt )
Coal 711 Million Metric Tons
Biomass 1. 54 million acres covered with forest amounting to
32.3 % of total land area
2. Potential available annual yield of wood-fuel up to
58.36 million cubic ton
3. 18.56 million acre of lands could generate residues,
by products or direct feed stocks for biomass energy
4. 209 million heads of livestock could generate animal
waste for biogas
Wind 365.1 TWH per year ( Terra Watt Hour/year )
Costal strip of 2,832 Km with
•Southwesterly wind – 9 months
•Northeasterly wind – 3 months
Solar power 51,973.8 TWH per year ( Terra Watt Hour / year )
Power Generation By Hydropower, Coal and Gas
Sr. Type of Plant Qty of Plants
1 Hydropower Plants 19 2660 MW
2 Coal Powered Generating Plants 1 120 MW
3 Gas Powered Generating Plants 15 714 MW
35 Plants 3494 MWTotal
Goals for Renewable Energy Development
• To minimize the country’s reliance on imported fuels.
• To create alternative markets for agricultural commodities.
• To ensure both food and energy security.
• To increase in rural employment
• To develop small and medium industries through benefits
from emerging bio-energy opportunities.
• To reduce the environmental pollution on local, regional and
• To sustain environmental conditions.
• To reduce the poverty in rural area
Renewable Energy and Rural Development in
• Solar Energy
• Wind Energy
• Tidal Energy in Myanmar
• Biomass Energy
- Rice Husk Gasifier
• Sun shine all year round, especially in the Central Myanmar Dry
• Potential available solar energy of Myanmar is around 51973.8
TWh per year
• Salt industry and other dry food industries are conventionally
applied at commercial scale
• Research and innovation of solar heating systems are carrying out
by some private entrepreneurs, NGOs and departmental concern
• Solar water heater application in cold areas and hotels has been
found to be extensive through out the country
• Establishment of
- village domestic water supply system (more than 75 stations)
- vaccine refrigeration system (about 400 units)
at remote appeared in Myanmar around 2007.
• Market potential for SPV modules is high in Myanmar.
• SPV modules imported from Singapore, Thailand, China, India and
Japan are commonly available Myanmar market.
• Potentially available Wind Energy of 360.1 Wh per year
(NEDO of Japan performed in 1997 )
• Promising areas to harness wind energy are in three regions
- Hilly Regions of Chin and Shan states
- Coastal regions in the south and western part of the
- Central part of Myanmar.
• Wind power potential in Myanmar is relatively low and
• Only a very few small wind generators are used in lower part
of the country.
• 300-600 W capacity are available in private market and
mostly are imported from China.
• Individual scale of water-pumping, wind mill & generate
electricity in rural area.
Chaung Thar Hybrid Power Supply System Project
• Objective: Demonstrative
research on a grid-connected
• NEWJEC, INC
• Dept. of Electric Power, MOEP
• US$ 5 million
Population 6,325 / 1307 households
1 High School
2 Monasteries with 2 Community Halls
1 Hospital with 16 Beds
1 Police Station
1 MEPE office
1 Post & Telecom Office & Street
• Street lighting contributing to the safer environment
during the night
• Night lighting contributing to the extension of villagers’
economic and productive activities
• Clinic lighting, more vaccine refrigeration and more power
for medical equipment usage
• Approx. 98.8 ton of carbon dioxide reduction in a year
Chaung Thar Hybrid Power Supply System Project
Hydropower Resources in MyanmarHydropower Resources in Myanmar
Numbers of Potentials
≤50 MW >50 MW
1 Kachin State 5 14 18,744.5
2 Kayah State 2 3 954.0
3 Kayin State 1 8 7,064.0
4 Sagaing Region 2 4 2,830.0
5 Tanintharyi Region 5 1 711.0
6 Bago Region 4 4 538.0
7 Magway Region 2 3 359.0
8 Mandalay Region 3 6 1,555.0
9 Mon State 1 1 290.0
10 Rakhine State 3 3 764.5
11 Shan States
East 1 3 719.8
South 3 5 7,569.5
North - 5 4,000.0
>10 MW 32 60 46,099.30
12 <10MW 210 231.25
Total 302 46330.55
• Myanmar has abundant small hydro potentials
• Turbine manufacturing and installation technology.
• The small hydro potential, nearly 60 sites suitable for small
hydro (170 MW in total potential output).
• Up to 2008, 33 small hydro power projects were generating
• Village Hydros (<50kW) and turbine generator installations of
1 kW or less in hilly regions.
• Myanmar has more than 2800 km of coastline with numerous
small creeks suitable for harnessing the tidal energy
• available for electrification of rural remote villages
Tidal Energy Project (Kanbalar) Village, Ayeyarwaddy
Division in Myanmar
Name of Village - Kanbalar
Township - Ngapu-daw, Pathein,
House hold /Population - 220 / 1200
Distance from National Grid - 150 km
- Agricultural Wastes
- Energy Crops
- Industrial Wastes
- Municipal Solid Wastes
- Animal Wastes
Types of Biogas Plant
• Plant with movable gasholder
• Plant with built-in (fixed dome) gasholder
Uses of Biogas
• Preservation of grains
• Preparation of fodder
• Drive internal combustion engine
• Agriculture-based country, so many cattle and goats in central
Myanmar Regione specially Nay Pyi Taw, Mandalay, Sagaing,
Magway, Ayeyarwaddy Division, and Shan, Kayah, Kachin State.
