Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Milk and Dairy Foods
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Milk and Dairy Foods

4,611
views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology

2 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Farmers don’t murder calves and cows, they treat them the best way they can. Why, because it is in their interest to be good for their calves and cows. Most of them also love their animals and know them from A to Z.
    I treat them with respect and try to improve their health and circumstances all the time as you can find at http://www.calfscourstreatment.com

    By the way, a very thorough and comprehensive slideshow about the contents and processing of milk.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • how to get milk: rape a cow, steal and murder her baby, then rape the cow 2 or 3 times again and kill her babies and then after 5 years kill the cow itself, because she isn't able to produce enough milk for your selfish purposes... GO VEGAN
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,611
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
460
Comments
2
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Transcript

    • 1. Milk and Dairy Foods ANS 232 John A. Partridge 2100B South Anthony Hall [email_address]
    • 2. Definition of milk.
      • "The lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows, which contains not less then 3.25% of milkfat and not less then 8.25% milk‑solids‑not‑fat.”
      • PMO - Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
      • (Food secreted for newborns)
    • 3. Table 1. Per Capita Consumption of Milk and Milk Products in Various Countries. Country Beverage Flavored Fermented Cheeses Cream Butter Finland 186.3 37.1 11.8 1.9 16.0 Norway 164.7 14.7 13.5 2.4 8.6 Sweden 145.1 27.2 15.4 2.9 8.7 Netherlands 91.2 21.0 19.1 14.9 1.0 7.2 France 78.1 6.0 13.6 21.8 0.9 14.1 Germany 70.1 8.6 10.5 16.8 1.7 14.9 Austria 134.1 2.5 9.5 9.6 1.2 8.8 Italy 79.5 3.3 17.5 0.8 2.3 Greece 54.2 1.7 6.0 22.2 0.3 2.7 UK 123.4 0.7 3.6 7.5 0.8 8.4 Ireland 182.7 3.2 4.9 0.7 11.8 USA 96.9 4.4 2.1 10.9 0.6 3.8 Canada 102.6 4.2 3.2 11.7 1.0 7.8 India 48.3 4.2 0.2 0.0 21.1 Australia 96.0 9.7 3.0 8.5 1.2 6.4 Japan 38.0 6.2 7.2 1.0 0.1 1.1 Source: International Dairy Federation
    • 4. Gross Chemical Composition .
      • Average composition. 87.3% Water 3.7% Fat 3.4% Protein 4.9% Lactose 0.7% Ash
    • 5. Species Table 3. Composition of Milk from Different Mammalian Species (per 100 g fresh milk). Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrate (g) Energy (kcal) Cow 3.2 3.7 4.6 66 Human 1.1 4.2 7.0 72 Water Buffalo 4.1 9.0 4.8 118 Goat 2.9 3.8 4.7 67 Donkey 1.9 0.6 6.1 38 Elephant 4.0 5.0 5.3 85 Monkey, rhesus 1.6 4.0 7.0 73 Mouse 9.0 13.1 3.0 171 Whale 10.9 42.3 1.3 443 Seal 10.2 49.4 0.1 502
    • 6. Cow's Milk Breed Table 4. Gross composition of milk of various breeds, g/100g. Body Wt. Milk Yield Fat Protein Lactose Ash Total Solids (kg) (kg) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Holstein 640 7360 3.54 3.29 4.68 0.72 12.16 Brown Swiss 640 6100 3.99 3.64 4.94 0.74 13.08 Ayrshire 520 5760 3.95 3.48 4.60 0.72 12.77 Guernsey 500 5270 4.72 3.75 4.71 0.76 14.04 Jersey 430 5060 5.13 3.98 4.83 0.77 14.42 Shorthorn 530 5370 4.0 3.32 4.89 0.73 12.9 Holstein: 12.16% T.S. x 7360 kg/lactation = 895 kg of total solids produced/lactation (140% of her body wt.!) Jersey: 14.42% T.S. x 5060 kg/lactation = 730 kg of total solids produced/lactation (170% of her body wt.!)
    • 7. Grades of Milk
      • Grade A
        • Temperature<45 F(7C) in 2 h
        • Bacteria 100,000/ml (300,000/ml commingled)
        • Antibiotics.005 IU detection limit (16mm zone)
        • Somatic cells 1,000,000/ml
      • Grade B or Manufacturing Milk
    • 8. Facilities and Equipment
      • Types of milking systems
        • Parlors
        • Around the barn
        • Bucket
    • 9. Precautions at the producer level.
      • Herd Health
        • Disease affects milk composition (economic (Ec) issue)
        • Antibiotics (public health (PH) issue)
      • Added Water (Ec)
      • Pesticides and other chemicals (PH)
      • Aflatoxin and other toxins from natural sources (PH)
      • Sanitation program (PH and Ec)
    • 10. IV. Milk Processing
      • Filtering
      • Storage (always below 4 C to prevent outgrowth of Staph. aureus)
      • Centrifugal Processes
      • Pasteurization
      • Homogenization
      • Cooling
      • Packaging
      • Storage and Distribution
    • 11. Phase I - Preparations
          • Sampling
            • Manhole with dipper
              • Odor and appearance
              • Lab sample for acceptance
            • In-line sampler
              • Inventory & quality control
    • 12. Co-mingled sample at the plant
    • 13. Individual farm samples for antibiotics, composition, somatic cell and bacteria counts
    • 14. Phase II - Unloading
      • Vents open before pumping commences $$$$
      • High capacity centrifugal pumps
        • Up to 600 gallons per minute
      • Filtration and/or clarification - optional
    • 15. Typical Receiving Operations
    • 16. Phase III - Cleaning the Tanker
      • CIP (Clean-in-Place)
        • safe
        • effective
      • Tagged before leaving plant.
      • Pump and exterior of the truck are cleaned while CIP is running.
