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  • Have teachers generate the most important reading skills that should be taught and practiced in a reading course.
  • On first glance, the skills seem to be apparent after the reading passage. Indeed, for each reading passage, learners employ multiple reading strategies while learning valuable reading skills – scanning, referencing within or between sentences, making inferences - just as we do in real-life and in the classroom. Each question combines skills and strategies along with embedded critical thinking. CT is explicit as well.
  • However, the essential reading skills are taught and practice consistently before, during, and after the reading passages.
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade) CT????
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)
  • Rex Intro includes an interview with Michael Wesch – Unit 10B (The Digital Decade)

Transcript

  • 1. Comprehensive and InnovativeReading Skills Instruction withReading Explorer!
  • 2. 20 strategies covered inReading Explorer1. Making predictions andhypotheses2. Previewing a text using headingsand visual support3. Reading for overall gist4. Understanding main ideas5. Making links between main ideasand supporting information6. Identifying specific details7. Understanding referencing8. Guessing meaning of vocabularyfrom context9. Differentiating fact and opinion10.Recognizing word parts, affixes11.Verifying true/false statements12.Detecting an author’s purpose13.Understanding paraphrases14.Inferring information, opinion orintention15.Reorganizing ideas from a text16.Classifying concepts in a text17.Sequencing information in aprocess or timeline18.Matching textual information with amap or diagram19.Recognizing relationships such ascause/effect20.Summarizing key ideas
  • 3. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 4. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 5. Skimming• We skim to get an overall idea (the gist) of whata text is basically about• To do this, we look quickly through a text• We look for clues to the overall theme, e.g.textual features like titles, sub-headings,captions – as well as visuals.• We often read the first or last paragraph, and wemay look quickly through the rest of the text.Here’s an example…
  • 6. Skimming
  • 7. Skim the title
  • 8. Skim the first paragraph
  • 9. Skimming• The title suggests the article isabout the effect of olive oil onyour health, or ‘life’• The picture shows a traditionalway of making olive oil, and thecaption mentions ‘1,000 years’• The first paragraph refers to thehistory of olive oil.From a skim of the first page we canguess what the article is about…
  • 10. Skimming
  • 11. Skimming and Prediction• When we quickly skim a text, we usually makepredictions about what we will learn from it.• In this case, we can predict that we’ll learn about thehistory and health benefits of olive oil.• As we read on through the text, we can confirm whetherour predictions are correct.
  • 12. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 13. Skimming and Scanning• Skimming gives us a general idea of whatthe text is about• Scanning is when we search a text to findmore specific information – usually keydetails like dates, names, places, etc.Here’s an example…
  • 14. Scanning• The first stage in any scanning for detailquestion is to decide: what are wescanning for?• In other words, what specific informationdo we want to find out?
  • 15. • It’s helpful to highlight key words or phrases inthe question.• There are three key points in this question:‘When did… begin?’;‘cultivation of olive trees’;‘around the Mediterranean Sea’• The next stage is to find the relevant section. Forexample, we could scan for numbers, like ‘4,000’
  • 16. • In this case, the answer is in the first paragraph: Olivetree cultivation began in about 4,000 B.C. (the first oliveoil was made 2,000 years later)• Next we need to decide which option is closest.• It’s important to read the options carefully. The optionsrefer to ‘years ago’, not ‘B.C.’. So the answer must beC. 6,000 years ago.EMBEDDED CRITCAL THINKING IN EVERY QUESTION
  • 17. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 18. Scanning: Negative factual• Some factual questions ask you to decidewhich option is NOT true, or NOTmentioned in the text.• First step is to look for key words in thequestion – in this case, ‘use of olive oil’
  • 19. • Next, we need to scan for the relevant section,or sections, of the text.• The heading on the second page mentions‘benefits’ of olive oil, which is similar to ‘uses’• We then find a reference to ‘a variety of uses’• We can then scan for specific words that relateto the answer options.
