Comprehensive collection of public statements subsequent to 9/11 attacks (Foreign Policy Bulletin)
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Comprehensive collection of public statements subsequent to 9/11 attacks (Foreign Policy Bulletin)

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The feature on the 9/11 attacks from the Foreign Policy Bulletin. Comprehensive collection of public statements from 9/11 to 12/312001.

The feature on the 9/11 attacks from the Foreign Policy Bulletin. Comprehensive collection of public statements from 9/11 to 12/312001.

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Comprehensive collection of public statements subsequent to 9/11 attacks (Foreign Policy Bulletin) Document Transcript

  • 1. Feature September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack and the Response by the United States The September 11 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington shocked the world. The attacks and their aftermath dominated the news during the latter half of 2001. These events were multifaceted, and involved a wide range of actors—within the Unites States and globally. This feature focuses on a subset of these events and actors— particularly, those related to diplomatic dialogue and the evolution of U.S. policy on terror following September 11. Other signficant topics—notably the military campaign in Afghanistan and the relationship of the attacks to long- standing conflicts in the Middle East region—are covered primarily as they relate to the main theme of the feature. Similarly, aspects of these events that are primarily domestic in nature are covered only tangentially. These include the human tragedy of the events, increases in domestic security, the anthrax scare, and changes in American societal views. ordered that the full resources of the fed- somehow achieve a political purpose. eral government go to help the victims They can destroy buildings, they can kill and their families, and to conduct a full- people, and we will be saddened by this scale investigation to hunt down and to tragedy; but they will never be allowed toI. September 11, 2001: find those folks who committed this act. kill the spirit of democracy. They cannot Terrorism against our nation will not destroy our society. They cannot destroyThe Attack stand. our belief in the democratic way. You can And now if you would join me in a be sure that America will deal with this moment of silence. May God bless the tragedy in a way that brings those respon- victims, their families, and America. sible to justice. You can be sure that as Thank you very much. terrible a day as this is for us, we will get through it because we are a strong nation, a nation that believes in itself. You can beRemarks by President Bush, Remarks by Secretary of sure that the American spirit will prevailSeptember 11, 20011 State Powell, September 11, over this tragedy. It is important that I remain here for a bit longer in order to bePresident Bush delivered his remarks at 20012 part of the consensus of this new charter9:30 A.M. at the Emma E. Booker on democracy. That is the most importantElementary School in Sarasota, Florida, Secretary Colin Powell delivered his thing I can do before departing to go backwhere he had been discussing education. remarks at a meeting of the Organization to Washington, D.C. and attend to the of American States in Lima, Peru. important business that awaits me and allLadies and gentlemen, this is a difficultmoment for America. I, unfortunately, will I also express my thanks to all of my col- my other colleagues in the administration,be going back to Washington after my leagues for their expressions of condo- and all Americans. I will bring to Presi-remarks. Secretary Rod Paige and the Lt. lence, and I thank you for the resolution dent Bush your expression of sorrow andGovernor will take the podium and dis- that was passed a few moments ago. A your words of support.cuss education. I do want to thank the terrible, terrible tragedy has befallen my I thank all of you, and Mr. President, Ifolks here at Booker Elementary School nation, but it has befallen all of the hope we can move the order of business tofor their hospitality. nations of this region, all the nations of the adoption of the charter because I very Today we’ve had a national tragedy. the world, and befallen all those who much want to be here to express the Unit-Two airplanes have crashed into the World believe in democracy. Once again we see ed States’ commitment to democracy inTrade Center in an apparent terrorist terrorism, we see terrorists, people who this hemisphere. Terrorism, as was noted,attack on our country. I have spoken to the don’t believe in democracy, people who is everyone’s problem and there are coun-Vice President, to the Governor of New believe that with the destruction of build- tries represented here who have beenYork, to the Director of the FBI, and have ings, with the murder of people, they can fighting terrorism for years and have seen2 Winter 2002
  • 2. September 11, 2001horrible things happen. It is something wemust all unite behind. And we unitebehind it as democratic nations committedto individual liberties, committed to therights of people to live in peace and free-dom in a way in which they and not ter-rorists select their leaders or define howthey will be governed. So I thank you for your expression ofsolidarity. I ask, Mr. Chairman, if it wouldbe at all possible for the resolution to bemoved forward for adoption so that I canbe a part of the consensus.Remarks by Secretary ofState Powell, September 11,20013Secretary Colin Powell delivered hisremarks while en route from Peru toWashington DC. Today we’ve had a national tragedy. Two airplanes have crashed into the World Trade Center in anSecretary Powell. I know that we all feel apparent terrorist attack on our country. I have spoken to the Vice President, to the Governor of Newa deep sense of loss, a deep sense of sad- York, to the Director of the FBI, and have ordered that the full resources of the federal government go toness and outrage at what happened in the help the victims and their families, and to conduct a full-scale investigation to hunt down and to findUnited States today, and my heart goes those folks who committed this act.out to all those who lost their lives and to Terrorism against our nation will not stand.their families. And, you can be sure thatthe United States Government will do President George Bush, September 11, 2001everything to find the perpetrators of thiscowardly attack against innocent people resolution of support from the OAS. They damage to the best of my knowledge wasand bring them to justice. gave me an opportunity to say a few done from those. So it was obviously a As you know, I got word of this while I words and make the point that at a meet- well-coordinated, extensive assault againstwas meeting with President Toledo at ing where we are celebrating democracy, the United States. You may have gotten anabout 8:35*. It was an initial report, it was let there be no doubt that buildings can be earlier report that there was a car bombnot accurate, but it was serious enough to destroyed and precious lives can be lost outside the State Department, but that isgive me a sense that something terrible but our society cannot be destroyed and not the case.had happened. I briefed the President and our democracy cannot be destroyed. Our The President spoke to the nation nothis colleagues and a few moments later an spirit as a nation cannot be destroyed. too long ago and is in a secure facility.updated message came in that started to They then at their suggestion immediately The Vice President is in the secure facili-give a better understanding of how serious brought forward the declaration that we ties in Washington. The National Securitythis was. We finished the meeting. By then were there to consider, and I think you team is intact and everything is beingit was clear that a major disaster was saw the nations accept it by acclamation, done to restore communications and tounfolding back home. So I immediately standing in support of this acclamation of restore all the things that have been dis-made a decision to return home. But it democracy, but I think also standing and rupted in the course of this morning.would take a little while to get the air- applauding in solidarity with the Ameri- I’ve spoken to Deputy Secretaryplane ready, and it also gave me the can people. Armitage twice. He is of course in con-opportunity to go to the beginning of the With respect to the events of the day, as stant touch with the White House and I’veconference where I was surrounded by you know when we took off, both towers also spoken to Dr. Rice, and the Presidentcolleague after colleague, foreign minister of the World Trade Center had fallen, seri- and I, he tried to connect with me, butafter foreign minister expressing regrets ous fire at the Pentagon which is still rag- then we were moving and we were unableand extending their condolences to the ing and has not been brought under con- to connect. I don’t want to get into specu-United States and to the families of those trol yet. Other planes crashed elsewhere in lation as to who, what, where, why.who lost their lives. the United States, one crashed near Camp There’s been no reputable claim of I think you saw what happened on the David and the other crashed out in west- responsibility yet.remote screens out in the conference ern Pennsylvania**. To the best of my World leaders have been calling in toroom, the expressions of sadness and the knowledge that’s all that happened. No express their concern and extend condo- Foreign Policy Bulletin 3
  • 3. Featurelences. I will get back to Washington is on that and other agencies are on it. I **Correction: No plane crashed near Campimmediately to contact leaders around the don’t have any information. David.world and get plugged into what’s beengoing on. Because of this, we’re in com- Q. Those two aircraft that crashed, domunications with the Department but you have any sense of where they were Remarks by President Bush,we’re going to keep that minimized due to headed to?the overload of communications all over September 11, 20014the country at this time. I think that’s real- Secretary Powell. One was going from President Bush delivered his remarksly all I have for you and I’ll take one or Logan to LA— upon arriving at Barksdale Air Forcetwo questions if it flushes out what I’ve Base in Louisiana, in transit to ansaid, but not to get into speculation. Q. No. The Camp David and Pennsyl- undisclosed, secure location. vania. Q. Secretary Powell, as you know I want to reassure the American peoplethere have been a number of worldwide Secretary Powell. No, I know nothing that the full resources of the federal gov-cautions that your Department has about them, all I heard were the reports ernment are working to assist localissued, do you think, and I recognize and I don’t know if they are big airplanes authorities to save lives and to help thethat it’s very early, but do you think or little airplanes or what. There was con- victims of these attacks. Make no mistake:that this is something that could have cern that there might be other airplanes The United States will hunt down andoriginated from the people that were and so, I mean we have AWACS up flying punish those responsible for these coward-planning this trying to throw the U.S. a CAP. All the airports are closed. ly acts.off their scent, obviously not thinking I’ve been in regular contact with thethat this attack would happen on U.S. Q. Did the State Department receive Vice President, the Secretary of Defense,soil? any kind of warning or did any U.S. the national security team and my Cabi- agency get any warning that you’re net. We have taken all appropriate security Secretary Powell. I don’t know, I don’t aware of? precautions to protect the American peo-want to speculate on who, what or ple. Our military at home and around thewhether the warnings are connected to Secretary Powell. Specific warning world is on high alert status, and we havethis. I don’t know the answers to any of about this specific incident, nothing I’m taken the necessary security precautions tothe questions you might pose to me with aware of. Of course we have sent advi- continue the functions of your govern-respect to responsibility or what triggered sories and warnings out to embassies and ment.it. I just don’t know. requests for any information they might We have been in touch with the leaders have. of Congress and with world leaders to Q. Mr. Secretary, anything on the assure them that we will do whatever iscasualties, also on the types of aircraft Q. Mr. Secretary is there anything necessary to protect America and Ameri-that were used. now that you are prepared to ask other cans. countries to do to respond to this, are I ask the American people to join me in Secretary Powell. Obviously, I don’t there any diplomatic initiatives that are saying a thanks for all the folks who haveknow the casualty numbers and they will likely? been fighting hard to rescue our fellowbe very large. The information I have on citizens and to join me in saying a prayerairplanes was a 767 coming out of Logan Secretary Powell. I don’t have anything for the victims and their families.that went into the World Trade Center to give you at this time, I’m sure that there The resolve of our great nation is beingbound for Los Angeles. I don’t have are many things that we’ll be talking tested. But make no mistake: We willenough details on the others to comment. about in the days ahead, but I don’t have show the world that we will pass this test. anything to give you now. God bless. Q. Will you be able to work out of theState Department? Is the State Depart- Q. What’s the status of U.S. missionsment operational? elsewhere in the world now? White House Press Briefing, Secretary Powell. The State Depart- Secretary Powell. We have sent out September 11, 20015ment is functioning. I will be working out advisories and cables to all of our U.S.of lots of places. missions for them to take added security White House Press Secretary Ari cautions, for them to be vigilant, to be in Fleischer delivered his remarks aboard Q. Have you heard yet whether any- touch with their host governments for not Air Force One en route to Andrews Airbody has been able to identify, at least only security but also for any assistance Force Base at 1:45 P.M.by name, the people who hijacked the with respect to information concerningplanes? this that might be of use to us. Mr. Fleischer. While on the ground at Barksdale, the President spoke to the Vice Secretary Powell. No. I’m sure the FBI * Actual time was 8:10. President several times—the Vice Presi- dent, of course, being at the operations4 Winter 2002
