Food Safety (Microbiology, Sanitation and HACCP)
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Food Safety (Microbiology, Sanitation and HACCP) Food Safety (Microbiology, Sanitation and HACCP) Presentation Transcript

  • Food Safety (Microbiology, Sanitation and HACCP) Frank T. Jones Extension Poultry Specialist Cooperative Extension Service University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR
  • Presentation Outline
    • Sanitation Definitions
    • Microorganisms – Overview
    • Public Health Background
    • Sanitation on Farm
    • Sanitation in Plants
    • HACCP Overview
  • What is Sanitation?
    • World Health Organization (WHO) – “All precautions and measures which are necessary in production, processing, storage and distribution, in order to assure an unobjectionable, sound and palatable product which is suited for human consumption.”
    • Sanitation from Greek Sanitas – Health
    • N. G. Marriott – “The creation and maintenance of hygenic and healthful conditions.”
  • Kill Organisms Exclude Contamination Prevent Multiplication Sanitation Basics
  • Fungi Molds Yeasts Microorganisms Bacteria Viruses
  • Beneficial Microorganisms
    • Fermentation
      • Cheese, Beer, Wine, Bread, Yogurt
    • Enzymes
    • Aids to Human Metabolism
    • Decay
      • Waste treatment, composting, decomposition
  • “The Enemies”
    • Pathogens – Food Safety
      • Illness, Disease and Death
    • Spoilage – Food Quality
      • Poor Quality, Short Shelf Life, Off Flavors, Customer Dissatisfaction
  • Bacteria
    • Microscopic single cells
    • Lots of moisture required
    • Cause most food illness
    • Three basic shapes
      • Rod
      • Cocci (spheres)
      • Spiral
    • Some spore formers
    • Grow, grow, grow
      • Binary Fission
  • Bacterial Reproduction – Binary Fission Generation Time 409,600 13 819,200 14 1,638,400 15 51,200 10 102,400 11 204,800 12 25,600 9 12,800 8 6,400 7 3,200 6 1,600 5 800 4 400 3 200 2 100 1 Cell Numbers Generation 21.3 14.2 7.1 2.4 Hours from 100 to 1 Million 90 60 30 10 Generation Time (Min)
  • What Bacteria Need for Growth?
    • F ood
    • A cid (pH)
    • T ime
    • T emperature
    • O xygen
    • M oisture
    FAT TOM
  • The Spore Cycle
    • Spores VERY resistant
    • Two species form spores
      • Bacillus
      • Clostridium
    • Difficult to destroy – reduce strategy
    • Problem in cooked foods
  • Fungi (Molds and Yeasts)
    • Require less moisture
    • Can grow in acid pH
    • Very adaptable
    • Grow slower than bacteria
    • Molds – multicellular
    • Form spores that are less resistant than bacterial spores
    • Yeasts bud
  • Basic Virus Structure Genetic Material (DNA or RNA) Protein Coat Tail Fibers Hollow Protein Tail
  • Viruses
    • Tiny
    • Simple structure
    • Must grow in cells
    • In foods – fecal contam.
    • Personal sanitation to prevent
    • Living?
    Virus Life Cycle
  • Our Losses…
    • Every year (based on CDC data):
    • Over 250 billion meals are prepared
    • An estimated 76 million foodborne illnesses occur
    • >5,000 foodborne associated deaths
    • Costs = $7.7 to 23 billion
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003)
  • Foodborne Illness
    • “ ... when a person becomes ill after ingesting a contaminated food...”
    • Foodborne illness can be caused by:
    • Biological hazards (bacteria, viruses, fungi)
    • Chemical hazards (cleaning agents, toxins)
    • Physical hazards (bone, glass, metal)
  • Foodborne Hazards Hazard Est. Cases Deaths Norwalk virus 23,000,000 na Campylobacter 2,453,926 0.1% Salmonella 1,412,498 0.8% C. perfringens 248,520 .05% S. aureus 185,060 .02% E. coli O157:H7 73,480 .83% L. monocytogenes 2,518 20% C. botulinum 58 8.6% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001)
  • FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS:
    • USDA – FSIS “Target Pathogens”
    • Four major pathogens of food bone illness
      • Salmonella
      • E. coli 0157:H7
      • Campylobacter
      • Listeria monocyctogens
  • SALMONELLA
    • Most frequently reported
    • Introduced anywhere within the food chain
    • Grown on any food under the right conditions: Moisture and Temperature
    • Ideal growth temperature 40-140 ° F
    • Cook temperature essential to kill-160 º F
    • Safe handling of food by consumer essential
  • E COLI 0157:H7 & Campylobacter
    • Natural inhabitant of the GI tract of all animals
    • Sanitary practices throughout the Farm to Table essential for control
    • Consumer education of safe handling practices for food, raw and cooked, essential for control
  • LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENS
    • Commonly found in GI tract of all animals
    • Can survive for long periods in SOIL, SEWAGE, DUST, VEGATATION AND WATER
    • Resistant to cool temp - Cold storage
    • Can form biofilms on surfaces to resist cleaning and sanitizing
    • Biggest threat:Pregnant women-miscarriages and birth defects
  • Sanitation in Live Production
    • Will never be sterile but don’t give up!
