Skim milk microfiltration: Impact on cheese composition, yield, and aging

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Skim milk microfiltration: Impact on cheese composition, yield, and aging

  1. 1. Skim milk microfiltration: Impact on cheese composition, yield, and aging M. Neocleous, D. M. Barbano, and M. A. Rudan. Northeast Dairy Foods Research Center, 1 Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Skim milk microfiltration can be used to remove milk serum proteins from milk prior to cheese making. </li></ul><ul><li>The milk serum protein products will be superior to whey protein products and may have higher value. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>This approach gives the same increase in concentration of milk casein and fat prior to cheese making as earlier approaches with UF. However, unlike UF, there is no attempt to retain whey proteins in the cheese to increase cheese yield. </li></ul>Introduction
  4. 4. <ul><li>While retention of whey proteins in cheese using UF increased cheese yield, it had negative impacts on cheese functionality (e.g., Mozzarella) and cheese flavor development during aging (e.g., Cheddar). Thus, UF has not been very successful for these two varieties of cheese. </li></ul>Introduction
  5. 5. <ul><li>Concentrating milk prior to cheese making with microfiltration (MF) should produce a cheese that has the same composition as cheese made without MF. Therefore, the cheese should have similar functionality and flavor development to control cheese. </li></ul>Hypothesis
  6. 6. <ul><li>To determine the influence of skim milk microfiltration on the composition and make procedure at 1.3, 1.6, and 2X concentration factors for aged Cheddar cheese. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine if fat and protein recovery in the cheese and cheese yield efficiency are influence by microfiltration. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine if proteolysis and cheese aging are influenced by microfiltration. </li></ul>Objectives
  7. 7. Experimental Design <ul><li>Trial 1 : 4 x 4 Randomized Block (n = 16) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0, 1.3, 1.6 and 2X concentration factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complete except for final aging data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trial 2 : Paired comparison of 1.0 and 2X to try to adjust make procedure of 2X to achieve similar aging to the control. (planned for winter 1999/2000) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Full-fat, milled-curd Cheddar cheese was made. Approximately, 220 kg of milk were used per vat of cheese. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass/balance accounting was done for fat (Mojonnier) and protein (Kjeldahl). </li></ul>Materials and Methods
  9. 9. Make Time (min) <ul><li>Trial 1: </li></ul><ul><li> control 1.3 X 1.6 X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>set-draw 110 97 88 84 </li></ul><ul><li>draw-mill 154 156 158 164 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 264 253 245 248 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Make Conditions <ul><li>Trial 1: control 1.3 X 1.6 X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>draw pH 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.40 </li></ul><ul><li>mill pH 5.30 5.30 5.30 5.30 </li></ul><ul><li>rennet (%) 100 80 60 33 </li></ul><ul><li>cook ( o C) 38 38 38 38 </li></ul><ul><li>Starter 911 911 911 911 </li></ul><ul><li>starter added based on cheese weight </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Milk and Whey Analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids - forced air, 4 h at 100 o C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat - Mojonnier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein - macro-Kjeldahl (TN/NCN/NPN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium - atomic absorption </li></ul></ul>Materials and Methods