  • 20. The only option that is NOT mentioned is…d. paint
  • 21. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 22. Understanding sequence• Some questions ask you to put steps orevents in order, or to decide which thinghappened first, or last, in a sequence.• This can relate to steps in a process, orevents in a timeline.
  • 23. • Again, the first stage is to identify the key wordsin the question. In this case, we need to find thefirst step in the process of olive oil production.• Second stage is to locate the relevant section ofthe text.• This paragraph refers to the ‘process ofproducing the oil’• We can also see words that introduce stages.
  • 24. • The text says:• The closest option is therefore:b: crushing the whole olives• Note that the text uses slightly different wording from theoption. Some questions require you to make aconnection between different word forms.
  • 25. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 26. Understanding inference• Some questions ask you about informationor an idea that is not explicitly mentioned inthe text.• In other words, you need to ‘read betweenthe lines’ to identify the writer’s meaning.
  • 27. • Again, the first stage is to identify the keywords in the question. In this case, we arelooking for studies of olive oil.• Second stage is to use key words orparaphrases to locate the relevant section.
  • 28. • When we read the paragraph in detail, welearn that the studies describe the healthyeffects of olive oil.• We also learn these studies are helping tochange people’s understanding of olive oil,including people outside theMediterranean.
  • 29. • We can infer from the text that the writer isusing studies of olive oil to help explain itspopularity in other parts of the world.• So the closest answer is ‘a.’
  • 30. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 31. Understanding reference• Reference questions ask you to look atspecific pronouns (she, it, this, those etc)or other reference words (some, there,ones, etc) in the passage.• You then need to decide which noun ornoun phrase the reference word relates to.Here’s an example from Unit 2:
  • 32. Reading Explorer 2: Unit 2A
  • 33. • Reference questions give you the linenumber, so the scanning stage is easy!• When you find the word, read the sentenceit occurs in, and also the sentence before it.
  • 34. • Look for key words or paraphrases from thequestion.• In this case, the answer options all mention‘idea.’ So we should look in the text for an ‘idea’or words that relate to an ‘idea.’• The first part of the sentence mentions ‘thought’:• It also mentions ‘they’ – so first we need to workout what ‘they’ means!
  • 35. • In the preceding sentence, we can see that‘they’ refers to male humpbacks:• We can also see that ‘this’ in line 25 refers to theprevious (or old) idea that male humpbacks sangto attract females.
  • 36. So the best answer is:b. the idea that male humpbacks sing toattract females
  • 37. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 38. Understanding Vocabulary• As you read a text, you may find unfamiliarwords and phrases – or words that are used ina different way to what you expect.• If you always refer to a dictionary for themeaning, your reading speed will slow down.• Instead, you may be able to guess the meaningusing context, or your knowledge of word parts.Here’s an example from Unit 2:
  • 39. • You are probably familiar with the words ‘thanks’and ‘to,’ but what do they mean in the text?• First, use the line reference to find the words
  • 40. • The phrase Thanks to starts the sentence, so it’sprobably connecting the sentence with theprevious one.• The previous sentence tells us about a reductionin whale numbers, from 125,000 to 6,000.• Thanks to is followed by ‘laws against hunting’• The rest of the sentence tells us that the whalepopulation is now about 30,000.
  • 41. • From the context we can guess that ‘thanks to’connects a cause (laws against hunting) with aneffect or a result (the rise in whale populationfrom 6,000 to 30,000).
  • 42. So we can guess that the phrase ‘thanksto’ is closest in meaning to:A. As a result of
  • 43. 7 essential reading skills1. Skimming for gist2. Scanning for detail (factual)3. Scanning for detail (negativefactual)4. Understanding sequence5. Understanding inference6. Understanding reference7. Guessing vocabulary fromcontext
  • 44. Summary of key stepsRemember that most reading skill questionsrequire the same basic steps:1. Identify key words in the question (and in theoptions, if it’s multiple-choice)2. Locate the relevant section of the text byscanning for the key words – or paraphrases ofthe words.3. Read that section in detail and think about thewriter’s meaning. Look for connectionsbetween the information and ideas in the text.
  • 45. Explore for academic successand beyond!