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The origin of the world and the gods according Hesiod's Theogony
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  • 1. ACCORDING TO HESIOD’S THEOGONY
  • 2.  Inthe beginning there was Chaos (―emptiness‖). Out of Chaos came Gaia, the Earth. Later came Night and Day and Eros (―Love‖). After that Gaia gave birth to Uranos, the Sky. Gaia and Uranos then had twelve children, the Titans. However, Uranos was afraid one of his children could overthrow him. Therefore, he hid them in the dark centre of the Earth –Gaia. This made Gaia angry and she plotted her revenge.
  • 3.  She persuaded her youngest son Kronos to attack his father with a sharp sickle. So Kronos attacked his father while he was asleep. Uranos’ blood dripped onto the sea giving birth to Aphrodite, goddess of Love and Beauty. Uranos was left wounded and powerless and Kronos took his place as ruler of the sky.
  • 4.  Kronos married his sister Rhea and they had six children; three daughters: Hestia, Demeter and Hera and three sons: Hades, Poseidon and Zeus. However, Kronos was afraid one of his children could overthrow him. Therefore, he ate his children as soon as they were born. That made Rhea very angry so that when she gave birth to her youngest child, Zeus, she decided to trick Kronos.
  • 5.  So she hid the child in a cave and gave Kronos a stone wrapped as if it was the child. Kronos swallowed the stone without noticing. Meanwhile Zeus was growing up safe and sound hidden from his father. When Zeus became an adult he decided to fight his father. However, he needed the assistance of their brothers and sisters. Therefore, firstly he tricked his father into drinking a potion.
  • 6.  When Kronos drank the potion he felt sick and vomited the stone and his children, still alive. Secondly, with the assistance of his brothers and sisters Zeus fought against Kronos and the Titans. Finally Zeus won the war. He then shared the power with his brothers Hades and Poseidon. Zeus became the ruler of the sky, Poseidon of the sea and Hades of the Underworld.
  • 7.  Zeus then married his sister Hera. However, he was an unfaithful husband and had many love affaires both with goddesses and mortal women. Many children were born to Zeus from those relationships.- By Hera he had the god Ares and the goddess Hebe.- By Metis he had the goddess Athena.- By Leto the twins Artemis –a goddess—and Apollo –a god.- By Maia the god Hermes.- By Demeter the goddess Persephone.- By Semele, a mortal woman, he had the god Dionysus Finally, Hera had a son by herself, the god Hephaestus.
  • 8. APHRODITE GAIA OCEANUS THEA PHOEBE THEMIS MNEMOSYNE TETHYS HYPERION COEUS IAPETUS CRIUS ZEUS DEMETER HERAPrimal gods Titans Olynpians IOlympians II THE GREEK GODS’Other deities FAMILY TREE Mortals
  • 9.  Photograph of a sickle from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Sickle_sigd.jpg J.A.D. Ingres, Venus Anadyomene (1848), Musée de Chantilly (France) from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:1848_Jean-Auguste- Dominique_Ingres_-_Venus_Anadyom%C3%A8ne.jpg Giorgio Vasari and Gherardi Christofano (16th century), The Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence (Italy) from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Mutiliation_of_Uranus_by_Sat urn.jpg Francisco de Goya, Saturno devorando a sus hijos (1819-23), Museo del Prado, Madrid (Spain) from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Saturno_devorando_a_sus_hijos.jpg Rhéa présentant une pierre à Cronos, Galerie mythologique, tome 1 dA.L. Millin 1811 from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Rh%C3%A9a_pr%C3%A9sentant_u ne_pierre_emmaillot%C3%A9e_%C3%A0_Cronos_dessin_du_bas- relief_d%27un_autel_romain.jpg Zeus wielding the thunderbold in his right hand and holding an eagle (?) on the other hand. Detail of an Attic red-figure amphora, 480–470 BC. From Vulci. Musée du Louvre, Paris (France) from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Zeus_Louvre_G204.jpg Poseidon greeting Theseus (on the right). Detail, side A from an Attic red- figured calyx-krater, first half of the 5th century BC. From Agrigento. Cabinet des médailles de la Bibliothèque National de France. Paris (France) from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Poseidon_enthroned_De_Ridder_41 8_CdM_Paris.jpg Hades (right-hand side) and Persephone (left-hand side). Detail from an Attic red-figure amphora, ca. 470 BC. From Italy. Musée du Louvre, Paris (France) from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Amphora_Hades_Louvre_G209_n2.j pg