Is receiving language/input through
• Involves identifying the sounds of speech
and processing them into words and
• Background knowledge and linguistic
Receive individual sounds (letters, stress,
rhythm and pauses) and we use our brain to
convert these into messages
that mean something to us.
Strategies for identifying sounds
GOALS FOR TEACHING
Create estrategies for the comprehension of
aural imput iside and outside the classroom.
Identify relevant and non-relevant information.
Tolerate less than word-by-word comprehention.
Develop Ss’ awareness of the listening process.
Allow Ss to practice authentic listening tasks.
Decide in advance what to listen for.
Decide if more linguistic or background
knowledge is needed.
Decide whether to enter the text from the
top down or from the bottom up.
Assess Ss’ background knowledge of the
topic and linguistic content of the text.
Activate Ss’ previous knowledge.
Clarify any cultural information which may
be necesary to comprehend the passage.
Make Ss aware of the purpose(s) of the
Provide opportunities for collaborative
work and discussion activities.
Looking at pictures, maps, diagrams or
Reviewing vocabulary or grammatical
Reading something relevant
Predicting the content of the listening
Going over the directions for the activity
Doing guided practice
Verify predictions and check for
Decide what is and is not important to
Listen again to check comprehention
If the Ss are to complete a written task
during or inmediately after listening, allow
the to read trough it before listening.
Keep writing to a minimum during listening.
Organize activities so that they guide listeners
trough the text.
Use questions to comprehention.
Use predicting for monitoring Ss’
comprehention as they listen.
Give immediate feedback whenever possible.
Listening with visuals.
Filling in the graphs and charts
Following a route on a map
Checking off items in a list
Listening for the gist
Searching for specific clues to meaning
Evaluate overall progress
Decide if the strategies used were
Modify strategies if necessary
AUTHENTIC MATERIAL AND
“Using the language outside the
Radio and TV programs
Public address announcements
Speeches and lectures
Telephone customers service
Two way communication
The listener focuses on the speaker’s
meaning rather than the speaker’s
Strategies for Developing Listening
“Language learning depends on listening.
Listening provides the aural input that serves as
the basis for language acquisition and enables
learners to interact in spoken communication”.
1. Top-down stratrategies.- listening for the main idea,
predicting, drawing inferences, summarizing.
2. Bottom-up strategies.- listening for specific deatils,
recognizing cognates, recoganizing word-order
3. Metacognitive strategies.- planning, monitoring and
Difficulty of the listening text
How is the information organized.- main ideas first,
details and examples second.
How familiar are the Ss with the topic.- background
The text involve multiple individuals and objects;
Are they clearly differenciated? More marked
differences make comprehention esaier.
The text offers visual support.- maps, diagrames,
pictures or images in a video.
(textbook audio and video)
1. Plan for listening/viewing
Review the vocabulary
Review the worksheet
Review any information
2. Preview the video
View the video without sound
Identify the kind of program
Make a list of predictions about the content
Develope intensive and extensive listening/viewing
3. Listen/view intensively section by section
Jot down key words you understand
Answer the worksheet questions pertaining to the section
Write a summary of the section
4. Monitor comprehention
Does it fit with the predictions you made?
Does your summary for each section make sense in
relation to the other sections.
5. Evaluate the listening comprehention progress.
Evaluate listening skills
Extend the knowledge gained to other contexts
Post-listening activities must reflect the real-life
It must have a purpose other than assessment
It must require Ss to demostrate their level of
National Capital Language Resource Center
(NCLRC). (n.d.). The essentials of language
teaching. Retrieved April 23, 2007 from
“Listening in a foreign language” by Ana Maria
Schwartz, in Modules for the professional
preparation of teaching assistants in foreign
languages (Grace Stovall Burkart, ed.;
Washington, DC: Center for Applied
Linguistics, 1998) recuperado de