  • 4. September 11, 2001center at the White House. Excerpt from White House He spoke with the Secretary of Defense; Mr. Fleischer. First things first: hishe spoke to Senator Schumer; he had spo- concern is with the safety of people who Press Briefing, Septemberken to his wife prior to landing in have lost their—the health and security of 11, 20016Louisiana. the American people and with the families of those who have lost their lives. There White House Press Secretary Ari Q. Do you know where she is? will come an appropriate time to do all Fleischer delivered his remarks aboard appropriate look backs. is focus is on Air Force One en route to Andrews Air Mr. Fleischer. She’s at a secure facility. events this morning. Force Base at 5:30 P.M. Mr. Fleischer. The President will address Q. And his daughters? Q. Has he been given any estimate of the nation tonight, upon his return to the what the American casualties may be? White House. He met this afternoon for Mr. Fleischer. They’re also at a secure one hour and five minutes with his nation-location. Mr. Fleischer. I don’t believe so, Ann. al security team via live tele-conference from Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska. Q. Are they with her or—? Q. Has he spoken with Mayor Giu- Among the things the President said liani or Governor Pataki? were, “We will find these people and they Mr. Fleischer. No, no, they’re at their will suffer the consequence of taking onrespective schools. Mr. Fleischer. He spoke with Governor this nation. We will do what it takes,” and So he spoke to several members of the Pataki. He plans to speak with Mayor he continued, “No one is going to dimin-national security team, and I mentioned Giuliani. ish the spirit of this country.”Senator Schumer. And he has been receiv- The President has also heard today froming information—information will contin- Q. Who is with him on the plane? countless world leaders either who areue to come in and it’ll continue to be eval- calling to—back to Washington or haveuated. There will be a National Security Mr. Fleischer. Chief of Staff Card, Karl sent him directly communiqués. He’sCouncil meeting later this afternoon, in Rove, Dan Bartlett, myself, Gordon. heard from Britain, France, Germany,which the President will participate via Russia—a host of nations, all of whomteleconference. Q.—that’s it? have expressed their outrage at this attack, And, needless to say, all elements of the and who have assured the American peo-United States government are now doing Mr. Fleischer. Yes, as I indicated, we’ve ple that the international communitytheir part, not only to help those who have pared everything back so that we can— stands with America.been hurt, but to collect information, to That’s what I’ve got.analyze it and to provide it to the Presi- Q. And does the President feel hunteddent. or in jeopardy? I mean, he is kind of Q. The message tonight, do you know trying to stay out of— how soon after he gets back to the Q. Does the President now know any- White House he’ll be able to do that?thing more about who is responsible, Mr. Fleischer. The President is lookingthe coordinated attack, and whether forward to returning to Washington. He Mr. Fleischer. Can’t indicate yet.this is it or— understands at a time like this, caution must be taken; and he wants to get to back Q. And when he does, the message is Mr. Fleischer. That information is still to Washington. to the American people, as he said earli-being gathered and analyzed. And I antic- er, and to foreign countries?ipate that will be an ongoing process for a Q. What’s he doing right now?little while. Often, at a time like this, Mr. Fleischer. It will be a message ofinformation comes in, it turns out not to Mr. Fleischer. He’s talking to people on resolve and reassurance. It will be a reas-be true. The proper procedure is to care- the phone from his cabin. suring message that our nation has beenfully, thoroughly evaluate all information tested before, our nation has always pre-and do so in a— Q. In his cabin? vailed. Q. Had there been any warnings that Mr. Fleischer. Yes. Q. Does the President have any infor-the President knew of? mation about the source of the violence and the mastermind behind it? Mr. Fleischer. No warnings. Mr. Fleischer. I’m not going to discuss Q. Does the President—is he con- any of the intelligence information that’scerned about the fact that this attack of been provided to the President.this severity happened with no warn-ing? Q. Can you give us some idea of why Foreign Policy Bulletin 5
  • 5. Featurethe stops that we made today were President reached him. Remarks by Secretary ofmade? I understand the nature of thetragedy that we’re dealing with, but Q. A number of domestic groups have State Rumsfeld, Chairman ofwhy these particular locations? called off, you know, scheduling a num- the Joint Chiefs of Staff ber of activities—baseball, Emmy Mr. Fleischer. For security purposes awards. How does the President now Shelton, Secretary of thethat involve the President. view the next few days for his concen- Army White, Senator Levin, tration? He will have to deal with this Q. I mean, was this more like a roll of pretty exhaustively over the rest of the and Senator Warner,the dice as in, which Air Force bases week. September 11, 20017will we end up at? Or is this morewanting— Mr. Fleischer. The President thinks it’s Secretary Donald H. Rumseld, General important for America to return to their Hugh Shelton, Secretary Thomas E. Mr. Fleischer. Well, of course, nobody lives. As he indicated, this is a test of White, Senator Carl Levin (D-MI), andwould ever know what Air Force base we America’s resolve and that no one will Senator John Warner (R-VA) deliveredwould end up at. That’s routine procedure. diminish America’s spirit; and America’s their remarks at a press conference atThere are a series of plan that you always spirit includes a return to normal the Pentagon at 6:42 P.M.hope remain on the shelf that, unfortunate- lifestyles. Secretary Rumsfeld. This is a—first ofly, today had to be implemented. all, good evening. This is a tragic day for And so, as a matter of security, the Pres- Q. As for his schedule for the rest of our country. Our hearts and prayers go toident traveled in the manner that he did the week, he will now focus on this pri- the injured, their families and friends.and that also allowed the national security marily? We have taken a series of measures tocommunity to assess the ongoing nature prevent further attacks and to determineof a threat. Obviously, the President is Mr. Fleischer. Of course, this will be who is responsible. We’re making everynow returning to Washington. his top priority now. effort to take care of the injured and the casualties in the building. I’m deeply Q. Why is he returning now? Who Q. What are his plans for—in terms grateful for the many volunteers from themakes the decision that it is safe for his of, is he going to stay in the White defense establishment and from the excel-return now? House? Is he going to be moved to a dif- lent units from all throughout this region. ferent location from there? They have our deep appreciation. Mr. Fleischer. Well, ultimately, it’s the We have been working closely through-President. Information is provided to the Mr. Fleischer. We’ll, of course, advise out the day with President Bush, VicePresident about any type of threat, and the you of any presidential travel, as always. President Cheney, CIA Director GeorgePresident makes the final determination. But the President is returning to the Oval Tenet, the vice chairman of the JointThe President wanted to get back to Office and he will go to work. Chiefs of Staff, Dick Myers, who is cur-Washington. He understood that there can rently participating in a meeting elsewherebe a period of caution so that the security Q. He will what? I’m sorry. in the building, and a great many otherpeople can make a full and proper assess- officials from throughout the government.ment about any threats. Mr. Fleischer. The President is return- I should say we’ve received calls from They were afforded that opportunity. ing to the White House to go to work. across the world offering their sympathyThe President traveled to a secure location and indeed their assistance in variouswhile they took that opportunity. And ways.now, obviously, the President is returning I’m very pleased to be joined here byhome safely. Chairman Carl Levin and Senator John Warner. Senator Warner called earlier Q. There was some confusion earlier today and offered his support and wasabout whether the Vice President was at kind enough to come down and has beenthe White House the entire time, or with us. We’ve very recently had a discus-whether he was evacuated and ultimate- sion with the president of the Unitedly returned to the White House. States. Chairman Hugh Shelton has just landed from Europe. Secretary of the Mr. Fleischer. Well, my information is Army Tom White, who has a responsibili-he was at the White House the whole ty for incidents like this as executive agenttime. You’d have to check with his office for the Department of Defense, is alsoabout what time he arrived at the White joining me.House. But from the beginning, when the It’s an indication that the United StatesPresident spoke to him this morning, he government is functioning in the face ofwas at the White House, that’s where the this terrible act against our country. I6 Winter 2002
  • 6. September 11, 2001should add that the briefing here is taking are bombs exploding in Kabul,place in the Pentagon. The Pentagon’s Senator Warner. Thank you. Afghanistan. Are we, at the moment,functioning. It will be in business tomor- As a past chairman, preceding Carl striking back? And if so, is the targetrow. Levin, I can assure you that the Congress Osama bin Laden and his organization? I know the interest in casualty figures, stands behind our president, and the presi-and all I can say is it’s not possible to dent speaks with one voice for this entire Secretary Rumsfeld. I’ve seen thosehave solid casualty figures at this time. nation. This is indeed the most tragic hour reports. They—in no way is the UnitedAnd the various components are doing in America’s history, and yet I think it can States government connected to thoseroster checks, and we’ll have information be its finest hour, as our president and explosions.at some point in the future. And as quickly those with him, most notably our secretaryas it’s possible to have it, it will certainly of Defense, our chairman, and the men Q. What about Osama bin Laden, dobe made available to each of you. and women of the armed forces all over you suspect him as the prime suspect in I’ll be happy to take a few questions this world stand ready not only to defend this?after asking first General Shelton if he this nation and our allies against furtherwould like to say anything, and then we attack, but to take such actions as are Secretary Rumsfeld. It’s not the timewill allow the others to make a remark or directed in the future in retaliation for this for discussions like that.two. terrorist act—a series of terrorist acts, unprecedented in world history. Q. Mr. Secretary, you said you could General Shelton. Thank you, Mr. Sec- We call upon the entire world to step up not be specific about casualties. Canretary. Ladies and gentlemen, as the secre- and help, because terrorism is a common you give us some characterization,tary just said, today, we have watched the enemy to all, and we’re in this together. whether it’s dozens, hundreds in thetragedy of an outrageous act of barbaric The United States has borne the brunt, but building?terrorism carried out by fanatics against who can be next? Step forward and let usboth civilians and military people, acts hold accountable and punish those that Secretary Rumsfeld. Well, we knowthat have killed and maimed many inno- have perpetrated this attack. there were large numbers, many dozens,cent and decent citizens of our country. Again, I commend the secretary, the in the aircraft that flew at full power, I extend my condolences to the entire chairman, and how proud we are. We steering directly into the—between, IDepartment of Defense families, military spoke with our President here moments think, the first and second floor of the—and civilian, and to the families of all ago. He’s got a firm grip on this situation, opposite the helipad. You’ve seen it. Therethose throughout our nation who lost and the Secretary and the General have a cannot be any survivors; it just would beloved ones. firm grip on our armed forces and in com- beyond comprehension. I think this is indeed a reminder of the munication the world over. There are a number of people thattragedy and the tragic dangers that we they’ve not identified by name, but identi-face day in and day out both here at that Secretary Rumsfeld. Thank you very fied as being dead, and there are a numberhome as well as abroad. much. of causalities. But the FBI has secured the I will tell you up front, I have no inten- We’ll take a few questions and then site. And the—information takes time totions of discussing today what comes we’ll adjourn. come. People have been lifted out andnext, but make no mistake about it, your Charlie. taken away in ambulances. And the num-armed forces are ready. bers will be calculated, and it will not be a Q. Mr. Secretary, did you have any few. Senator Warner. The chairman. inkling at all, in any way, that some- thing of this nature and something of Q. Mr. Secretary, could you tell us Secretary Rumsfeld. The chairman of this scope might be planned? what you saw?the Senate Armed Services Committee,Carl Levin. Secretary Rumsfeld. Charlie, we don’t Secretary Rumsfeld. Yeah? discuss intelligence matters. Senator Levin. Our intense focus on Q. Mr. Secretary, do you considerrecovery and helping the injured and the Q. I see. And how—how would you what happened today, both in New Yorkfamilies of those who were killed is respond if you find out who did this? and here, an act of war?matched only by our determination to pre-vent more attacks and matched only by Secretary Rumsfeld. Obviously, the Secretary Rumsfeld. There is no ques-our unity to track down, root out and president of the United States has spoken tion but that the attack against the Unitedrelentlessly pursue terrorists, states that on that subject, and those are issues that States of America today was a vicious,support them and harbor them. he will address in good time. well-coordinated, massive attack against They are the common enemy of the civ- Yes? the United States of America. What wordsilized world. Our institutions are strong, the lawyers will use to characterize it isand our unity is palpable. Q. Mr. Secretary, we are getting for them. Senator John Warner. reports from CNN and others that there Foreign Policy Bulletin 7
