Melia Hanoi, Hanoi Vietnam
20th
,November,2012
Renewable Energy and Rural Development
in Myanmar
Contents
• Country Data
• Energy Sector of Myanmar
• Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar
• CDM Possibilities...
Location:Location: Latitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ NLatitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ N
Longitude 92° 10’ – 101° 11’ ELongitude 92° 10’ ...
Energy Sector of Myanmar
Oil and Gas Sub-sector -Ministry of Energy
Electric Power Sector -Ministry of Electric Power
Biom...
Policy for Energy Development
 Energy Development
 Increase Self-Sufficiency
 Promote the utilization of renewable ener...
Energy Status of The Country
Energy Consumption by Types
Potential Energy Resources in Myanmar
Crude oil ( offshore & on-shore )
( proven + probable )
648.59 MMBBL ( Million barre...
Power Generation By Hydropower, Coal and Gas
Sr. Type of Plant Qty of Plants
Tatal Installed
Capacity
1 Hydropower Plants ...
Goals for Renewable Energy Development
• To minimize the country’s reliance on imported fuels.
• To create alternative mar...
Renewable Energy and Rural Development in
Myanmar
• Solar Energy
• Wind Energy
• Hydropower
• Tidal Energy in Myanmar
• Bi...
Solar Energy
• Sun shine all year round, especially in the Central Myanmar Dry
Zone Area
• Potential available solar energ...
• Establishment of
- village domestic water supply system (more than 75 stations)
- vaccine refrigeration system (about 40...
Wind Energy
• Potentially available Wind Energy of 360.1 Wh per year
(NEDO of Japan performed in 1997 )
• Promising areas ...
• Only a very few small wind generators are used in lower part
of the country.
• 300-600 W capacity are available in priva...
Chaung Thar Hybrid Power Supply System Project
• Objective: Demonstrative
research on a grid-connected
PV systems
• NEWJEC...
Population 6,325 / 1307 households
Public Facilities:
1 High School
2 Monasteries with 2 Community Halls
1 Hospital with 1...
Hydropower Resources in MyanmarHydropower Resources in Myanmar
Sr.
No State/Region
Numbers of Potentials
Capacity (MW)>10M...
Micro-hydro Energy
• Myanmar has abundant small hydro potentials
• Turbine manufacturing and installation technology.
• Th...
Tidal Energy
• Myanmar has more than 2800 km of coastline with numerous
small creeks suitable for harnessing the tidal ene...
Source Materials
- Agricultural Wastes
- Energy Crops
- Industrial Wastes
- Municipal Solid Wastes
- Animal Wastes
Biomass...
Types of Biogas Plant
• Plant with movable gasholder
• Plant with built-in (fixed dome) gasholder
Uses of Biogas
• Cooking...
• Agriculture-based country, so many cattle and goats in central
Myanmar Regione specially Nay Pyi Taw, Mandalay, Sagaing,...
• Biogas utilization since 1980 and in 1983 (867 floating type
biogas plant, family size digesters, 134 townships, floatin...
• Since 2002, community size biogas digesters for village
electrification have been constructed and utilized in Central
re...
Constructed and Using Biogas Plants
in States and Regions, 2012
No. States / Regions No. of Constructed Digester Total
Dig...
• All houses, monasteries and streets (two hours in the early
mornings and four hours in the evenings).
• In 2009, 26 Nos ...
• 50m3
in size, MMO model Fixed Dome Type Biogas Plant is
about 60,00,000 Kyats including the cost of 25HP, 15 KVA
engine
...
Stimulating Agricultural Production
• Animal excreta, crop stalks, vegetable waste and leaves
become thoroughly decomposed...
Gasification
Gasifier
Producer
Gas
Biomass
Rice – Husk Gasifier
• Rice is the main farm product and is mass-produced (22
million tons of rice are produced annually)
• A large sum of rice...
Biofuels
• To produce biodiesel at the community level by using small
scale biodiesel plants
• Driving single cylinder agr...
Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha curcasOil
with Methanol and with Ethanol
BIODIESEL Pilot Plant of
Boidiesel Processo...
CDM PossibilitiesCDM Possibilities
• CDM Projects are new to Myanmar.
• No Project had been accomplished.
- Waste Heat Rec...
Conclusion
• Myanmar possesses the full potential of RE development in
almost every sector. Main potential areas are Hydro...
• Biogas production from municipal and agricultural waste and
to disseminate the Biogas Technology in order to implement
t...