• On the average, the dung dropping of a medium size animal is
estimated at 10 kg/day capable of producing 0.5 m3
• The availability of Animal dung in Myanmar is shown in the
Domestic animal Number
(MT per year)
1 Cattle 11.2 20.3
2 Buffalo 2.5 4.5
3 Sheep & Goat 1.9 1.2
4 Pigs 4.2 3.8
5 Chicken 63.0 1.9
Availability of Animal Dungs
• Biogas utilization since 1980 and in 1983 (867 floating type
biogas plant, family size digesters, 134 townships, floating
type biogas plant ). Biogas is mainly used for cooking and
• Requirement of the intensive maintenance, and short life-
time of the floating drum
• For the plan period 2001-2005, YTU under the MOST, the
dissemination of biogas technology for rural development
• About 100 Nos. of cow in a village, approximately 50m3
biogas can be provided by 50m3
in size, fixed dome type
• Since 2002, community size biogas digesters for village
electrification have been constructed and utilized in Central
region - Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Region and Northern Shan
• These digesters are 25, 50, 100 cubic meter in size, Fixed
Dome Type electricity producing biogas plants with installed
capacity of 5-15 KW, serving 177 villages with 4 hours per day of
Constructed and Using Biogas Plants
in States and Regions, 2012
No. States / Regions No. of Constructed Digester Total
Digester for Village Digester for Family
1. Nay Pyi Taw 6 12 18
2. Mandalay 108 3 111
3. Sagaing 23 2 25
4. Magway 9 - 9
5. Shan (North) 1 - 1
6. Shan (South) 2 1 3
7. Shan (East) 1 1 2
8. Kayar (Loikaw) 1 - 1
9. Ayeyarwady (Pathein) - 2 2
10. Kachin - 3 3
11. Rakhine - 1 1
12. Mon - 1 1
Total 151 26 177 31
• All houses, monasteries and streets (two hours in the early
mornings and four hours in the evenings).
• In 2009, 26 Nos of 6-12 cubic meter size of family-sized, fixed
dome type biogas digester has been developed by biogas
project group and utilized in integrated farming system.
in size, MMO model Fixed Dome Type Biogas Plant is
about 60,00,000 Kyats including the cost of 25HP, 15 KVA
• Supposed to be 300 houses in a village, each household will
have to pay 600 Kyats/month for one fluorescence tube,
1,50,000 Kyats can be collected in all and the investment of
biogas plant will be covered with in three or four years.
Stimulating Agricultural Production
• Animal excreta, crop stalks, vegetable waste and leaves
become thoroughly decomposed after fermentation when
sealed airtight in these biogas pits.
• Their nitrogen content is transformed into ammonia, which is
easier for plants to absorb, and therefore improve the
Rice – Husk Gasifier
• Rice is the main farm product and is mass-produced (22
million tons of rice are produced annually)
• A large sum of rice husks are excreted in rice mills (produced
all year round due to continuous operation)
• Some rice mills use rice husks as fuel to generate steam for
• Rice mills using motors or diesel engines ( so produce surplus
• To produce biodiesel at the community level by using small
scale biodiesel plants
• Driving single cylinder agriculture machines and water pumps
• The Government’s Guidance for The Development of The Bio-
• Increase Palm plantation in available land (existing production
is 5800 metric ton of crude palm from 166,204 acres = 67261
• To promote Physic nut / Jatropha / Castrol Oil plantation and
achieve 8 million acres (3.24 million hectare) within (2005-
• To encourage the private sector participation.
Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha curcasOil
with Methanol and with Ethanol
BIODIESEL Pilot Plant of
30 gal / day capacity Biodiesel
CDM PossibilitiesCDM Possibilities
• CDM Projects are new to Myanmar.
• No Project had been accomplished.
- Waste Heat Recovery Projects in Power Industry (Gas Turbines),
Cement Industry, Petroleum Industry etc….
- RE Power Generation – Biomass Gasifier
- Waste to Energy Projects - Industrial wastes
- Distilleries, Beverage Industry, Starch
and Chemical Industry etc.)
- MSW to Energy – Yangon, Mandalay
and State and Division Level Towns.
- Fossil Fuel Displacement Project – Steam generation by Biomass
Energy (Rice Husk, Wood Chips)
- Energy Efficiency and Consecration (EE&C) Projects.
- Teak and Energy Plantations, Mangrove Replanting.
accumulate for sizable
• Myanmar possesses the full potential of RE development in
almost every sector. Main potential areas are Hydropower and
• Myanmar has abundant renewable energy sources.
• Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Oceanic Energy potentialities can
also be exploited.
• Large-scale hydro electric power will surely continue to be
developed as a main power source
• Micro hydropower development will also continue for
electrifying small villages.
• Solar power, due to its high cost, but good potential for
community size projects.
• Wind power, it has a poor prospect since favorable sites for
wind power generation are very few, but can be used with solar
system in hybrid applications.
• Biogas production from municipal and agricultural waste and
to disseminate the Biogas Technology in order to implement
the low cost family size biogas plant for cooking and lighting
in rural area.
• More development works with appropriate technologies are
required in renewable energy application.
• The Electrification rate of Myanmar is currently around (26)%
and this ratio must be (60)% in the year 2020. Within (8)years
Myanmar must add (34)% more to the electricity generation.
The present national installed capacity is around (3494)MW.
So Myanmar needs total installed capacity of (8063)MW in
the year 2020. It needs to increase (4.25)% or (571)MW
annually. This is for the total electricity sector and RE may be
(20)% of this capacity. So RE sector must generate electricity
of (114)MW annually starting from 2012 to 2020 (Excluding
Large Hydropower Projects Public, Private or PPP).