  • 7. Feature Q. Does that mean that the U.S. is at ate. Senator Levin. You bet.war then? Q.—what do you say to the American Q. Senator Levin, you and other Q. Mr. Secretary, you said that the people who may have questions on how Democrats in Congress have voiced fearPentagon would be open for business something so coordinated has been car- that you simply don’t have enoughtomorrow. What kind of assurances can ried out against this nation? What do money for the large increase in defenseyou give the people who work here at you say to them who might not have that the Pentagon is seeking, especiallythe building that the building will be confidence that our intelligence and for missile defense, and you fear thatsafe? security are what they should have you’ll have to dip into the Social Securi- been? ty funds to pay for it. Does this sort of Secretary Rumsfeld. A terrorist can thing convince you that an emergencyattack at any time at any place using any Secretary Rumsfeld. I say to them that exists in this country to increase defensetechnique. It is physically impossible to the president of the United States will be spending, to dip into Social Security, ifdefend at every time in every place against making some remarks to them this necessary, to pay for defense spend-every technique. It is not possible to give evening that will address those subjects. ing—increase defense spending?guarantees. The people who work in this Q. Mr. Secretary, you’ve declared—building do so voluntarily. They’re brave the Pentagon has declared Threatcon Senator Levin. One thing where thepeople, and they do their jobs well. Delta for forces around the world. committee was unanimous on, among Could you tell me why? Have you many, many other things, was that the— Q. Mr. Secretary, can you give a sense received any threats? Or has anyone we authorized the full request of the Presi-of what happened—what did you see claimed credit for this? dent, including the $18 billion. So I wouldwhen you left your office, ran down to say that Democrats and Republicans havethe site and apparently helped people Secretary Rumsfeld. We have in fact seen the need for the request.on stretchers and then returned to the declared Force Protection Condition Deltacommand center? and a condition of high alert—indeed, the Q. Mr. Secretary, could you describe highest alert. We did so almost immediate- what steps are being taken—defensive Secretary Rumsfeld. The—I felt the ly upon the attacks, and it is still in force. measures—beyond force protection,shock of the airplane hitting the building, and whether there’s been any opera-went through the building and then out Q. Mr. Secretary, were there threats tional planning for homeland defenseinto the area, and they were bringing bod- issued against other U.S. facilities else- and as to—ies out that had been injured, most of where in the world today?which were alive and moving, but serious- Secretary Rumsfeld. Those aren’t thely injured. And a lot of volunteers were Secretary Rumsfeld. The—I don’t kinds of things that one discusses.doing a terrific job helping to bring them know that there’s a day that’s gone byout of the buildings and get them into since I’ve been in this job that there Q. Sir, the perpetrators of the Khobarstretchers and into ambulances and into haven’t been threats somewhere in the Towers bombing were never found—theairlifts. world to some facility somewhere. It’s a— Cole bombing as well. What assurances it’s one of the complexities of the intelli- or what confidence do you have that the Q. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us how gence business that you have to sort perpetrators of this act will be found?many of the dead were soldiers and how through those kinds of things. But wemany were civilians? Have you been don’t get into the specifics. Secretary Rumsfeld. All one can offerable to determine that? Yes? You had your hand up? Yes? by way of assurance is a seriousness of purpose. We’re still taking bodies out of Secretary Rumsfeld. Absolutely not. Q. Mr. Secretary, there were rumors this building, so I would say that that’s a Yeah. earlier in the day that the plane which little premature. crashed in Pennsylvania had been Q. Mr. Secretary, today we saw mili- brought down by the United States, Q. Mr. Secretary?tary planes both in New York and in either shot down or in some other man-Washington. How much more of a mili- ner. Secretary Rumsfeld. Yes?tary presence will we see, now that thisincident has occurred, for the next Secretary Rumsfeld. We have absolute- Q. You’ve talked about—and othersweek? ly no information that any U.S. aircraft at the podium have talked about being shot down any other aircraft today. ready, the military is ready, General Secretary Rumsfeld. Those kinds of Shelton said. And we understand thedecisions are made day to day. It is correct Q. I wonder if we could just ask Sena- Navy has dispatched two carriers andthat we had aircraft flying protective mis- tor Levin one thing, Senator, if that’s all some guided-missile cruisers andsions at various places in the United States right. destroyers and a couple of Marinetoday. And they will do that as appropri- Corps helicopter amphibious ships,8 Winter 2002
  • 8. September 11, 2001such as the Bataan—it’s not theBataan—here and to New York. Canyou tell us if that’s true? And also anyother things you can share with us Today, our fellow citizens, ourabout how the United States military is way of life, our very freedompreparing to take on whatever in the came under attack in a series ofnext few days? deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. The victims were in air- planes, or in their offices; secre- Secretary Rumsfeld. We don’t make taries, businessmen and women,announcements about ship deployments. military and federal workers; moms and dads, friends and Q. Mr. Secretary? neighbors. Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, Secretary Rumsfeld. Yes? despicable acts of terror. Q. Can you describe the fire-fighting President George Bush, Sep-efforts that are going on right now in tember 11, 2001that corridor and the search-and-rescueefforts that are beginning? Secretary Rumsfeld. Can I describethem? Q. Yeah. Secretary Rumsfeld. Why don’t we letthe Secretary of the Army, who was outthere with me a few minutes ago and hasbeen talking to the incident commanderon the site. Statement by President steel, but they cannot dent the steel of Secretary White. I think it’s fair to say American resolve.at this point that the fire is contained, and Bush, September 11, 20018 America was targeted for attack becausewill shortly, if not already, be sufficiently we’re the brightest beacon for freedomcontrolled to allow entry into the building. President Bush delivered the following and opportunity in the world. And no oneThat entry will be supervised by the FBI, address to the nation at 8:30 P.M. will keep that light from shining.who are in charge of the site, assisted by Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, Today, our nation saw evil, the verythe fire departments that are present. We, our very freedom came under attack in a worst of human nature. And we respondedon the Army side, will support them as series of deliberate and deadly terrorist with the best of America—with the daringthey go in the building and search for acts. The victims were in airplanes, or in of our rescue workers, with the caring forcasualties and bring them out, then we their offices; secretaries, businessmen and strangers and neighbors who came to givewill support them in dealing with that. women, military and federal workers; blood and help in any way they could.That’s what’s going on on the ground. moms and dads, friends and neighbors. Immediately following the first attack, I Thousands of lives were suddenly ended implemented our government’s emergency Secretary Rumsfeld. We’ll take one by evil, despicable acts of terror. response plans. Our military is powerful,last question. The pictures of airplanes flying into and it’s prepared. Our emergency teams buildings, fires burning, huge structures are working in New York City and Wash- Q. Is the government operating under collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, ington, D.C. to help with local rescuethe assumption that this attack is done, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding efforts.or is it poised or bracing for more anger. These acts of mass murder were Our first priority is to get help to thoseaction? intended to frighten our nation into chaos who have been injured, and to take every and retreat. But they have failed; our precaution to protect our citizens at home Secretary Rumsfeld. The government country is strong. and around the world from further attacks.is certainly aware that it’s difficult to A great people has been moved to The functions of our government contin-know when attacks are concluded. defend a great nation. Terrorist attacks can ue without interruption. Federal agencies shake the foundations of our biggest in Washington which had to be evacuated buildings, but they cannot touch the foun- today are reopening for essential person- dation of America. These acts shattered nel tonight, and will be open for business Foreign Policy Bulletin 9
  • 9. Featuretomorrow. Our financial institutions condemn them utterly. Terrorism must be Obviously some of these measures, notremain strong, and the American economy fought resolutely wherever it appears. least the effect upon airports, will lead towill be open for business, as well. In such moments, cool and reasoned some disruption, and I hope people under- The search is underway for those who judgement is more essential than ever. We stand that. But other than the specificare behind these evil acts. I’ve directed the do not know yet who is behind these acts, measures we have taken, or that we havefull resources of our intelligence and law or what objective they hope to achieve. advised others to take, business and every-enforcement communities to find those What we do know is that no just cause can day life can continue as normal. As forresponsible and to bring them to justice. be advanced by terror. those that carried out these attacks, thereWe will make no distinction between the are no adequate words of condemnation.terrorists who committed these acts and Their barbarism will stand as their shamethose who harbor them. Statement by British Prime for all eternity. I appreciate so very much the members As I said earlier, this mass terrorism isof Congress who have joined me in Minister Blair, September 11, the new evil in our world. The people whostrongly condemning these attacks. And 200110 perpetrate it have no regard whatever foron behalf of the American people, I thank the sanctity or value of human life, andthe many world leaders who have called The full horror of what has happened in we the democracies of the world, mustto offer their condolences and assistance. the United States earlier today is now come together to defeat it and eradicate it. America and our friends and allies join becoming clearer. It is hard even to con- This is not a battle between the Unitedwith all those who want peace and securi- template the utter carnage and terror States of America and terrorism, butty in the world, and we stand together to which has engulfed so many innocent between the free and democratic worldwin the war against terrorism. Tonight, I people. We’ve offered President Bush and and terrorism. We, therefore, here inask for your prayers for all those who the American people our solidarity, our Britain stand shoulder to shoulder withgrieve, for the children whose worlds have profound sympathy, and our prayers. But our American friends in this hour ofbeen shattered, for all whose sense of it is plain that citizens of many countries tragedy, and we, like them, will not restsafety and security has been threatened. round the world, including Britain, will until this evil is driven from our world.And I pray they will be comforted by a have been caught up in this terror.power greater than any of us, spoken I have just chaired an emergency meet-through the ages in Psalm 23: “Even ing of the British government Civil Con- Statement by NATOthough I walk through the valley of the tingencies Committee, and I would like toshadow of death, I fear no evil, for You explain some of the measures that we Secretary Generalare with me.” have agreed to take here. There are a Robertson, September 11, This is a day when all Americans from range of precautionary measures. We haveevery walk of life unite in our resolve for stepped up security at airports to the high- 200111justice and peace. America has stood est levels. No flights will take off from the I condemn in the strongest possible termsdown enemies before, and we will do so United Kingdom for which we cannot the senseless attacks which have just beenthis time. None of us will ever forget this apply the highest standards of security for perpetrated against the United States ofday. Yet, we go forward to defend freedom air crew and passengers. Private flights America. My sympathies go to the Ameri-and all that is good and just in our world. have been stopped except where specifi- can people, the victims and their families. Thank you. Good night, and God bless cally authorized. Flight paths into London These barbaric acts constitute intolerableAmerica. have been changed, so there will be no aggression against democracy and under- civil over-flights of central London. line the need for the international commu- Security has been increased across the nity and the members of the Alliance toStatement by United Nations full range of government buildings and unite their forces in fighting the scourge military premises. The police across theSecretary General Annan, whole of the U.K. are on full alert. All our of terrorism.September 11, 20019 defense facilities round the world have been moved to high alert to ensure theWe are all traumatized by this terrible protection of British service personnel. Statement by the Northtragedy. We do not know yet how many Advice is being given to major financial Atlantic Council, Septemberpeople have been killed or injured, but and business institutions about appropriateinevitably the number will be high. Our security measures. A number of other 11, 200112first thoughts and prayers must be for security measures have been taken, and of The North Atlantic Council met tonight tothem and for their families. I wish to course we are in close touch with U.S., express its solidarity with the Unitedexpress my profound condolences to European and other allies, and are co- States of America at this moment of greatthem, and to the people and Government operating with them on issues of security. tragedy and mourning. Our deepest sym-of the United States. All relevant ministers remain in communi- pathy lies with the victims, their families There can be no doubt that these attacks cation, and the committee—the civil con- and all Americans. The NATO nationsare deliberate acts of terrorism, carefully tingencies committee—will meet again unanimously condemn these barbaric actsplanned and coordinated—and as such I tomorrow at 8am.10 Winter 2002