    • 7 Basic Steps in Live Production Sanitation
      • Obtain Clean Stock
      • Proper Bird Care
      • Vermin Control
      • Moisture Control
      • Feed Storage
      • Biosecurity
      • Water Sanitation
  • Obtaining Clean Stock
    • Know the seller
    • Don’t look for bargains
    • Isolate birds for 2 wks
    • Monitor birds daily and separate sick ones
  • Proper Birds Care
    • Healthy birds are more resistant
    • Pay attention to bird behavior
    • Collect dead at least daily
    • Provide ventilation
  • Vermin
    • Damage facilities
    • Eat feed
    • Contaminate facilities
    • Entry for other pests
    • May kill animals
  • Moisture is often THE SINGLE Most Important Factor in Determining Microbial Growth
  • Moisture Control
    • Litter moisture related to pathogens
    • Moisture control related to:
      • Addressing obvious sources
      • Ventilation
      • Control of Drinkers
  •  
  • Feed Storage
    • Protection from Rodents & Wild Birds
    • Protection from Moisture
    • Protection from Heat and Sunlight
      • Moisture Migration
      • UV Destruction
    • Feed Freshness
  • Moisture Migration in Food
  • 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% 16% 16% 13% 16% 13% 13% 10% 10% 10% 20% 20% 12% 20% 12% 12% 8% 8% 8% Moisture Migration in Feeds
  • From Headley 1969
  • From Headley, 1969
  • From Jones et al. 1982
  • How Feeds Age on Farm Birds prefer to eat pellets rather than fines Concentration of Fines Feed older than average and high in fines
  • Biosecurity
    • Procedures that work for bird pathogens also keep out human pathogens
    • Basic Steps
      • No Visitor Policy – Have Farm Clothes
      • Protect Personnel – Clean Vehicles
      • Clean Equipment – No Contact Other Birds
      • Proper Dead Disposal – No Borrowed Equip
      • No Visits to Problems – No Wild Game
      • Locks & Security
      • Avoid Mixing Animal Species
  • Footbaths – The Good, The Bad and The Ugly
    • Can be effective BUT
    • MUST pay attention
    • Use correct disinfectant
    • Contaminated baths spread disease and pathogens
  • Basics Steps in Sanitizer Use
    • Avoid mixing sanitizers PARTICULARLY Chlorine @ pH<4 = Chlorine Gas
    • In general, clean, scrub, rinse THEN sanitize
    • Store sanitizers away from feed and birds
    • Protect sanitizers from heat and light
    • Avoid long storage times
    • Use for Approved Purposes
      • General Sanitation
      • Food Contact Surfaces
  • Disinfectant Types and Qualities Can be corrosive Low Low Kills effects Wide no spores Hypochlorite May stain clothing, porous surfaces Low Mod Reduces effects Wide no spores Iodophors Limited residual, Mod corrosive Low Mod Kills effects Mod. No spores Oxidizer Gets everything, but can be highly toxic Mod Mod Limits effects Wide Aldehyde Good residual activity Low Mod Little to none Wide no spores Phenolic Soaps, detergents and hard water limit effectiveness Low Low Reduces effects Limited no spores QAC (Quaternary Ammonia Compounds) Non Corrosive, Fire Hazard, conc 70-95%, Low Exp Reduces effects Wide no spores Alcohols Comments Human Toxicity Cost Organic Mattter Effect Activity Type
  • A Broad Look at Disinfectants Clean surfaces Hydrogen Peroxide, Peracetic Acid Oxidizer Fumigation, clean surfaces Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde Aldehyde Hatcheries, Equipment, Footbaths Lysol, Pine-Sol, Cresi-400, Environ, Tek-Trol Phenolic Hatcheries, with some soaps Roccal, Germex, Hi-Lethol, San-O-Fec, Warden, Zephiran QAC (Quaternary Ammonia Compounds) Water, Hands, Equipment, Walls Betadine, Iofec, Isodyne, Tamed Iodine, Weladol Iodophors Water, Clean surfaces Chlorox, Chloramine-T, Halazone Hypochlorite Small objects, hands Rubbing Alcohol, Isopropyl, Ethanol Alcohols Uses Examples Type
  • Water Sanitation
    • Water – A GREAT organism transmitter
    • Consider closed line systems – Nipples or cups
    • Clean open waterers often, but don’t dump water in the litter
    • Proper height adjustment
  • Bacterial Counts from Poultry Water Systems From: Watkins. 2003
  • Used with permission from: The Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University – Bozeman http://www.erc.montana.edu/CBEssentials-SW/bf-basics-99/bbasics-01.htm
  • Used with permission from: The Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University – Bozeman http://www.erc.montana.edu/CBEssentials-SW/bf-basics-99/bbasics-01.htm