        • NOT while milk is unloading.
    • 17. Receiving Tests
      • Titratable Acidity (TA)
      • Direct Microscopic Count (DMC)
        • Bacteria Screening
        • Somatic Cell Screening
      • Antibiotic Residue Screening
        • Beta Lactam (Penicillin family) every load
        • Others on a random basis
    • 18. Silo Tank Equipment
      • 1. Agitator
      • 2. Manhole
      • 3. Temperature indicator
      • 4. Low-level electrode
      • 5. Pneumatic level indicator
      • 6. High-level electrode
      • Note: Tank vents to the interior of the building.
    • 19. Milk Storage - Regulatory Requirements
      • Cleaned when emptied.
      • Must be emptied at least every 72 hours.
      • >24 hours in tank
        • 7-day temperature recording device
    • 20. Pasteurization
        • Purposes
          • Destroy pathogens --PRIMARY
          • Destroy spoilage Organisms -- Secondary but very important
        • Time-temperature relationships
          • Equivalent heat treatments
            • 145F for 30 m
            • 161F for 15 s
            • 191F for 1 s
            • 212F for .01s
        • Cooked flavor and creamline
        • Overprocessing to obtain shelflife improvements may be more detrimental to product than helpful.
    • 21. Plate Heat Exchanger
    • 22. High-Temperature, Short-Time Pasteurizer
    • 23. Centrifugal processes.
    • 24. Separation
    • 25. Homogenization
        • Reduction of fat globules from 3-20µm to <2µm
        • Same factors that effect the rate of separation in centrifugal processes
          • differences in densities
          • diameter of particles to be separated
          • residence time
          • viscosity
          • drag forces on particle
    • 26. Raw Milk ( 3-20  m globules)
    • 27. Homogenized milk ( <2  m globules)
    • 28. Fluid Milk Products
      • Whole Milk
        • >3.25% Milkfat; >8.25% Milk-solids-not-fat (MSNF)
        • Optional except for school milk: Vitamin D (400 IU/Quart)
      • Reduced Fat Milk
        • 25% reduction in Fat
      • Lowfat Milk
        • > 3 grams fat per serving, 1 cup
        • Vitamin A (2000 IU/Quart)
        • Optional except for school milk: Vitamin D (400 IU/Quart)
      • Non-Fat Milk
        • > 0.5 grams fat per serving, 1 cup
        • Vitamin A (2000 IU/Quart)
        • Optional except for school milk: Vitamin D (400 IU/Quart)
    • 29. Fluid Milk Products
      • Heavy Cream
        • > 36% milkfat
      • Light Whipping Cream
        • > 30% but <36% milkfat
      • Light Cream
        • > 18% but <30% milkfat
      • Half-and-Half
        • > 10.5% but <18% milkfat
    • 30. Butter and Powder
      • Butter
      • Whole milk Powder
      • Non Fat Dry Milk (NFDM) Powder
      • Specialty Powders
      • Evaporated milk
    • 31. Cheese
    • 32. Color is added to the milk and allowed to mix thoroughly.
    • 33. Rennet is used to coagulate the curd and to separate the whey, or watery portion of milk, from the solids.
    • 34. After addition of the rennet, the milk is allowed to sit undisturbed. The resulting curd is tested with a knife.
    • 35. The curds are stirred as they are heated in a cooking step.
    • 36. The cut curds are allowed to rest so the culture can grow. The pieces are turned every 15 minutes.
    • 37. The cheese molds are filled in preparation for pressing.
    • 38. Pressed, unripened cheese.
    • 39. Dairy Processing Handbook Automated Cheddar Cheese Manufacture
    • 40. Cheese Classification
      • Fresh Cheeses
        • Cottage, Cream
        • Acid coagulation
      • Bacterial w/o Eyes
        • Rennet Coagulation
        • Cheddar, Colby, Jack
      • Bacterial w/ Eyes
        • Carbon Dioxide, Propionic Acid
        • Swiss, Dagano
      • Mold Ripened
        • Blue, Camembert
      • Bacteria Smear
        • Limburger, Muenster
      • Pasta Filata (Pulled Curd)
        • Mozzarella, Provalone
    • 41. Cheese and Related Products cont’d
      • Pasteurized Processed
        • American Slices
        • Velvetta
      • Cold Pack
        • Chocolate Cheese
        • Wispread
      • Whey
        • Whey powder
        • Whey protein concentrate
    • 42. Fermented Dairy Foods
      • Yogurt
        • fob vs prestirred
        • Spoonable vs drinkable
        • Probiotic Cultures
      • Buttermilk
      • Sour Cream
        • Non-fat?
    • 43. Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts
      • Compositional Requirements
        • Ice Cream
          • > 10% milkfat; > 20% total milk solids
          • Must weigh > 4.5 lb/gallon
          • Must contain > 1.6 lb Total Solids/gallon
        • Reduced Fat Ice Cream
          • 25% reduction in fat content ( < 7.5% and > 3% milkfat)
        • Lowfat Ice Cream
          • 3 g fat per serving (½ cup) (<3% milkfat)
        • Nonfat Ice Cream
          • ½ g milkfat per serving (½ cup)
        • NLEA vs. Old Standards of Identity
    • 44. Ice Cream Ingredients
      • Water
      • Milk-Solids-Not-Fat
      • Butterfat
      • Sweetener
      • Emulsifier
      • Stabilizer
      • Flavorings
      • Colors
    • 45. The Freezing Process
      • Scraped Surface Heat Exchange
        • Batch
        • Continuous
      • Quality Attributes
        • Ice crystal size
        • Overrun
        • Heat shock

    ×