  • 10. September 11, 2001committed against a NATO member state. Letter from Chinese Secretary Powell. Good morning,The mindless slaughter of so many inno- Katie.cent civilians is an unacceptable act of President Jiang to Presidentviolence without precedent in the modern Bush, September 11, 200114 Q. On a human level, I just want toera. It underscores the urgency of intensi- get your reaction to the events of yester-fying the battle against terrorism, a battle Shocked to learn of the serious attacks day.that the NATO countries—indeed all civi- against certain areas in New York City andlized nations—must win. All Allies stand Washington D.C. on September 11, which Secretary Powell. Total shock. I was inunited in their determination to combat caused horrendous casualty, I wish to a meeting in Lima, Peru with Presidentthis scourge. At this critical moment, the express, on behalf of the Chinese Govern- Toledo and his associates when a note wasUnited States can rely on its 18 Allies in ment and people, our deepest sympathy handed to me, and I just shouted outNorth America and Europe for assistance and solicitude to you and, through you, to across the breakfast table, “Oh my God.”and support. NATO solidarity remains the the Government and people of the United And then the situation got worse over theessence of our Alliance. Our message to States. I wish also to extend our condo- next 20 minutes as more reports came in,the people of the United States is that we lences to the families of the victims. The and I immediately made plans to return toare with you. Our message to those who Chinese Government has consistently con- Washington.perpetrated these unspeakable crimes is demned and rejected all forms of terrorist Before returning, though, I did attendequally clear: you will not get away with violence. briefly a meeting of the Organization ofit. American States, where 34 other total states—the United States was 33—were Israeli Ministry of Foreign assembled to bring into effect a new char-Statement by President of Affairs Press Statement, ter on democracy, and we did that by just a simple vote of acclamation. And then allthe United Nations Security September 11, 200115 of the delegates stood and applauded thisCouncil, September 11, 200113 statement in support of democracy, and to Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Min- show solidarity with the American peopleMembers of the Security Council are ister Peres wishes to extend, on behalf of in this time of crisis.shocked by and unanimously condemn in the government and people of Israel, Since my return, I’ve been in touch withthe strongest terms the horrifying terrorist deepest condolences to the American peo- leaders around the world, with Lordattacks which have taken place today in ple and leaders. The Foreign Minister Robertson and NATO, with Javier SolanaNew York, Washington, D.C., and else- expressed his rage and anger at the abom- and the European Union and Kofi Annan,where in the United States. This is a inable acts of terrorism. to make sure everybody understands thattragedy for and a challenge to all humani- FM Shimon Peres offered the United we need a worldwide response to thisty. There can be no excuse or justification States government, on behalf of the State assault on America, because it’s an assaultfor these acts and any terrorist act. of Israel, Israel’s aid and rescue assis- on civilization, it’s an assault on democra- Members of the Security Council tance. cy, it’s an assault on the world and theexpress their deepest sympathy and con- Israel is following the developments world must respond as the United Statesdolences to the victims and their families with deep concern and prays for the well- plans to respond.and to the people and government of the being of the American people. IsraelUnited States of America. grieves at this tragedy of unimaginable Q. Secretary Powell, last night the Members of the Security Council call proportions. President said, “Those who harboron all States to work together urgently to these criminals will be held responsi-bring to justice the perpetrators, organiz- ble.” If we believe the man behind thisers and sponsors of today’s outrages. Remarks by Secretary of is in fact Usama bin Laden and that theThey call on the international community Taliban, the ruling government into redouble its efforts to prevent and sup- State Powell, September 12, Afghanistan, is harboring him, whatpress terrorist acts by increased coopera- 200116 can the United States do to actuallytion and full implementation of relevant back up the President’s words?international anti-terrorist conventions and Secretary Colin Powell was interviewedSecurity Council resolutions. by Katie Couric on NBC’s Today Show. Secretary Powell. Well, there are many Members of the Security Council Q. The President is expected to meet options available to us: military options,express their readiness to take urgent fur- with his national security staff this diplomatic options, further isolation ofther steps in accordance with their respon- morning. Secretary of State Colin Pow- any country that might be harboring whosibilities under the Charter of the United ell is just across the Potomac River at is responsible. We are not yet prepared toNations. the State Department this morning. state this morning who is responsible, but Secretary Powell, good morning to the evidence is mounting, and I think it you, sir. will point us in the right direction in the not-too-distant future, and then we will Foreign Policy Bulletin 11
  • 11. Featurehave to not only take action on our own terday. This is going to take a multi- ment experts. But in this case, we did notpart, but also mobilize the world against faceted attack along many dimensions: get the cuing we needed, we did not getwhatever regimes may be supporting the diplomatic, military, intelligence, law the intelligence information needed to pre-terrorists who conducted this act. enforcement. All sorts of things will have dict that this was about to happen or be to be done to bring this scourge under aware of this kind of event coming our Q. So you’re saying, General Powell, control. And it is not just one organiza- way.that as of this morning, you cannot say tion; it’s a network of organizations. We So I think it’s premature to call it anthat U.S. officials believe Usama bin have to make the whole world understand intelligence failure. Let’s see what weLaden was responsible for this? that this is something we all have to be might have picked up as we go back and involved in, and not just see it as a dis- do the postmortem on how this all came Secretary Powell. Let me just say that creet response to a single incident. We’ll about.there is evidence being developed now, do that, but we have to realize that terror-and good evidence. We will be able to ism has been around for a very long time, Q. Would you agree with your formermake a definitive statement in due course. and it’s going to take a very long time to colleague, General Schwartzkopf, thatBut I think it is best not to speculate until root it out. we need to emphasize human intelli-we do have the evidence all assembled, But what the President specifically was gence as much as technical intelligence,and we make an informed judgment and focusing on last night is that there are and we’ve got all the technological toysannouncement at that time. nations, there are states, there are organi- that can be used for those purposes, but zations who provide havens, and these what we need are real thinking, seeing Q. Secretary Powell, a diplomatic states and organizations cannot be given a people on the ground to infiltrate theseresponse may seem meager to many free ride any longer. And a major part of groups?Americans, who in a poll this morning our diplomatic effort will be to mobilizesaid 94 percent say they would support the international community against the Secretary Powell. Absolutely, but it’smilitary action in retaliation if the U.S. actions of such states and organizations easier said than done. And we do have tocan identify the groups or nation once we have a clear understanding of emphasize human intelligence, becauseresponsible; 92 percent said they would who is responsible for this and who might you can defeat electronic intelligence justsupport it even if it meant entering a have been giving them haven. by not emitting. So human intelligence iswar. very, very important, and I know that our What is your response to that? Q. Do you think this was an individ- intelligence community is very aware of ual cell of terrorists, or do you believe that. But these are also difficult activities Secretary Powell. I fully understand the this could be state-sponsored? In other to penetrate, and to be able to stay withinviews of the American people this morn- words, could Iraq or a country like that such a network for a long period of time.ing. We’re mad. We were assaulted. But have been involved in this? But certainly this will be looked at asour spirit wasn’t assaulted, and our fight- we review everything we’re doing in theing spirit was not assaulted. So we want to Secretary Powell. I just don’t know at field of intelligence.respond. You don’t attack America like this point, and I’d rather not speculate.this and get away with it. I’m sure as the evidence mounts, we will Q. If we do engage in another coun- And so I can assure the American peo- have a better idea of, one, who is directly try, or take military action, what areple that the President, if he is able to get responsible, and two, what kind of support the ramifications? In other words, if anthe information pinpointing who it is and they may have been receiving from out- Islamic fundamentalist group waswhere they are and get targetable informa- side that cell, outside that network, from responsible, what kind of retaliationtion, I am quite confident that he will look either state organizations or other types of might we expect, and what kind ofat every option he has available to him to terrorist organizations. access do they have, these groups, torespond militarily. But I’d think it best we not speculate weapons of mass destruction? too wildly at this point. Q. Along those lines, is the U.S. Gov- Secretary Powell. Well, let me noternment prepared to enter a war Q. The U.S. spends billions of dollars speculate as to what we might do. I thinkagainst these terrorists, and wouldn’t on intelligence. Was this, in your view, a a full range of options will be available,that entail committing ground troops to massive intelligence failure, as it has and I know that the Secretary of Defensefind them, weed them out? After all, the been called? and his colleagues are looking at that. ItU.S. has launched air strikes against all depends on where we run this toterrorist targets in the past, and the ter- Secretary Powell. I wouldn’t character- ground, as to what counter-attack werorists continue to survive, even flour- ize it that way. We spend many, many bil- might receive from those who are respon-ish. lions of dollars on intelligence, and then sible. intelligence allows us to thwart many But at this time it’s premature to start Secretary Powell. Let’s not think that attacks. There are many terrorist attacks speculating, or to identify them as Islamicone single counter- attack will rid the that never took place because of the fine fundamentalists. Let’s just identify themworld of terrorism of the kind we saw yes- work of our intelligence and law enforce- as a terrorist group that can have no reli-12 Winter 2002
