The begining of francisco vasquez de coronado's expedition
The Begining of Francisco Vasquez deCoronados ExpeditionIn the begining of Coronados expedition, there was aman named Mendoza who planned a full-scaledexpedition to the new land. After receiving FrayMarcoss report, Mendoza went into action! Hedeveloped his plans in a hurry. Mendoza chose ayoung man from New Spain named FranciscoVasquez de Coronado. Francisco was at the time agovernor of Nueva Galicia, one of New SpainsWestern provinces. He was a wealthly Spaniard andput all his own money in the expedition and so didthe viceroy. All together, Coronado and Mendozaspent about Four Million dollars in todays values.They gathered the party that Coronado would lead tothe new land. They also gathered a naval fleet, whichwas to sail up the Gulf of California with supplies.This was for to look for a waterway to Cibola.Coronado soon reached the Zuni. The group thenwent North in February 1540 and Fray Marcos helpedthem by acting as a guide. There were five otherfriars that came along on the expedition. On theexpedition, there were Indians that were helpingCoronado in his discoveries. He brang along about250 horsemen and another 50 men on foot. They allhad weapons with them, some had guns. The grouptook along mules, cattle,I sheep, and more horses.Mendoza sent Coronado special orders like how theSpaniards were to Christianize, not kill the Indiansthey met along they way. Also, Mendoza was veryinterested in spreading the Christian faith around thenew land. Coronados expedition took a hard sixmonths traveling to the Zuni Pueblo. He then sent a
scouting group ahead when they reached Hawikuh inJuly, the year 1540. Coronado and some men arrivedvery shortly after the group. One quick look was all ittook for the Spaniards to know that they did not findthe "Seven Cities". Soon, the Indians got in a warwith the Spaniards, but could not match the Spanishweapons. Then Coronado took control of Hawikuh,then later made peace with the Zuni Indians.Once Coronado made peace with the Zunis, theydiscovered six villages instead of seven. Not only didthey find six villages instead of seven, there was nogold or emeralds, just corn and beans to feed theZuni Indians. After that discoverey, Fray Marcosfeared so much that he soon returned to Mexico City.Then Coronado felt the only thing to do was to keepsearching and look elsewhere for the "Seven Cities".They soon head West and he sent out small groupsall around the land. Their goal was to learn all theycould about the land that surrounded them fromNorth to South and East to West. Soon, they heard aland called Tusayan, Coronado sent Pedro de Tovarwestward to go see this "Tusayan" land. When Tovarwent west, he visited the Hopi villages which is inpresent-day Arizona. After visiting the Hopi villages,he then returned to Hawikuh with no good newsabout the seven cities. Tovar told Coronado ofhearing about the great river farther west from theHopi villages. To learn more about the river,Coronado sent a group with Garcia Lopez deCardenas. The group saw a river with a very deepcanyon. Three people tried climbing down to theriver. They then turned back after going no furtherthan a third of the way down. This group ofEuropeans were the first people to see the famous
land marks known to man called the Grand Canyonand the Colorado River. Coronado then sent a thirdgroup with Melchior Diaz to meet the supply ships.Diaz and his followers reached the lower Colorado,but the fleet was gone. Then, under the command ofHernando de Alarcon, the group entered the ColoradoRiver and found no waterway to Cibola. Nor did theyfind a trace of Coronado, so they sailed for NewSpain. Coronado and the rest of the party that stayedwith him, remained at Hawikuh during theseexplorations.From the reports he got back, Coronado relised thatthere was no cities that lay to the west and there wasnews about a land to the east, that however caughtCoronados attention. News came from a resident ofa Pecos Pueblo. The Spaniards called the manBigotes, which means "Whiskers". Bigotes had heardabout the Spaniards in Hawikuh and had gone to gosee them. While he was there, he told Coronadoabout the plains and buffalo to the east. Then he toldthem about the Acoma and Tiguex pueblos. Soon,Winter came and Coronado learn about the thingsthat Bigotes told him, then sent Hernando deAlvarado to the pueblos to the east. He saw Acoma,Tiguex, Pecos, and the plains. He then returned toHawikuh and described what he saw to Coronado.Alvarado then suggested that the expedition spendthe Winter in Tiguex on the Rio Grande. Taking hisadvice, Coronado and the party moved to Tiguex andonce in Tiguex, a pueblo near the present-daylocation, Bernalillo, the Spaniards spent the winter of1540-41 there. They heard of new tales of this placecalled Quivira that was rich towards the East. Therewas a man that the Spaniards called El Turco, who
was telling these tales. El Turco was a prisoner atPecos when Alvarado found him. Also, El Turco saidthat Quivira was so rich, the Spaniards would have avery hard time carrying the gold and silver backhome. Since winter was settling in, Coronado knewhe would have to wait until Spring inorder to headEastward. Thus leading the Spaniards moving intothe Indians earthen houses at Alcanfor, the southernmost Tiguex village ever.Coronados expedition soon came to an end when ElTurco tricked the Spaniards into helping the NewMexicos Indians get rid of them. Coronado begunplotting with the Witchitas against the Spaniards. Sothe Spaniards killed him. The Spaniards let Isopete afree person at Quivira. Coronado and his men thenreturned to the Rio Grande and spentthe winter of1541-42 there. In the spring of 1542, Coronado andhis group returned to Mexico City while three preistasked to remain behind. Coronado gave them hispermission and the preists hoped to save the newsouls for the Catholic Church. After the soldiers left,one preist went to Quivira. There, the Indians killedhim and the other two preist probley met the samefate along side the Rio Grande. Coronados travelshad stretched from the Gulf of California to Kansasand the information that Coronado gathered helpedthe Spaniards plan further advances into NewMexico.