  • Biofilm in a Municipal Water Line
  • Water Line Cleaners for Use Once a Week When Birds are Present ¼ teaspoon per gallon of water 1 oz per gallon of water ½ teaspoon per gallon of water ½ teaspoon per gallon of water Iodine (18.05%) White Household Vinegar Household Bleach Clear Household Ammonia
  • Cleaning Closed Watering Systems with Birds in the House Meter stock solution at 1 oz / 128 oz (gal) water Prepare a stock solution 2 oz per gallon 128 oz per gallon 6 oz per gallon 6 oz per gallon Iodine (18.05%) Clear Vinegar Household Bleach Clear Household Ammonia
  • Basic Steps in Poultry Processing Pre-slaughter Immobilize Feather Removal Evisceration Chilling Further Processing or Packaging Kill Line Evisceration Line Separation Wall Air Flow
  • Sanitation in Small Processing
    • Work indoors if possible
    • Avoid the use of wood surfaces
    • Use sanitizers labeled for Food Contact Surfaces
    • Clean and sanitize equipment before use
    • Separate slaughter and picking from evisceration and cut up -- Job Specialize
    • Avoid long delays
    • Keep things as clean as possible (insects)
    • Don’t spare the water
    • Cool processed carcasses quickly and keep them cool
    • Clean and sanitize equipment before storage
  • Loblolly Pine Birch 100 μ Staphylococcus - 1.0 μ Clostridium - 0.4 x 3 μ Treponema 0.2x 11 μ Wood Should be Avoided in Processing Areas
  • Sanitizers for Food Contact Surfaces Co, Cu, Ti, Mishandling Danger, Concentrate Odor Broad Act., Degrade, Non Corrosive, Temp. Tolerant Peroxy Acid Low Temp., Corrosive Broad Act., Stable, W/ Organic Matter, High Temp Carboxylic Acid Cost, pH Stable, W/ Organic Matter, Non Corrosive, Odorless Acid-Anionic Low temps, Hard water, Little effect on gram negative bacteria Stable, Innocuous, Some Residual QAC Stains, Hard water, Temps (High & Low), Odor, Cl cheaper Broad Act., Low Tox., Stable, Color, Good Residual Iodophores Cl gas, Corrosive, Organic material, Degrades, THM’s, pH range Broad Act., Not temp. sensitive, Cheap, No Foam Chlorine, Dioxides Disadvantages Advantages Category
  • Natural Disinfecting Agents
    • Sunlight (Ultraviolet rays)
    • Heat (>85 °F)
    • Cold (Freezing or below)
    • Drying (Aided by wind, light and heat)
    • EFFECTIVE, But are they reliable?
  • HACCP -What is it?
    • HACCP -(HAS-SIP)
    • H azard
    • A nalysis and
    • C ritical
    • C ontrol
    • P oints
    • HACCP often misused term.
    • A systematic method of documenting that food safety hazards have been addressed.
  • HACCP - What is it?
    • HACCP involves only food safety issues.
    • Out of control = unsafe food produced.
    • Plans unique for each unit and product.
  • HACCP – What is it? How do you know the system works? 7. Establish Verification Procedures If you don’t write it down it doesn’t exit. 6. Establish a Record Keeping System What happens if we exceed a Critical limit? 5. Establish Corrective Actions Who, what, when , where and how will CCP’s be monitored? 4. Establish Monitoring Procedures What value indicates the process is in control? 3. Establish Critical Limits Where do things go wrong and how can we reliably control it? 2. Establish Critical Control Points What are the controllable food safety hazards? 1. Hazard Analysis Meaning Step
  • HOW DOES HACCP WORK?
    • Processors must take the following steps:
      • assemble a HACCP team to design their plan
      • describe the product and its method of production, distribution and intended consumer.
      • Develop and verify process flow diagrams
  • How does HACCP Work?
    • Identify at each step of the production flow chart any hazard to food safety as to:
      • Chemical
      • Physical
      • Bacterial
    • Support the hazard with a decision making document and scientific data
  • How does HACCP Work?
    • If a CCP deviation is found the following must take place:
      • Identify the cause of deviation
      • Describe how the critical limit was restored
      • Describe how the deviation can be prevented from happening again
      • Describe how the adulterated product was reconditioned or what happened to the product
  • FARM TO TABLE FSIS GOALS
    • FSIS has made a commitment to expanding into the pre harvest areas of the food chain, working in a non regulatory capacity, to promote food safety.
    • Commitment to utilize the knowledge, skills and abilities of FSIS veterinary medical expertise to contribute to the goal of food safety.