  • 12. September 11, 2001gious underpinning, no legitimate under- sense— Secretary Powell. I say that we do havepinning for this kind of action. This is the best intelligence system. We have themurder, which is against the tenets of Q. Are we talking weeks? Are we talk- best military on the face of the Earth. Butevery religion, every responsible religion ing months? as has been demonstrated many times inthat is in the world, and it is receiving the past, if you are a determined enemycondemnation from around the world, Secretary Powell. Well, we just don’t and if you are prepared to go after softfrom people of all faiths and religious know, Bryant. And it wouldn’t be—I don’t targets, and if you are—you are preparedbackgrounds. think it would proper for me to speculate to do it in ways that are rather different So let’s just view them as what they are: without knowing exactly who the perpe- from anything we’ve seen before, unlessterrorist organizations. And I cannot spec- trators are and whether there is something we get something that cues us, somethingulate whether they might have access to to respond to. that gives us some indication that this kindthe kinds of weapons you discussed, Diplomatically and in other ways, we of asymmetric attack is coming, we arebecause we don’t know exactly who it is can respond immediately. And I’ve been always at risk. We can’t defend againstyet. But we will be on guard for that. on the phone already with Kofi Annan at every single possibility short of shutting the U.N., with Lord Robertson at NATO ourselves up into some kind of block- and with Javier Solana at the European house. We’re an open society. And so weRemarks by Secretary of Union to get an international response to have thwarted many terrorist attacks over this—condemnation, consideration of the years. And some have been successful.State Powell, September 12, other actions that the international com- But I can assure you that we have compe-200117 munity might take. tent people working on this. We do have Now, that just might sound like diplo- the best people working on it. But it isSecretary Colin Powell was interviewed matic speak, but it’s important diplomatic impossible to stop every potential attackby Bryant Gumbel on the CBS Morning speak because we want the entire world to that is coming our way.Show. come down and not only condemn thisThe first thing I’m doing this morning, kind of activity, but together—united—to Q. Understood. Final note, are we atBryant, is, one, making sure that all our go after those who continue to believe that war, Mr. Secretary?embassies around the world are safe and by killing innocent civilians they cantaking necessary precautionary actions. achieve political purposes. That has to be Secretary Powell. I think the AmericanWe have about 25 percent of our the response of the international commu- people are not confused about theembassies on suspended operation. But nity to kill that idea and root these organi- legalisms of this. When you saw thosethey will all be coming back up in the zations up once and for all. scenes coming out of New York andcourse of the day, I’m quite sure. Washington today, the American people Next, the President has directed me to Q. Mr. Secretary, besides being a made a judgment, we are at war. And theywork with international organizations and diplomat, you’re also a military man. want a comprehensive response. Theyour friends around the world to make the You know the topography. You know want us to act as if we are at war. And wepoint that this is an assault against the civ- the landscape both diplomatic and oth- are going to do that—diplomatically, mili-ilized world—not just against the United erwise. How realistic is it to think we tarily, picking options that will respond toStates—and to mobilize them to respond could track down the individuals who this, searching out those who are responsi-to this assault: diplomatically, militarily, did this? ble, and those who harbor them.with police actions, intelligence actions— And so as we go through the legalismsand to make sure that those nations, as the Secretary Powell. I think it is realistic. of all this and determine how to respondPresident said last night, who might be I think we have demonstrated in the past in the international community, the Ameri-harboring or providing comfort to these our ability to find people who have com- can people know what they saw yesterdaykinds of terrorist organizations understand mitted these sorts of terrorist acts. We and what they believe they saw, clearly,that we will be holding them accountable. have very, very confident people who was an act of war. Not only against Amer-And once this trail leads us to who is know how to follow leads. Sometimes it ica but against the international communi-responsible, if there are nations that bear takes a few weeks. Sometimes it takes ty—the community of peace. But theyresponsibility in that regard for hosting years. But we won’t give up. We will find didn’t hurt our spirit. They didn’t hurt ourthem, then we will be doing something them. And they will be dealt with. resilience as a society. And we’ll comeabout that, as well. back—we’ll come back firmly. We are Q. The question being asked often this still very much intact as a society, as a Q. We heard the President’s words morning, Mr. Secretary, is this, that nation. And we know how to respond.last night. I don’t expect a specific ours is the most sophisticated defensetimetable. But in general terms, how system in the entire world, certainly thequickly can or will we respond? most expensive, to that question of how could we not have seen this coming, Secretary Powell. We’ll respond as what do you say?soon as we can. And in the diplomatic Foreign Policy Bulletin 13
  • 13. FeatureRemarks by Secretary of perpetrator. As soon as we get that, And this will all be part of our strategy. what is the timeline—do you think— The important point is that we sufferedState Powell, September 12, between now and the time that you terrible losses yesterday. And our heart200118 think we will have pretty secure knowl- goes out—our hearts go out to all of our edge of who is responsible? fellow Americans who are in such pain.Secretary Colin Powell was interviewed But they didn’t get our spirit. They didn’tby Tony Snow on Fox Morning News. Secretary Powell. I don’t know, Tony, understand the resiliency of this great so I would rather not speculate or predict. nation of ours. And as the President saidQ. We have an international terrorist But there is a body of evidence that is last night, we will be back, we willnetwork. There is no way we can nego- starting to develop and come together that respond. And they will regret to theirtiate with these people, is there? death what they perpetrated against us yesterday. Secretary Powell. No. They have to berooted. They have to be destroyed. And Q. We have an international terrorist Q. When we tried to respond to thewe are hard at work on that this morning. network. There is no way we can Munich disco bombing some of ourWe are trying to make sure that the world negotiate with these people, is there? NATO allies did not allow us to do over-understands that this was an assault not flights in order to strike back at Muam-just on America, but on civilization—upon Secretary Powell. No. They have to mar Qadhafi. Do we now have assur-all of the nations of the world. And it ance from our European allies that theyrequires a worldwide response. be rooted. They have to be destroyed. will give us their full support when it And that response has to be diplomatic. comes to fighting whoever is responsi-It has to be political. It has to be going ble?after their means of support. It has to begoing after nations and states and other is starting to point us in certain directions. Secretary Powell. I have had expres-organizations that give them harbor and But that really is the purview of our intel- sions of full support from European allieshaven and support. And it has to be mili- ligence community. So I would rather not and other allies. Now, we haven’t gone totary, as well, if targets can be found that speculate or predict as to when we can them with any specific requests yet. But Iare actionable. And it has to be justice, make an announcement or when we can sense there is a good deal of leaning for-too—if that is possible to bring somebody let the world know. ward based in the calls I’ve had this morn-to justice. But it has to be a complete ing in recognition of the fact that thiscomprehensive response. It is not just one Q. To make diplomacy credible and could have happened to any one of them.action that is going to be taken. also to send a message to terrorists, one presumes that we would need to **** Q. Secretary Powell, last night the respond rather forcefully and ratherPresident said that we will make no dis- quickly. Again, how swiftly should the Q. Final question, sir, many Americanstinction between terrorists and nations United States respond once it knows today are filled with anxiety. Could youthat harbor them. Let me read you a who is responsible? tell them that you think that the attackslist of nations and see if you can pick are over for now?out any that have not offered aid and Secretary Powell. I would say that youcomfort to terrorists: Iran, Iraq, Syria, respond as quickly as you can once you Secretary Powell. Well, I can’t say that.Libya, Sudan, Afghanistan. Are any of know who is responsible and once you I simply don’t know. We have no indica-those off the list? have something to respond to. And this tion that anything similar to what hap- may take some patience. I’m quite confi- pened yesterday is afoot in the country. Secretary Powell. No. dent it isn’t going to be within a day or so. But at the same time, this is a time for You have to get something that is action- caution and vigilance. But it is also a time Q. We also have in the past—Saudi able and then put in place forces that can for us to get back to work. It is also a timeArabia certainly has not cut off the conduct whatever strikes may be appropri- for us to show the world that America isspigot of funds for Usama bin Laden. Is ate. working, to show the world that Americathat a problem, as well? And I know that my colleague Don is coming back from this tragedy and not Rumsfeld and the Joint Chiefs of Staff are to hide in bunkers, but to get back to Secretary Powell. Well, we’ll look at examining all the options that are avail- work—as we are here in the State Depart-all possibilities of support to terrorist able to them, and then, of course, avail- ment and as we are all over Washingtonorganizations in the course of our review able to the president. Diplomatically we and our facilities around the world.of this particular situation as part of our can start right away and we are contactingongoing struggle against terrorism. nations around the world. We’re very, very Q. Secretary Powell, I beg your indul- pleased with the response we have gotten gence for one last question. You’ve been Q. You have said a number of times from Russia, from China, from the U.N., working very hard on trying to worktoday in previous interviews that you from NATO, from the European Union. for Middle East peace. Yesterday Amer-think we’re pretty close to getting a14 Winter 2002
  • 14. September 11, 2001icans saw pictures of Palestinians danc- are prepared to spend whatever it takes to ready to address the Supreme Court. I sawing in the streets of Nablus, handing out rescue victims, to help the citizens of New the picture of the first damage to thecandy. How did that make you feel? York City and Washington, D.C. respond World Trade Center. At first, I said what to this tragedy, and to protect our national most said: This must have been an acci- Secretary Powell. Awful, deplorable. security. dent, a little propeller plane that acciden-And it just shocks me that people would I want to thank the members of Con- tally ran into the World Trade Center.find this something to celebrate. And it is gress for their unity and support. America But the fire looked too large. Then wean image that is seared in my mind. is united. The freedom-loving nations of saw the second plane crash. Immediately, the world stand by our side. This will be a it hit me: My daughter attends high school monumental struggle of good versus evil. within the shadow of the World TradeRemarks by President Bush, But good will prevail. Center. Most of the pictures of the confla- gration show her high school in the back-September 12, 200119 ground. I reached my wife and for 2 hoursI have just completed a meeting with my Remarks by Senator we were in virtual panic, trying to locate her to see how she was. Then, praise God,national security team, and we have Schumer, Senator Warner, she called and we were relieved. Those 2received the latest intelligence updates. The deliberate and deadly attacks which Senator Clinton, Senator hours of pure misery are now being expe- rienced tenfold, a hundredfold, a thou-were carried out yesterday against our Allen, and Senator Biden sandfold by all of the families in Newcountry were more than acts of terror.They were acts of war. This will require September 12, 200120 York and in Washington and in Bostonour country to unite in steadfast determi- and in California who have lost loved Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY), ones to this dastardly and disgusting act.nation and resolve. Freedom and democra- Senator John Warner (R-VA), Senatorcy are under attack. So we first think as individuals how this Hillary Clinton (D-NY), Senator George has affected the lives of all of us. Every- The American people need to know that Allen (R-VA), and Senate Foreignwe’re facing a different enemy than we one in New York right now knows some- Relations Committee Chairman Joseph body who is missing. I know someone onhave ever faced. This enemy hides in Biden (D-DE) delivered their remarks onshadows, and has no regard for human the 104th floor who worked for the good the Senate floor during a special session firm of Cantor Fitzgerald. We can’t findlife. This is an enemy who preys on inno- of the Senate.cent and unsuspecting people, then runs hardly anybody from that firm. He calledfor cover. But it won’t be able to run for Senator Schumer (D-NY). Mr. President, his parents, told them he loved them, andcover forever. This is an enemy that tries I very much appreciate, first, the hundreds they haven’t heard from him since.to hide. But it won’t be able to hide forev- of expressions of the Members of this On television yesterday was the searcher. This is an enemy that thinks its harbors body and the heartfelt expressions of grief of a mother and two daughters for theirare safe. But they won’t be safe forever. to New Yorkers during our time of grief father and husband who worked in the This enemy attacked not just our people, and our sadness. We need to move for- World Trade Center restaurant. I have twobut all freedom-loving people everywhere ward. daughters about the same age. We sawin the world. The United States of Ameri- When something this cataclysmic those little girls. There was almost nothingca will use all our resources to conquer occurs, one’s mind works at many, many you could say. I have subsequently beenthis enemy. We will rally the world. We different levels. It is very difficult to come told they found their father. Let us hopewill be patient, we will be focused, and to grips with such an intense and terrible and pray that the others find their fathers,we will be steadfast in our determination. tragedy, but we must; we have to. We seek mothers, brothers, sisters, friends. Let us This battle will take time and resolve. as guidance the generations before us who hope and pray that this tragedy, which isBut make no mistake about it: we will had their tragedies, they who rose to the already the largest tragedy we have expe-win. occasion. We must, as well. rienced since World War II, is as minimal The federal government and all our There are many different levels of this as possible. But our hearts go out to all ofagencies are conducting business. But it is tragedy. I will discuss four: the individual those who are suffering now. We are withnot business as usual. We are operating on level, the level as a New Yorker, the level them from one end of this country to thea heightened security alert. America is as an American, and the level of the other.going forward, and as we do so, we must world. Our city is a beautiful city. We haveremain keenly aware of the threats to our As an individual, our first thought goes been bringing in people from all over thecountry. Those in authority should take to all who grieve. Last night in my city world for 300 years. In one generation weappropriate precautions to protect our citi- and State, there were thousands of dinner change them into Americans, and theyzens. tables with a missing person. There were sally forth around the country, adding vim But we will not allow this enemy to win thousands of families waiting for that and vigor and new ideas. That function ofthe war by changing our way of life or phone call, dialing their phones endlessly New York will never die. We are an inter-restricting our freedoms. This morning, I to try to find a loved one. I know a little national city and we love being an interna-am sending to Congress a request for bit of the angst they went through. I was tional city. We New Yorkers feel the lossemergency funding authority, so that we in the gym when this occurred, getting of life as a whole, as a city. Foreign Policy Bulletin 15