  12. 12. Milk Composition, (%) <ul><li>Trial 1: control 1.3 X 1.6 X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>TS 11.86 d 13.34 c 14.77 b 16.48 a </li></ul><ul><li>Fat 3.33 d 4.21 c 5.05 b 6.11 a </li></ul><ul><li>Protein(TN) 3.02 d 3.65 c 4.23 b 4.95 a </li></ul><ul><li>Casein 2.27 d 2.88 c 3.45 b 4.15 a </li></ul><ul><li>CN/TP 81.38 d 83.90 c 86.06 b 87.52 a </li></ul><ul><li>C/F 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Whey Composition, (%) <ul><li>Trial 1: control 1.3 X 1.6 X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>TS 6.84 d 6.94 c 7.09 b 7.35 a </li></ul><ul><li>Fat 0.28 d 0.32 c 0.40 b 0.59 a </li></ul><ul><li>Protein(TN) 0.93 d 0.99 c 1.04 b 1.10 a </li></ul><ul><li>NPN 0.27 d 0.29 c 0.31 b 0.33 a </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Cheese Analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture - forced air, 24 h at 100 C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat - Babcock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein - macro-Kjeldahl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt - Volhard titration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium - atomic absorption </li></ul></ul>Materials and Methods
  15. 15. Cheese Composition, (%) <ul><li>Trial 1: control 1.3 X 1.6 X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture 35.25 34.56 34.42 33.80 </li></ul><ul><li>Fat 34.47 34.75 34.80 34.81 </li></ul><ul><li>Protein 24.95 25.11 25.25 25.65 </li></ul><ul><li>Salt 1.47 1.46 1.49 1.51 </li></ul><ul><li>pH 5.10 5.12 5.13 5.16 </li></ul>
  16. 16. pH 4.6 Soluble Nitrogen
  17. 17. 12% TCA Soluble Nitrogen
  18. 18. <ul><li>Trial 1: </li></ul><ul><li>control 1.3X 1.6X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>cheese 91.74 92.46 92.43 91.06 </li></ul><ul><li>whey 7.59 6.57 6.64 7.94 </li></ul><ul><li>salt whey 1.12 0.86 0.93 0.67 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 100.44 99.88 100.00 99.67 </li></ul>Results - Fat Recovery, (%)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Trial 1: </li></ul><ul><li>control 1.3X 1.6X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>cheese 72.36 75.84 79.00 82.03 </li></ul><ul><li>whey 27.27 23.39 20.50 17.95 </li></ul><ul><li>salt whey 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.43 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 100.17 99.86 100.07 99.90 </li></ul>Protein Recovery, (%)
  20. 20. Protein & Fat Recovery <ul><li>Trial 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fat recovery in cheese was lower than 93% due to cream separation and recombination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no consistent trend in fat recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein recovery in the cheese increased and recovery in the whey decreased with increasing concentration factor as expected. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cheese Yield Evaluation <ul><li>Actual Yield </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture & Salt Adjusted Yield (37 & 1.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Modified VanSlyke Formula 1 </li></ul><ul><li> [(0.93 * % fat) + (% casein - 0.1)] *1.09 </li></ul><ul><li>Yield = --------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li> 1 - (% cheese moisture/100) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Barbano Yield Formula </li></ul><ul><li>A + B + C </li></ul><ul><li>Yield = ---------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>1- ((moisture + salt)/100) </li></ul><ul><li>A = (0.93) x (% fat in milk) </li></ul><ul><li>B = (% casein in milk - 0.1) x 1.092 </li></ul><ul><li>C = other milk solids retained in water phase of the cheese </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Cheese Yield Efficiency = </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture & Salt Adjusted Cheese Yield </li></ul><ul><li>-------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Yield </li></ul><ul><li>CYE VS - VanSlyke </li></ul><ul><li>CYE DMB- Barbano </li></ul>Cheese Yield Evaluation
  24. 24. Cheese Yield, (%) <ul><li>Trial 1 Control 1.3 X 1.6 X 2.0X </li></ul><ul><li>Actual 8.81 d 11.12 c 13.33 b 15.87 a </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted 9.06 d 11.57 c 13.89 b 16.68 a </li></ul><ul><li>TY VS 9.13 d 11.58 c 13.92 b 16.82 a </li></ul><ul><li>TY DMB 9.20 d 11.67 c 14.03 b 16.94 a </li></ul><ul><li>Y eff. VS 99.24 99.91 99.76 99.14 </li></ul><ul><li>Y eff.DMB 98.47 99.13 98.99 98.45 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Maureen Chapman </li></ul><ul><li>Laura Landolf </li></ul><ul><li>Joanna Lynch </li></ul><ul><li>Pat Wood </li></ul>

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