Equipment for Aircraft and Air Traffic Control


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  • This presentation was prepared by the FSF ALAR Task Force as a product to help prevent approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs), including those involving controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). January 2001
  • Equipment for Aircraft and Air Traffic Control

    1. 1. Equipment for Aircraft and Air Traffic Control © 2000, 2001 Flight Safety Foundation
    2. 2. CFIT and ALAR Task Forces CFIT Steering Committee and Working Groups Flight Safety Foundation ALAR
    3. 3. Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) ALAR Task Force Organization Data Acquisition and Analysis Working Group Operations and Training Working Group Aircraft Equipment Working Group Air Traffic Control Training and Procedures/ Airport Facilities Working Group FSF CFIT/ALAR Action Group (CAAG) Approximately 125 aviation safety specialists are involved worldwide. Steering Committee
    4. 4. ALAR Objectives <ul><li>To reduce the approach-and-landing accident (ALA) rate by 50% within 5 years of issuing final recommendations in 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify equipment, operational, regulatory and training measures that will improve safety for aircraft from commencement of approach through circling, landing or missed approach. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Statistics for Approach-and-landing Accidents (ALAs) <ul><li>56% of Western-built large commercial jet accidents are ALAs. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 50% of fatalities are the result of Western-built large commercial jet ALAs. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2010, the task force estimates 23 Western-built large commercial jet fatal accidents will occur annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT) accidents are not showing a downward trend. </li></ul>
    6. 6. ALAR Data-driven Strategy <ul><li>High-level analyses of 287 accidents </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth study of 76 incidents and accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Line observations on 3,300 U.S. flights </li></ul><ul><li>All conclusions supported by data </li></ul>
    7. 7. Most Common Types of Approach-and-landing Accidents <ul><li>CFIT </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul><ul><li>Landing overrun </li></ul><ul><li>Runway excursion </li></ul><ul><li>Unstabilized approach </li></ul>These comprised 76 percent of the sample.
    8. 8. Photo by Jan Ovind
    9. 9. A Primary “Golden Rule” (Assisted by Equipment) <ul><li>Aviate </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Manage aircraft systems </li></ul>
    10. 10. A “Golden Rule” and Risks <ul><li>Approach stability </li></ul><ul><li>Visual illusions </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing climb angle </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprecision approach procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Go-around decision </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft position awareness vs. terrain </li></ul><ul><li>ATC awareness of aircraft position </li></ul>Aviate Navigate (continued)
    11. 11. A “Golden Rule” and Risks (continued, #2) <ul><li>Pilot-controller communication </li></ul><ul><li>Runway incursions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Flight data availability </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in conducting checklists </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of automation </li></ul>Communicate Manage
    12. 12. Inadequate Situational Awareness in ALAs <ul><li>Inadequate situational awareness was a factor in 51% of ALAs. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently available safety equipment was not installed in 29% of the aircraft in ALAs. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Factors in Unstabilized Approaches and Missed Approaches <ul><li>42% involved “press-on-itis.” </li></ul><ul><li>36% were low and/or slow on approach. </li></ul><ul><li>30% were high and/or fast on approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 17% of crews initiated go-arounds. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Photo by Dr. David Powell
    15. 15. Terminal Area Infrastructure <ul><li>21% of ALAs involved lack of ground aids. </li></ul><ul><li>12% of ALAs involved lack of ATC equipment (terminal approach radar, minimum safe altitude warning). </li></ul><ul><li>The risk of ALAs during nonprecision approaches is five times greater than the risk of ALAs during precision approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>The risk of ALAs in the absence of terminal approach radar is three times greater than the risk of ALAs with terminal approach radar available. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>The radio altimeter is an effective tool to help prevent ALAs. </li></ul><ul><li>Education is needed to improve pilot awareness of radio-altimeter operations and benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop policy and SOPs for using radio altimeter. </li></ul>Best Solutions for Today (continued)
    17. 17. Best Solutions for Today (continued, #2) <ul><li>EGPWS/TAWS for better terrain awareness and early warning. </li></ul>(continued)