  • 15. Feature Out my window in Brooklyn, the domi- made. They want to turn the clock all the often nasty. Technology that has given usnant scene, after the Statue of Liberty way back to the Middle Ages. In the past, so much in the last 20 years has given thislooking over the harbor, are the two tow- there have always been backward forces. small group, these small groups, the abili-ers. Not seeing them anymore, I feel vio- But technology has given this group the ty to cause huge, huge damage. As withlated. I feel that some horrible person has power to affect our lives in ways we never Pearl Harbor, we are affected directly.come in and taken something away from before imagined. Unlike Pearl Harbor, there is no name orall of us as a city. But we will survive and Yes, this was a 21st century Pearl Har- ZIP Code or address.we will prevail. We are New Yorkers. The bor but a little different because they But the one common thread is this: Ifdiligent firefighters and police officers, aimed at civilians, as they know our mili- we stay as resolute as we did after Pearlmany of whom have now passed, run “to” tary is too strong. They are ultimately Harbor, we will win this war. We can andtragedy, not away from it; their job is to cowards and bullies. It is not a nation that we will, if we keep our resoluteness. Assave. does this, but it affects us. I say three somebody involved in antiterrorism, I It was told to me by many people that things in that regard. have seen us go through paroxysms afterthe lines to give blood went around block each incident—3 months, 6 months ofafter block. People were waiting at 9 attention and then business as usual. Weo’clock, at midnight, at 3 in the morning, [M]ake no mistake about it, we did wake cannot go back to business as usual. Westanding in line because they knew blood will not win this war against those who up in a new world in America. It is a newwas needed. This morning I am happy to seek to destroy our very way of life in atell my colleagues that the crisis, at least era. Since World War II, we had the cold day or in a month or even a year. It isin terms of blood donation, is over. We do war. We had a brief respite, for 5, 7, 10 going to take several. If we are resolute,have enough blood. years. But we are now in a new era. There we will succeed. I was told of the story of the merchant are forces against us, and they are in They have their weaknesses and theirwhose store was on the path from the pressure points. I was glad the PresidentWorld Trade Center North. He owned a many corners of the world. They hate us said we will not only go after the terroristsshoe store. He stood outside and gave the for our freedom. They are against the very but those who harbor terrorists. This couldfleeing women sneakers, just handing out progress that we have made. They want to not have been done without some helpsneakers, tennis shoes. He knew they turn the clock all the way back to the from countries. There are countries thatcouldn’t run in their high heels. That is a aid terrorists. We know who they are. Middle Ages. In the past, there haveNew Yorker; and there are millions of us. They are on the terrorist list. They should We are going to need your help. It has always been backward forces. But not remain immune from what happened.already been offered. I was gratified when technology has given this group the power In fact, they are the weak pressure pointthe President called me yesterday after- to affect our lives in ways we never before of the groups that seek to hurt us andnoon and said this Nation will do anything imagined. destroy us.it takes to help New York recover. I was Some of these awful people who didgratified when just about every Member this yesterday knew how to fly 757s.came over to me and to Hillary and There was no 757 in the mountains ofoffered us the help that we will need. We First, we are a resilient nation. We don’t Afghanistan. How did they get access toneed help immediately. take anything on our knees. We will not learn to do this? These are the kinds of The FEMA Director, I believe, will be take this. I assure the enemies of America, questions we have to ask in the nextflying with us to New York early this the enemies of freedom, the enemies of weeks and months ahead, if we do find, asafternoon to try to give help in terms of progress, of that. all fingers seem to point, that is fromsurvival, in terms of the immediate rescue. Second, we must keep our freedoms as where it came.We will need lots of help after that. We we do this. To constrict ourselves would We have to do one other thing. We havehave suffered a huge, huge loss. Our give them the victory. And we must keep to have our European allies know that thisfinancial industries have to recover, the them. finger is not just pointed at us but at them.lifeblood of the Nation and the world. I Third, I say this to all Americans: let us This idea that for temporary economicappreciate the offers. We will be counting not respond in a way that is unseemly of advantage they can continue to haveon everyone here and in the other body America. There are millions of Muslims strong economic relations with countriesand the White House. and Arab Americans in America. They that help and abet and harbor terrorists As an American, make no mistake about have different views than I do on the Mid- must go out the window.it, we did wake up in a new world in dle East, staunchly different views. But I was proud to speak to the PresidentAmerica. It is a new era. Since World War they were not for this. Let us go after yesterday. I assured him something, and III, we had the cold war. We had a brief those who advocate terrorism and destruc- think I speak for all of us: partisanship.respite, for 5, 7, 10 years. But we are now tion but not after a whole people or Divisions are out the window. He will bein a new era. There are forces against us, nationality or religion. We have to avoid our leader. He will come up with a plan.and they are in many corners of the world. that. That is the American thing to do. We will have advice and offer sugges-They hate us for our freedom. They are Finally, thinking as a world citizen, we tions. But once that plan is arrived at, weagainst the very progress that we have are in a new world, interconnected but will unite.16 Winter 2002
  • 16. September 11, 2001 This is a long struggle. It is not an easy gress. We have done our best to legislate And that he did for Senator Levin and I.struggle. But because of our freedom, and put our funds behind us. But now let We went around that building, in whichbecause of our American way of life, we us seize this opportunity to indeed make I spent over 5 years of the happiest dayswill prevail. this Nation stronger. of my life in the Navy’s secretariat. We In conclusion, this event will never Each of us will forever remember yes- speculated as far back as the late 1960sleave us the same, not as individuals, not terday, where we were, what we did. and 1970s how that building could beas New Yorkers, not as Americans, not as Those of us who convened here yesterday attacked. Yes, we thought of this scenario.residents of the planet earth. But we can morning then went to our staffs. I com- But that is history.learn from it as we grieve. We can meet mend the leadership of the Congress, There I saw that building and how thatthe challenge and rise to the next level of indeed, the police and others who had an aircraft, Mr. President, was skillfully guid-civilization. I am confident we will. orderly evacuation. I then called the Sec- ed and piloted such as to penetrate that retary of Defense, Don Rumsfeld and building through three or four of the rings. Senator Warner (R-VA). Mr. President, asked what could I do as the ranking And as we are here today, the casualtiesI thank my colleagues and commend our member of the committee to show my full we know not in number, but what we doleadership. I want to pick up on the note support for the men and women of the know and what I saw, as I sat there but aof our distinguished colleague from New few feet from the building, all around meYork. We will never be the same as a were voluntary firemen, men and women,nation. That is true. We will be a better [A]s we pursue the legislative challenge to professional firemen and rescue men andnation. We will be a stronger nation, as we balance the magnificence of our women. Therein rests the greatness of ourstep up to meet this challenge. Yesterday Nation as to how they responded and whatour great Nation, our people, suffered in a Constitution, which has held us united—it they were doing, unselfishly, risking theirsingle day its greatest tragedy of a single remains the oldest continuously own lives. We saw some coming out filledday. Immediately thereafter, this Nation, performing Republic in the world today— with smoke and debris but doing whatarm in arm, embarked on what I think his- and balance the need of additional they could to help those trapped, dead ortory will reflect is its finest hour—hours otherwise, in that building. security against human rights, civil rights,yesterday, today, and tomorrow, into the Our colleagues from New York havefuture. and the rule of law, we will do it. Never most dramatically and compassionately Our Nation from coast to coast locked before has our Congress been faced with a described what has occurred in their State.arms, irrespective of our backgrounds, our greater challenge to preserve one of the We grieve with our citizens today who arecultures, our faiths, our beliefs—indeed, greatest parts of this Nation, and yet suffering these losses, the dead, theour differences. We locked arms, united as injured, and their families. But Americaa nation behind our President, behind our address the future. remains unbowed.Government, putting full faith in our Gov- America is stronger. America is united.ernment to lead us in this crisis. And we the leadership have our greatest I pray that our President, our Congress, Armed Forces and the uniformed as well challenge in this hour.the Governors of the States, right on down as the civilians. He said: JOHN, come Again, as we pursue the legislative chal-to the city councils, the police, the firemen over. lenge to balance the magnificence of ourwho are working today, seize this opportu- I called my colleague, the chairman, Constitution, which has held us united—itnity and make our Nation even stronger Senator Levin. We joined and went over remains the oldest continuously perform-and greater. and stayed the better part of 3 hours ing Republic in the world today—and bal- Our challenge here in our legislature, which I will never forget. The Secretary ance the need of additional securityworking with the President and others, had us in the room, the chairman and I, against human rights, civil rights, and thewill be to devise, yes, a strengthened secu- the Joint Chiefs, the other staff. We rule of law, we will do it. Never beforerity system in every walk of life for Amer- watched the operations. The President has our Congress been faced with aica, regrettably, every walk of life, with called in. I watched the Secretary and the greater challenge to preserve one of theemphasis this morning on airports. But President. The Secretary handed me the greatest parts of this Nation, and yetthose of us who have worked in the area phone and said: The President wishes to address the future.of terrorism know that airports, yes, are speak to you. Just a personal note, I remember Worldvulnerable, but there are many other areas America will be proud of the manner in War II. I was a youngster in the earlyin which we are vulnerable. which our command and control of our parts of it. My generation, at age 17, we I am proud that the Senate Armed Ser- military and indeed the executive branch all volunteered, in the fall of 1944, 1945. Ivices Committee, working with the other functioned to address this crisis. That became a sailor.committees of this body, 3 years ago, chapter will be written. I remember that period very well, howwhen I was privileged to be chairman, I said to my friend, the Secretary: I want all Americans united. My generation of 17instituted a special subcommittee solely very much, as a Senator from Virginia, to and 18, we were prepared to do our part indealing with those threats that are emerg- go and look at that area of the building the war. But I called my children yester-ing against the United States of America. that was struck. day and I said much has been said aboutWe have done a lot of work in this Con- He said: Of course. I will escort you. the greatest generation, those who were Foreign Policy Bulletin 17