44
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Annex 20 (myanmar) renewable energy

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Annex 20 (myanmar) renewable energy

  1. 1. Melia Hanoi, Hanoi Vietnam 20th ,November,2012 Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar
  2. 2. Contents • Country Data • Energy Sector of Myanmar • Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar • CDM Possibilities • Conclusion
  3. 3. Location:Location: Latitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ NLatitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ N Longitude 92° 10’ – 101° 11’ ELongitude 92° 10’ – 101° 11’ E Land wiseLand wise North to SouthNorth to South 2,060 Km2,060 Km East to WestEast to West 945 Km945 Km Area:Area: 67.65 million-hectares67.65 million-hectares (676,577 sq km)(676,577 sq km) PopulationPopulation 59.78 million59.78 million Growth rateGrowth rate 1.84%1.84% Rural populationRural population 69%69% NorthNorth ChinaChina EastEast Thailand and LaosThailand and Laos PDRPDR WestWest India and BangladeshIndia and Bangladesh SouthSouth ThailandThailand Republic The Union of Myanmar
  4. 4. Energy Sector of Myanmar Oil and Gas Sub-sector -Ministry of Energy Electric Power Sector -Ministry of Electric Power Biomass (Fuel wood) Sector -Ministry of Forestry Coal Sub-sector -Ministry of Mines Renewable Energy -Ministry of Science &Technology
  5. 5. Policy for Energy Development  Energy Development  Increase Self-Sufficiency  Promote the utilization of renewable energy  Prevent deforestation caused by excessive use of fuel wood and charcoal
  6. 6. Energy Status of The Country
  7. 7. Energy Consumption by Types
  8. 8. Potential Energy Resources in Myanmar Crude oil ( offshore & on-shore ) ( proven + probable ) 648.59 MMBBL ( Million barrel ) Natural gas ( offshore & on-shore ) ( proven + probable ) 122.5391 TSCF ( Trillion Std. Cubic Feet ) Hydro power 108,000 MW ( Mega Watt ) Coal 711 Million Metric Tons Biomass 1. 54 million acres covered with forest amounting to 32.3 % of total land area 2. Potential available annual yield of wood-fuel up to 58.36 million cubic ton 3. 18.56 million acre of lands could generate residues, by products or direct feed stocks for biomass energy 4. 209 million heads of livestock could generate animal waste for biogas Wind 365.1 TWH per year ( Terra Watt Hour/year ) Costal strip of 2,832 Km with •Southwesterly wind – 9 months •Northeasterly wind – 3 months Solar power 51,973.8 TWH per year ( Terra Watt Hour / year )
  9. 9. Power Generation By Hydropower, Coal and Gas Sr. Type of Plant Qty of Plants Tatal Installed Capacity 1 Hydropower Plants 19 2660 MW 2 Coal Powered Generating Plants 1 120 MW 3 Gas Powered Generating Plants 15 714 MW 35 Plants 3494 MWTotal
  10. 10. Goals for Renewable Energy Development • To minimize the country’s reliance on imported fuels. • To create alternative markets for agricultural commodities. • To ensure both food and energy security. • To increase in rural employment • To develop small and medium industries through benefits from emerging bio-energy opportunities. • To reduce the environmental pollution on local, regional and global scale. • To sustain environmental conditions. • To reduce the poverty in rural area
  11. 11. Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar • Solar Energy • Wind Energy • Hydropower • Tidal Energy in Myanmar • Biomass Energy - Biogas - Rice Husk Gasifier - Biofuel
  12. 12. Solar Energy • Sun shine all year round, especially in the Central Myanmar Dry Zone Area • Potential available solar energy of Myanmar is around 51973.8 TWh per year • Salt industry and other dry food industries are conventionally applied at commercial scale • Research and innovation of solar heating systems are carrying out by some private entrepreneurs, NGOs and departmental concern • Solar water heater application in cold areas and hotels has been found to be extensive through out the country
  13. 13. • Establishment of - village domestic water supply system (more than 75 stations) - vaccine refrigeration system (about 400 units) at remote appeared in Myanmar around 2007. • Market potential for SPV modules is high in Myanmar. • SPV modules imported from Singapore, Thailand, China, India and Japan are commonly available Myanmar market.
  14. 14. Wind Energy • Potentially available Wind Energy of 360.1 Wh per year (NEDO of Japan performed in 1997 ) • Promising areas to harness wind energy are in three regions - Hilly Regions of Chin and Shan states - Coastal regions in the south and western part of the country - Central part of Myanmar. • Wind power potential in Myanmar is relatively low and irregular
  15. 15. • Only a very few small wind generators are used in lower part of the country. • 300-600 W capacity are available in private market and mostly are imported from China. • Individual scale of water-pumping, wind mill & generate electricity in rural area.