    18. 18. Best Solutions for Today (continued, #3) <ul><li>Implement MSAW or equivalent on all approach radars for ATC terrain warning. </li></ul><ul><li>Install and use correctly the radio altimeter for enhanced terrain awareness. </li></ul>(continued)
    19. 19. Best Solutions for Today (continued, #4) <ul><li>Use all available approach guidance (including ILS, VASI and PAPI) for better vertical position awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Use constant-angle nonprecision approach procedures (CANPA), and eliminate step-down nonprecision approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a head-up display (HUD) with a velocity vector to provide projected touchdown point. </li></ul><ul><li>Use angle of attack, for energy awareness. </li></ul>(continued)
    20. 20. Best Solutions for Today (continued, #5) <ul><li>VHF radio anti-blocking devices can improve communication. </li></ul><ul><li>TCAS should be installed on freight-carrying aircraft for better traffic awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Airport Surface Detection Equipment to prevent ground collisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Flight operational quality assurance programs can identify unsafe trends. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Best Solutions for Tomorrow <ul><li>Vertical situational awareness display for better terrain awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>3D/4D virtual reality synthetic vision for a VMC-like display in night, IMC conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Precision approaches to all runways with satellite navigation. </li></ul>(continued)
    22. 22. Best Solutions for Tomorrow (continued, #2) <ul><li>Terrain/navigation database integrity and accuracy for better position sensing. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved position sensing and airport mapping to prevent runway incursions. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization of avionics, charting and database to assure that all information is accurate. </li></ul>(continued)
    23. 23. Best Solutions for Tomorrow (continued, #3) <ul><li>Improve autopilot human-machine interface for intuitive system control. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve FMS human-machine interface for intuitive system control. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve quality of FMS database for better position accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Use common/standard terminology for charting and FMS database for enhanced understanding. </li></ul>
    24. 24. ALAR Tool Kit <ul><li>Flight Safety Digest: “ALAR Briefing Notes” </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Safety Digest: “Killers in Aviation: FSF Task Force Presents Facts About Approach-and-landing and Controlled-flight-into-terrain Accidents” </li></ul><ul><li>FSF ALAR Task Force Conclusions and Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>FSF ALAR Task Force Members </li></ul><ul><li>Selected FSF Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-and-landing Risk Awareness Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-and-landing Risk Reduction Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures Template </li></ul><ul><li>ALAR Information Posters </li></ul><ul><li>CFIT Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>CFIT Alert </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Operations and Training </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment for Aircraft and Air Traffic Control </li></ul><ul><li>Air Traffic Control Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Guide to Preventing CFIT </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-and-landing Accident Data Overview </li></ul><ul><li>An Approach and Landing Accident: It Could Happen to You </li></ul><ul><li>CFIT Awareness and Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Links to Aviation Statistics on the Internet </li></ul>
    25. 25. More information? Flight Safety Foundation Suite 300, 601 Madison Street Alexandria, VA 22314-1756 U.S. Telephone: +1 (703) 739-6700 Fax: +1 (703) 739-6708
    26. 26. This is a self-contained product of the Flight Safety Foundation Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force and includes a variety of information to help prevent approach-and-landing accidents, including those involving controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). This information is not intended to supersede operators’/manufacturers’ policies, practices or requirements, or to supersede government regulations. In the interest of aviation safety, the contents of the FSF ALAR Tool Kit may be displayed, printed, photocopied and/or distributed on paper for noncommercial use. Except as specifically permitted above, the contents must not be offered for sale directly or indirectly, used commercially, distributed on the Internet and/or on any other electronic media without the prior written permission of Flight Safety Foundation. All uses of the FSF ALAR Tool Kit must credit Flight Safety Foundation. Contact Roger Rozelle, director of publications, for more information. © 2000, 2001 Flight Safety Foundation (official release v. 3.0) Flight Safety Foundation Suite 300, 601 Madison Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-1756 U.S. Telephone: +1 (703) 739-6700; Fax: +1 (703) 739-6708