  • 17. Featureprivileged to serve in World War II, those grabbing cell phones and calling home to aid, comfort, or support that New Yorkerswho were here on the home front. This say: I love you; goodbye. and New York require because the greatestNation pulled together, met our adver- We know, and I assure every person in rebuke we can offer to those who attacksaries and emerged stronger. this body, in the House, and many, many our way of life is to demonstrate clearly I said, we may be remembered as the of our fellow citizens, when we finally we are not cowed in any way whatsoever.greatest generation, but my children and know the names of those killed and I hope that within a short period of time,your children will become the greater gen- injured, they will know someone. I say to Senator Warner, we see scaffold-eration because they will seize, with our This was an attack on New York, but it ing on the side of the Pentagon. After weleadership, the same challenge, the was really an attack on America. I have finish the search and rescue and recoveryyounger generation in America, and go been very gratified, as I know that Chuck work that is being carried out heroicallybeyond what we achieved in World War II. has and all of our colleagues in the House, there, I hope we all see a clear signal thatWe will relentlessly pursue the enemy by the strong support we have received we are rebuilding, that our defenses arewherever they are, and we will carefully, from the President. I am very grateful. We more resolute than ever.under the rule of law, seek justice. We will have expressed our appreciation. I hope similarly that lower Manhattanprevail and become a stronger nation. Chuck and I will be going to New York has the same kind of image to project I thank this body for the privilege of this afternoon with FEMA, and we could because the reality will be that we areaddressing it and the Nation today. not ask for more than we have received in rebuilding and reconstructing and making the immediate aftermath of this horrific clear that just as our military might is Senator Clinton (D-NY). Thank you, attack. unchallenged and uncowed, so are ourMr. President. I thank my colleagues for We are by no means anywhere near the economic, our social, our political valuestheir outpouring of support, their con- end of what it will take to continue the epitomized by New York.cerns, and their many offers of additional search and rescue efforts. We are finding I have expressed my strong support foraid that has come to the rescue of our peo- people even as we speak. Yet we know the President, not only as the Senator fromple as a result of this devastating tragedy. there is a very grim task ahead to do New York but as someone who for 8 years Yesterday dawned a beautiful day in everything we can to find every person, to had some sense of the burdens andNew York. My daughter told me it was account for every single person who went responsibilities that fall on the shouldersone of those days where the sky was total- to work. That is all they did. They went to of the human being we make our Presi-ly clear, there was a breeze, people were work on a beautiful September day in dent. It is an awesome and at oftentimesstarting to line up at the polling places to New York. awful responsibility for any person. Ivote because it was primary day, an elec- We will also stand united behind our know we are up to it, I know we are readytion day, a continuation of the commit- President as he and his advisers plan the for it, and I know that everyone in thisment to democracy and self-government necessary actions to demonstrate Ameri- body represents every American in mak-that has set us apart from every society ca’s resolve and commitment, not only to ing clear that we are united and strongerthat has ever existed because of the seek out an exact punishment on the per- than ever.longevity of our democracy and the will petrators but to make very clear that not It is with a heavy heart—really a senseof our people to constantly renew them- only those who harbor terrorists but those of heartbreak—that I rise today in supportselves. who in any way give any aid or comfort of this resolution, but it is also with a New Yorkers went from standing in line whatsoever will now face the wrath of our great sense of pride, first in the people ofto vote to standing in line to donate blood country. New York who responded as New Yorkersin just a few hours. I do not think any of I hope that message has gotten through always do when times get tough. Thereus will ever get out of our minds the to everywhere it needs to be heard: You was not a sense of panic. There was order,images we saw on television of the plane are either with America in our time of and there was an immediate outpouring ofgoing into the first tower, the plane going need or you are not. help. Those men and women whom weinto the second tower, and the plane going We also stand united behind our resolve, sent in to rescue our fellow Americans—into the Pentagon, but there were tens of as this resolution so clearly states, to there is no way adequately to express ourthousands of our fellow Americans, peo- recover and rebuild in the aftermath of gratitude to our firefighters, our policeple who live in New York, New Jersey, these tragic acts. New York was not an officers, our emergency personnel, ourand Connecticut, people literally from accidental choice for these mad men, doctors and nurses and medical personnel.every part of our country and, indeed, the these terrorists, these instruments of evil. They responded at the height of a tragic,world for whom this was not an event they They deliberately chose to strike at a unexpected attack with the kind of gritwatched in horror on television but lived city which is a global city. It is the city of and courage we expect from New Yorkers.through and in too many instances did not the 21st century. It epitomizes who we are To all of those who are missing a lovedsurvive. as Americans. So this in a very real sense one, there are no words any of us can We are beginning to find out what that was an attack on America, on our values, express except to tell you in the clearestwas like. Chuck and I have a lot of friends on our power, on who we are as a people. possible terms: We will in a united Ameri-who worked in those towers, who worked I know, because I know America, that can response support you, offer assistancein the center, and worked nearby. We are America will stand behind New York, that to you, stand with you, and pursue thosehearing the stories of husbands and wives America will offer whatever resources, who reached deep into your families and18 Winter 2002
  • 18. September 11, 2001homes yesterday and took someone you The same was happening in Virginia in the D.C. area, I’m sure there are folksloved away from you. where we have lost many lives, untold from Maryland and the District, clearly There will be a lot of work ahead of us numbers, as of yet, at the Pentagon as people from Massachusetts were on thein this body and in the House, and we will well as the passengers on flight 77 flying hijacked flight from Boston. Clearly a lotpursue that. I am grateful for the support from Dulles, VA, that was hijacked and of people from California, since the desti-we have received. Thank you very much. crashed into the Pentagon. nation of all of those flights was to be California. Senator Allen (R-VA). Mr. President, This is truly a day that will live inmy fellow Members of the Senate, this is infamy. History will record these as thea very sad day as we witness all of the Clearly, this is not a simple, normal most violent, insane, cowardly acts thatimplications and tragedies and lives lost criminal case. This is an act of war, and have ever been perpetrated on our home-from yesterday’s dastardly terrorist attacks those rules apply. But at home and land in the United States of America. Weon the United States. domestically, we need to make sure that need to be united, coalesced as Ameri- Yesterday’s attacks were attacks not just cans, but also with our allies in ouron the United States and our particular we are not tempted to abrogate any civil resolve, our resolve to pursue these cow-Commonwealth of Virginia or State of rights such as habeas corpus or ardly conspirators who perpetrated theseNew York, it is an attack on freedom-lov- protections against unreasonable searches murderous acts.ing people and everything we stand for as and seizures, or the freedom of expression In our response to justice, we need to bea unique and great nation. sure, we need to be swift, and we need to and peaceable assembly, freedom of On Monday afternoon, Senator Boxer be severe. In my view, we have allowedand I were ready to introduce a resolution religion. And just because somebody may terrorism to go on too long, thinking thatcondemning the suicide bombings in the come from an ethnic background, that we could be immune from it. But never-Middle East. means nothing. They are American theless, we need to recognize that we’re We would have introduced that resolu- citizens. And so let’s make sure that in our going to have to wage warfare.tion on Monday, but wanted to include These people have struck against theanother clause recognizing the attacks in anger and in our efforts to bring justice, symbol of American strength and power.Israel on Sunday. We now see with great we remember our basic foundational civil They are not, though, going to be able toshock and horror, that the United States is liberties and do not abrogate them. weaken the will of the people of the Unit-obviously not impervious to these suicide ed States. We will stay united, defendingbombings and such attacks. our interests and our principles. We will What we need to do now is coalesce, also stick together, not just as Virginianscoalesce as a people with our shared There are great stories of bravery, with and New Yorkers, but as Americans aidingbeliefs, coalesce to comfort those who people going above and beyond what is and helping the families who have losthave lost loved ones and then also deter- expected, and that should give us comfort loved ones in whatever they can do.mine where we need to go to move for- as a nation. This tragedy has affected The senior Senator from Virginia, Johnward to try to prevent such acts from many lives, and we still don’t know how Warner, and I will work together to makeoccurring in the future. Our goal and many lives. It will probably take a week if sure that for those Federal employees thatfocus right now must be on the rescue, not weeks to determine how many lives the Government is doing all they can ashoping there are those who are still alive. have been lost. Even in the small neigh- well as for the civilian employees. And itSecondly, we need to find as many details borhood where we live, where my daugh- is not just as Virginians. I know that theand information as to how our security ter goes to middle school, children were Presiding Officer, sitting there from Flori-was breached so as to hopefully prevent it crying because their parents work at the da, cares just as much as anybody elsein the future. And thirdly of course, hold Pentagon. Others work at Fort Belvoir and does.those who are responsible accountable and there was worry that Fort Belvoir was And so we are all going to stick togetherbring them to justice. being hit. There’s only maybe a couple of in that regard. We do need to learn from We are hearing stories just in the first dozen houses in our development, but a this, though. And as we learn, we mustday of great heroes. Heroes in New York. youngster—who came by our house to get make sure that as we learn the facts, wePeople who knew that the building was to know my children, his father was on do not allow these attacks to succeed ingoing to collapse, but nevertheless stayed Flight 77. tempting us in any way to diminish whatthere trying to usher people out. On C- So, as the days go forward, we are all makes us a great nation. And what makesSPAN this morning, one of those who was going to be learning these stories of inno- us a great nation is that this is a countryjust a volunteer helper knew what was cent people whose lives have been lost that understands that people have God-going on, where those who were emer- and the families that will forever be given rights and liberties. And we can-gency and federal FBI agents were as scarred with the loss of that loved one. not—in our efforts to bring justice—well, knowing that the building was going Our thoughts and prayers must be with diminish those liberties.to collapse, staying there knowing those those families. Whether they’re in New Clearly, this is not a simple, normalwere the last minutes of their life trying to York or people who are from Connecticut criminal case. This is an act of war, andsave people. or New Jersey, people from Virginia, here those rules apply. But at home and domes- Foreign Policy Bulletin 19