  16. 16. Chaung Thar Hybrid Power Supply System Project • Objective: Demonstrative research on a grid-connected PV systems • NEWJEC, INC • Dept. of Electric Power, MOEP • US$ 5 million
  17. 17. Population 6,325 / 1307 households Public Facilities: 1 High School 2 Monasteries with 2 Community Halls 1 Hospital with 16 Beds 1 Police Station 1 MEPE office 1 Post & Telecom Office & Street Lighting • Street lighting contributing to the safer environment during the night • Night lighting contributing to the extension of villagers’ economic and productive activities • Clinic lighting, more vaccine refrigeration and more power for medical equipment usage • Approx. 98.8 ton of carbon dioxide reduction in a year Chaung Thar Hybrid Power Supply System Project
  18. 18. Hydropower Resources in MyanmarHydropower Resources in Myanmar Sr. No State/Region Numbers of Potentials Capacity (MW)>10MW ≤50 MW >50 MW 1 Kachin State 5 14 18,744.5 2 Kayah State 2 3 954.0 3 Kayin State 1 8 7,064.0 4 Sagaing Region 2 4 2,830.0 5 Tanintharyi Region 5 1 711.0 6 Bago Region 4 4 538.0 7 Magway Region 2 3 359.0 8 Mandalay Region 3 6 1,555.0 9 Mon State 1 1 290.0 10 Rakhine State 3 3 764.5 11 Shan States East 1 3 719.8 South 3 5 7,569.5 North - 5 4,000.0 >10 MW 32 60 46,099.30 12 <10MW 210 231.25 Total 302 46330.55 Hydropower
  19. 19. Micro-hydro Energy • Myanmar has abundant small hydro potentials • Turbine manufacturing and installation technology. • The small hydro potential, nearly 60 sites suitable for small hydro (170 MW in total potential output). • Up to 2008, 33 small hydro power projects were generating (35.97MW) • Village Hydros (<50kW) and turbine generator installations of 1 kW or less in hilly regions.
  20. 20. Tidal Energy • Myanmar has more than 2800 km of coastline with numerous small creeks suitable for harnessing the tidal energy • available for electrification of rural remote villages Tidal Energy Project (Kanbalar) Village, Ayeyarwaddy Division in Myanmar Site Location Name of Village - Kanbalar Township - Ngapu-daw, Pathein, Ayeyarwaddy Division House hold /Population - 220 / 1200 Distance from National Grid - 150 km
  21. 21. Source Materials - Agricultural Wastes - Energy Crops - Industrial Wastes - Municipal Solid Wastes - Animal Wastes Biomass Energy
  22. 22. Types of Biogas Plant • Plant with movable gasholder • Plant with built-in (fixed dome) gasholder Uses of Biogas • Cooking • Lighting • Preservation of grains • Preparation of fodder • Drive internal combustion engine Biogas
  23. 23. • Agriculture-based country, so many cattle and goats in central Myanmar Regione specially Nay Pyi Taw, Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway, Ayeyarwaddy Division, and Shan, Kayah, Kachin State. • On the average, the dung dropping of a medium size animal is estimated at 10 kg/day capable of producing 0.5 m3 biogas • The availability of Animal dung in Myanmar is shown in the following table. Sr. No. Domestic animal Number (million) Excreta (MT per year) 1 Cattle 11.2 20.3 2 Buffalo 2.5 4.5 3 Sheep & Goat 1.9 1.2 4 Pigs 4.2 3.8 5 Chicken 63.0 1.9 Total 31.7 Availability of Animal Dungs
  24. 24. • Biogas utilization since 1980 and in 1983 (867 floating type biogas plant, family size digesters, 134 townships, floating type biogas plant ). Biogas is mainly used for cooking and lighting • Requirement of the intensive maintenance, and short life- time of the floating drum • For the plan period 2001-2005, YTU under the MOST, the dissemination of biogas technology for rural development • About 100 Nos. of cow in a village, approximately 50m3 of biogas can be provided by 50m3 in size, fixed dome type biogas plant.
