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  • 1. OCTUBRE 2013
  • 2. 8,30 – 9: Registration 9 – 10,30: Teaching READING 10,30 - 11: BREAK 11 – 12,30: Teaching WRITING I 14 – 15,30: Teaching WRITING II 15,30 – 16,30: PRODUCTION PEARSON HAPPY HOUR!!!
  • 3. TEACHING READING
  • 4. READING: Concept READING: Purposes READING as a Transaction What makes READING difficult PHASES in a READING Session READING Strategies
  • 5. What is READING?
  • 6. Let`s take some minutes and think about a DEFINITION!
  • 7. What sort of definition did you give? Did you use words from one of these groups? A- Decode, decipher, identify, etc. B- Articulate, Speak, Pronounce, etc. C- Understand, Respond, Meaning, etc.
  • 8. READING = COMPREHENSION
  • 9. Main purposes of READING Purpose 1: Read for understanding. Concepts Details
  • 10. Main purposes of READING Purpose 2: Read to evaluate critically. Causes & Effects Ideas Writer`s assumptions & arguments Basic Information Recall
  • 11. Main purposes of READING Purpose 3: Read for practical application.
  • 12. Main purposes of READING Purpose 4: Read for pleasure.
  • 13. COMPREHENSION TRANSACTION UNDERSTANDING
  • 14. “Once teachers understand what is involved in comprehending and how the factors of readers, text and context interact to create meaning, they can more easily teach their students to be effective COMPREHENDERS”
  • 15. “Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language”. By Laura Pardo
  • 16. TRANSACTION READER TEXT SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT
  • 17. READER Characteristics:  Skills.  Knowledge of the world.  Cognitive development.  Culture.  Purpose.
  • 18. READER Teachers support readers  Teach decoding skills.  Help students build fluency.  Build and activate prior knowledge.  Teach vocabulary words.  Motivate students.
  • 19. TEXT Characteristics  Genre.  Vocabulary.  Language.
  • 20. TEXT Teachers support texts  Teach text structures.  Model appropriate text selection.  Provide regular independent reading time.
  • 21. SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT Characteristics  Reader’s culture.  Place.  Situation.  Purpose.  Activity around the transaction.
  • 22. SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT Teachers support sociocultural contexts  Create contexts and learning opportunities.
  • 23. TRANSACTION READER TEXT SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT
  • 24. TEACHER’S ROLES  Provide explicit instructions of useful comprehension strategies.  Teach students to monitor and repair.  Use multiple strategy approaches.  Scaffold support.  Make reading – writing connections visible.
  • 25. What makes texts difficult to understand
  • 26. Can you find the causes?
  • 27. CAUSES • Illegibility • Unfamiliar words • Lack of Background Knowledge • Difficult Concepts • Complex Syntax • Polysemy • Poor Writing
  • 28. PHASES PREREADING WHILEREADING POSTREADING
  • 29. Providing a reason for READING. Introducing the text. Setting a top-down task. Breaking up the text. Identifying learning points in the text. Dealing with new Language. Signpost Questions.
  • 30. Give the students the title of the text you are going to be looking at and let them suggest ideas as to what it will be about How volcanoes are formed
  • 31. Rearrange the words in the title of a text for your students to put it back in the correct order. volcano es formed
  • 32. Pre – teach the necessary vocabulary
  • 33. Create a context
  • 34. Other examples of PRE – READING activities Skimming to find the theme or main idea and eliciting related prior knowledge Constructing semantic webs (a graphic arrangement of concepts or words showing how they are related) Looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or graphs and their captions Reading over the comprehension questions to focus attention on finding that information while reading
  • 35.  Understand that reading is a process to make meaning.  Build up their background knowledge on the subject before they begin to read.  Use their background knowledge as they read.  Know their purpose for reading.  Strive for fluency (conversational like reading).
  • 36. Order of reading the text. Attend to different elements in the text. Guess. Reading silently. Searching for answers and confirmation.
  • 37. Match texts with pictures
  • 38. Use information from the text to complete sentences
  • 39. Use information from the text to choose options or complete charts.
  • 40. Other examples of WHILE – READING activities Rearrange paragraphs or sentences of the text for students to put back in the correct order. Give the students pictures of events in the story which students put in order as they read the text. Omit words in a text, giving the students a list of words with which to fill in the gaps. Replace certain words with a picture to help students work out what the missing word is.
  • 41.  Give their complete attention to the reading      task. Keep a constant check on their own understanding. Adjust their reading rate to match purpose and reading material. Monitor their reading comprehension and do it so often it becomes automatic. Can match their reading strategies to a variety of reading materials. Stop only to use a fix-up strategy when they do not understand.
  • 42. POST- READING
  • 43. POST- READING ASSESS VERIFY RESPOND TO
  • 44. Use information from the text to solve a problem.
  • 45. Read and Act out
  • 46. Use information from the text to expand vocabulary / knowledge.
  • 47. Other possible OUTCOMES – Little or no Language Using figures: Transfer information to grids, flow charts, maps, graphs and so on. Chronological order. Classification, definition etc. Comparison, contrast, advantages / disadvantages.
  • 48. Other possible OUTCOMES – Involving Spoken Language Drama, simulation and role play. Debate and discussion. Reading aloud.
  • 49. Other possible OUTCOMES – Involving Writing Reassembling and making use of the information. Summarizing and note taking. Write a book review.
  • 50.  Decide if they have achieved their goal for      reading. Respond personally and critically to what they read by making connections such as text/self; text/text; or text/real world. Evaluate their own comprehension of what they read. Summarize the major ideas. Seek additional information from outside sources. Ask questions.
  • 51. READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES
  • 52. Reading comprehension strategies are the COGNITIVE and METACOGNITIVE strategies readers use to accomplish the GOAL of COMPREHENSION.
  • 53. Reading Comprehension Strategies Cognitive Strategies Cognitive strategies assist in understanding what is being read. Metacognitive Strategies Metacognitive strategies allow individuals to monitor and assess their ongoing performance in understanding what is being read
  • 54. Reading
  • 55. TEACHING IDEAS are the activities and practices that teachers use with students to help them learn how to use comprehension strategies.