Cheese Ripening
Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Converting a liquid into a solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH 4.6  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesophilic versus thermophilic  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Heat treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With and without pasteurization  </li></ul></ul><...
Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Ripening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes from milk, or added, such as rennet, lipase ext...
Ripening <ul><li>Surface ripened by bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most aromatic and flavorful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Accelerated cheese ripening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Pickled cheese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-salt, high-acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
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Cheese Ripening

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  • Sir, its a very good and informative article. Can you please send this article to my mail (redaabdelgalil@gmail.com )
    Dr. Reda ABDELGALIL
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  • the chemical changes during the cheese ripening is not being dealt in this presentation if they are in another presentation will u please send it to my mail id sarma_1945@hotmil.com
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Cheese Ripening

  1. 1. Cheese Ripening
  2. 2. Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Converting a liquid into a solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH 4.6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>comprised mostly of casein and water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of chymosin (or rennet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casein micelles, contain casein, with subunits  s1 ,  s2 ,  , κ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chymosin hydrolyzes the peptide bond between 105 (Met) and 106 (Phe) in κ casein, releases glycomacropeptide fraction of κ casein, remaining part sensitive to calcium-precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coagulated casein network trap also milk fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recombinant chymosin now also produced by E. coli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate acid addition (pH 6.0) plus high heat (>85 ° C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain also whey proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ricotta cheese, and Hispanic-style cheeses and a Gjetost (Norway) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesophilic versus thermophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homolactic versus heterolactic fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starters versus adjuncts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteriophage attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibitory compounds </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Heat treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With and without pasteurization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial quality issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In US, cheese aged for more than 60 days at temp no less than 1.7  C is OK </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whey proteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme inactivation (flavor and texture) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature in cheese making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard versus soft </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Ripening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes from milk, or added, such as rennet, lipase extracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ripening conditions affect activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ripening <ul><li>Surface ripened by bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most aromatic and flavorful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limburger, Muenster, Brick, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfury volatile compounds by Brevibacterium linens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to cheese after its manufacture, produce orange-red pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mold-ripened cheese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue-mold cheeses have Penicillium roqueforti grown at the surface and within the curd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores of which added to curds or milk along with LAB, prior to setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grow and produce proteases, peptidases and lipases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White-mold ripened cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Camembert and Brie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores of P. camembertis or P. caseicolum added to milk or later on the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteolysis and lipolysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Accelerated cheese ripening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell lysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerate cell lysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starters, non-starters, endogenous </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Key Points in Cheese Making <ul><li>Pickled cheese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-salt, high-acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processed cheese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made by adding emulfifying salts to natural cheese, along with water and other dairy and non-dairy ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed and heated to ~70 ° C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium or potassium polyphosphate and citrate emulsifying salts raise pH, displace calcium ions forming more soluble sodium casein, which has both lipophilic and hydrophilic regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend aged and young cheese </li></ul></ul>
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