  25. 25. • Since 2002, community size biogas digesters for village electrification have been constructed and utilized in Central region - Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Region and Northern Shan State. • These digesters are 25, 50, 100 cubic meter in size, Fixed Dome Type electricity producing biogas plants with installed capacity of 5-15 KW, serving 177 villages with 4 hours per day of electricity. 30
  26. 26. Constructed and Using Biogas Plants in States and Regions, 2012 No. States / Regions No. of Constructed Digester Total Digester for Village Digester for Family 1. Nay Pyi Taw 6 12 18 2. Mandalay 108 3 111 3. Sagaing 23 2 25 4. Magway 9 - 9 5. Shan (North) 1 - 1 6. Shan (South) 2 1 3 7. Shan (East) 1 1 2 8. Kayar (Loikaw) 1 - 1 9. Ayeyarwady (Pathein) - 2 2 10. Kachin - 3 3 11. Rakhine - 1 1 12. Mon - 1 1 Total 151 26 177 31
  27. 27. • All houses, monasteries and streets (two hours in the early mornings and four hours in the evenings). • In 2009, 26 Nos of 6-12 cubic meter size of family-sized, fixed dome type biogas digester has been developed by biogas project group and utilized in integrated farming system.
  28. 28. • 50m3 in size, MMO model Fixed Dome Type Biogas Plant is about 60,00,000 Kyats including the cost of 25HP, 15 KVA engine • Supposed to be 300 houses in a village, each household will have to pay 600 Kyats/month for one fluorescence tube, 1,50,000 Kyats can be collected in all and the investment of biogas plant will be covered with in three or four years.
  29. 29. Stimulating Agricultural Production • Animal excreta, crop stalks, vegetable waste and leaves become thoroughly decomposed after fermentation when sealed airtight in these biogas pits. • Their nitrogen content is transformed into ammonia, which is easier for plants to absorb, and therefore improve the fertilizer.
  30. 30. Gasification Gasifier Producer Gas Biomass Rice – Husk Gasifier
  31. 31. • Rice is the main farm product and is mass-produced (22 million tons of rice are produced annually) • A large sum of rice husks are excreted in rice mills (produced all year round due to continuous operation) • Some rice mills use rice husks as fuel to generate steam for steam engines • Rice mills using motors or diesel engines ( so produce surplus rice husks)
  32. 32. Biofuels • To produce biodiesel at the community level by using small scale biodiesel plants • Driving single cylinder agriculture machines and water pumps are presented • The Government’s Guidance for The Development of The Bio- diesel Production • Increase Palm plantation in available land (existing production is 5800 metric ton of crude palm from 166,204 acres = 67261 hectare). • To promote Physic nut / Jatropha / Castrol Oil plantation and achieve 8 million acres (3.24 million hectare) within (2005- 2011) years. • To encourage the private sector participation.
  33. 33. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha curcasOil with Methanol and with Ethanol BIODIESEL Pilot Plant of Boidiesel Processor 60 Liter/Day 30 gal / day capacity Biodiesel Pilot Plant Biodiesel
  34. 34. CDM PossibilitiesCDM Possibilities • CDM Projects are new to Myanmar. • No Project had been accomplished. - Waste Heat Recovery Projects in Power Industry (Gas Turbines), Cement Industry, Petroleum Industry etc…. - RE Power Generation – Biomass Gasifier Biogas Plants - Waste to Energy Projects - Industrial wastes - Distilleries, Beverage Industry, Starch and Chemical Industry etc.) - MSW to Energy – Yangon, Mandalay and State and Division Level Towns. - Fossil Fuel Displacement Project – Steam generation by Biomass Energy (Rice Husk, Wood Chips) - Energy Efficiency and Consecration (EE&C) Projects. - Teak and Energy Plantations, Mangrove Replanting. accumulate for sizable power output.
  35. 35. Conclusion • Myanmar possesses the full potential of RE development in almost every sector. Main potential areas are Hydropower and Biomass Energy. • Myanmar has abundant renewable energy sources. • Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Oceanic Energy potentialities can also be exploited. • Large-scale hydro electric power will surely continue to be developed as a main power source • Micro hydropower development will also continue for electrifying small villages. • Solar power, due to its high cost, but good potential for community size projects. • Wind power, it has a poor prospect since favorable sites for wind power generation are very few, but can be used with solar system in hybrid applications.
  36. 36. • Biogas production from municipal and agricultural waste and to disseminate the Biogas Technology in order to implement the low cost family size biogas plant for cooking and lighting in rural area. • More development works with appropriate technologies are required in renewable energy application. • The Electrification rate of Myanmar is currently around (26)% and this ratio must be (60)% in the year 2020. Within (8)years Myanmar must add (34)% more to the electricity generation. The present national installed capacity is around (3494)MW. So Myanmar needs total installed capacity of (8063)MW in the year 2020. It needs to increase (4.25)% or (571)MW annually. This is for the total electricity sector and RE may be (20)% of this capacity. So RE sector must generate electricity of (114)MW annually starting from 2012 to 2020 (Excluding Large Hydropower Projects Public, Private or PPP).
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