  • 19. Featuretically, we need to make sure that we are properly. But most importantly, as Ameri- friends, our Chinese friends, unite thenot tempted to abrogate any civil rights cans, let’s stay strong. Let’s stay resolved, world, because that image of that planesuch as habeas corpus or protections and let’s keep moving forward. Because, smashing into the second tower has rever-against unreasonable searches and indeed, all the world is watching, not just berated around the world and every leaderseizures, or the freedom of expression and the Senate; they are watching the United in every country can picture the samepeaceable assembly, freedom of religion. States and Americans. What will their thing happening in their nation. response be? Let’s keep moving forward. I recently visited China with three of We are the beacon for freedom-loving my colleagues. They have buildings inSome have said yesterday and today that people in the world, sticking together we China as tall or taller than the World will persevere. We will bring justice. And Trade Center. I can picture the Presidentall has changed, all has changed for we will come out safer and stronger in the of China sitting there envisioning theAmerica. I know what they mean by that, end. same thing happening. So I do not thinkand I respect their view, but I pray that is all of a sudden there has been a conver-not true. I pray that is not true. I pray my Senator Biden (D-DE). Mr. President, I sion of democratic zeal on the part ofjunior colleague from Virginia is correct cannot think of any other legislative body those who are not often thought of as our in the world where we would hear the allies to resolve with us to fight world-when he says the one thing we cannot speech we just heard by the junior Senator wide terrorism, but it is a reflection of theallow to change is the values upon which from Virginia, where his heart is aching, reality that the world has changed in athis country is built, for if that were to many in his constituency have died. Part way that we all are vulnerable.occur, then they would be able to declare of the building in his State is still burning. A further reality is that no one could In the ultimate American way, he called have undertaken this very well planned,victory, genuine victory. at the end of his speech for not abrogating and regrettably well executed, terrorist act I predict one thing has changed, though. I the basic cherished liberties that this without an extensive network, without arespectfully suggest the way of life of pre- Nation has. I doubt whether one would place in which to plan it that was withinsent and future terrorists has changed for- hear that in any other assembly in the earshot and eyesight of some country, world after such an attack, and I compli- without some people who, by their inac-ever. The future of organized terrorist cells ment him for it. tion at a minimum and their complicity,is about to welcome the 21st Century in a My heart and my sympathy go out to allowed this to occur. There will be veryway they never anticipated, for in this das- our colleagues from New York and Vir- few places to hide, I predict, from thistardly act they may have done what no ginia in particular, but all those who have moment on, for these are not the acts of aother group of people could possibly have had their fellow citizens and their con- single man or a single woman. They are stituents victimized by this act. This is a and they were and they will, if they trydone, and that is to unite the civilized time to mourn but not to despair, a time again, have to be well planned, well fund-world, unite our allies in Europe who share for resolve but not remorse, a time for ed, and widely supported by dozens uponour values, unite our Russian friends, our sober investigation and not recrimination, dozens of individuals and individual lead-Chinese friends, unite the world, because and a time to unite, not to debate. ers. Some have said yesterday and today that In speaking to the President, the Secre-that image of that plane smashing into the all has changed, all has changed for Amer- tary of State, and other leaders in thesecond tower has reverberated around the ica. I know what they mean by that, and I administration, they are impressed byworld and every leader in every country respect their view, but I pray that is not what they believe to be the heartfelt, sin-can picture the same thing happening in true. I pray that is not true. I pray my cere, and resolute offers of support to dealtheir nation. junior colleague from Virginia is correct with terrorism that not only come from when he says the one thing we cannot expected quarters such as England, allow to change is the values upon which France, Germany, Italy, and our European this country is built, for if that were to allies but from unexpected quarters.And just because somebody may come occur, then they would be able to declare The word should go out to those whofrom an ethnic background, that means victory, genuine victory. pretend they wish to be our friends thatnothing. They are American citizens. And I predict one thing has changed, though. they are going to have to make some veryso let’s make sure that in our anger and in I respectfully suggest the way of life of difficult choices. Pakistan in particular isour efforts to bring justice, we remember present and future terrorists has changed going to have to make a very difficultour basic foundational civil liberties and forever. The future of organized terrorist choice, very soon, for we are counting.do not abrogate them. cells is about to welcome the 21st Century We are counting and we are looking. We are a nation of laws, of good-hearted in a way they never anticipated, for in this Words will not be sufficient. Actions willpeople, of loving people. And so I would dastardly act they may have done what no be demanded.say in closing, Mr. President, let’s make other group of people could possibly have All of us say we will never let this hap-sure we pray for and comfort those who done, and that is to unite the civilized pen again. Well, the act of a single indi-have lost loved ones. world, unite our allies in Europe who vidual strapping explosives to their body Let’s get the facts, move swiftly and share our values, unite our Russian is probably something no one can ever20 Winter 2002
  • 20. September 11, 2001guarantee will not happen, but dealing Remarks by Secretary of United States government has to trackwith well organized, well-funded, well- down and deal with the people who havecoordinated, massive actions is something Defense Rumsfeld, perpetrated the attacks on the Unitedthat can be done only in a multilateral September 12, 200121 States and killed so many Americans.way, only internationally. Second, when classified information No matter what we do, if we fail to lead I have taped a message to the people in dealing with operations is provided tothe world in a multilateral unity of the defense establishment across the people who are not cleared for that classi-absolute resolve, I say to you, sadly, that world, which I understand is going to be fied information, the inevitable effect isthis could happen again. But I am con- available shortly. I’m en route over to that the lives of men and women in uni-vinced it will not. another meeting in the White House in the form are put at risk because they are the Today, as it has for 212 years, the U.S. next few minutes, so I thought I’d just ones who will be carrying out thoseCongress has convened. Two miles down stop down and make two or three points. prospective operations.Pennsylvania Avenue, President Bush sits First, we currently believe and are cer- And I—this is a message really for allin the Oval Office leading the executive tainly hopeful that the number of casual- the men and women in the United Statesbranch and the country in a wide-ranging ties being reported in the press is high. As government who have access to classifiedinvestigation to find those who committed you know from your own observation out information. It seems to me that whenthese barbarous acts. Around this city and there, the work is still going forward, and they see or learn of someone who is han-around New York, dedicated public ser- we won’t know for some time precise dling classified information in a way thatvants are back at their desks in Federal numbers. But from everything that we is going to put the lives of the men andoffice buildings doing the people’s busi- currently know, the estimate that’s been women in uniform at risk, they ought toness. New York—the city that never widely reported is considerably high, and register exactly what kind of a person thatsleeps—has worked around the clock in we certainly pray that that’s the case. is; it’s a person who’s willing to violatesearch of survivors, and they will find Second, I do want to again express our federal criminal statutes, and willing tosome. Around the Nation, citizens of sympathy to the families and friends and frustrate our efforts to track down andevery age, every race, and every religion colleagues of all those who have been deal with terrorists, and willing to revealgrieve for their fellow citizens. But they harmed by this attack on our country. information that could cause the lives ofstand united. They stand united in support Also, we are, needless to say, deeply men and women in uniform.of our Nation, which has endured over grateful to the many units from all over I think it’s time for all who deal withtwo centuries against all enemies, foreign this area that are out there and have been that information to treat it with the careand domestic. They stand united in readi- out there for more that 24 hours—firemen and respect that it merits.ness to answer the call for their fellow and ambulances and different teams andneighbors. As Senator Clinton and Senator squads of individuals who are doing a ****Schumer pointed out, they lined the very professional job for our country.blocks in New York City to give blood. I We are, in a sense, seeing the definition Q. Mr. Secretary, there are some in thewould be dumbfounded if you did not see of a new battlefield in the world, a 20th— Middle East who are saying that theblack faces, Asian faces, Hispanic, every 21st century battlefield, and it is a differ- United States does not have the belly torace, and every religion standing in that ent kind of conflict. It is something that is do the kind of response to this attack online. They stand united in support of the not unique to this century, to be sure, but the United States, that this administra-President of the United States, as do all of it is—given our geography and given our tion, the previous administration don’tus here in the Senate. circumstance, it is, in a major sense, new have it to go after them in the kind of Much will be said today and in the days for this country. way that they have to be gone after.ahead about the appropriate responses to Finally, I’d like to say a word or two to Without any specifics whatsoever, helpthese heinous acts. But for now let me just the men and women in the defense estab- us with the attitude that should go intosay this. This is not a struggle over ideolo- lishment, most of whom deal with classi- this process.gy. This is not a struggle over religion. fied information. Since the end of theThis is a struggle between civilization and Cold War, there’s been a relaxation of ten- Secretary Rumsfeld. Well, I guess timebarbarity. sion, and the—it’s had a lot of effects. It’s will tell. My—I guess I’m kind of old- Let there be no doubt that the United led to proliferation. It’s led to the move- fashioned. I’m inclined to think that ifStates and civilized nations of the world ment towards asymmetrical threats, as you’re going to cock it, you throw it, andwill unite and win this struggle. Our ene- opposed to more conventional threats. you don’t talk about it a lot. So mymies will not, and can not, defeat us. This One of the other effects has been it has instinct is that what you do, you should gocountry will go on, deeply wounded by had an effect on how people handle classi- about your business and do what youthe loss of so many but strengthened by fied information. And it seems to me that think you have to do. I think anyone whoour resolve and our commitment to sus- it’s important to underline that when peo- thinks it’s easy is wrong. I think that ittain this great democracy. ple deal with intelligence information and will require a sustained and broadly based I see in this cataclysmic tragedy the make it available to people who are not effort. And I don’t think that people oughtbeginning of the end of organized and cleared for that classified information, the to judge outcomes until a sufficient time islegitimized terrorist activities. effect is to reduce the chances that the passed to address what is clearly a very Foreign Policy Bulletin 21
  • 21. Featureserious problem for the world. And it’s not Secretary Rumsfeld. Not to my knowl- tion they passed and also for the statementrestricted to a single entity, state or non- edge. It is an issue that I think, however, from the Generally Assembly. And Istate entity. It is an attack on a way of life. needs to be elevated and looked at and expect the General Assembly to also work The purpose of terrorism is to terrorize. that people in all aspects of government— on a resolution later today.It is to alter behavior. It is to force people Lord Robertson in NATO is hard atwho believe in freedom to be less free by Q. What’s the catalyst, why are you work with a resolution that is under con-altering their behavior and redressing a raising that today? sideration now that would tee up—if I canbalance between freedom and security. put it that way—prime Article V responsi-Anyone who’s ever been in a war zone, as Q. Yeah, has it happened in the after- bilities. Article V of the charter says thatI know most of you have, you know that math? an attack from abroad by any one againstwhen you walk out of a building you any member of the alliance is an attackdon’t walk out with your head high Secretary Rumsfeld. It has been hap- against the alliance. If that resolution goeswhistling, you look around the corner and pening daily. forward, that doesn’t invoke Article V yetsee what’s out there. And that’s not the but it puts in a position to be invoked,way Americans live, and it’s not the way when the United States makes a judgmentwe want to live. about the nature of the attack and where that attack came from. And I appreciate **** II. September 12- what Lord Robertson and his colleagues are doing for us.Q. Mr. Secretary, your comments on the October 6, 2001: I have also been in touch with Foreignhandling of classified information, does Minister of Belgium Louis Michel, who isthat—are you suggesting that it’s time Building Support for a also head of the presidency of the EU atto move to a more secretive government this time, and High Representative Javierin which there’s less transparency A Response Solana to thank them for the strong sup-about what it is you’re doing? And how port we have received from the Europeandoes that square with the goal of open- Union and the statements they have made,ness that reassures both our friends and and their cooperation promise to us, tofoes around the world that the United deal with this tragedy and to move for-States’ intentions are good? We all ward.know that there’s a wealth of material I have also attended—along of course,that’s classified unnecessarily and does- Remarks by Secretary of with my other colleagues—the Nationaln’t necessarily need to be. State Powell, September 12, Security Council meeting with the Presi- dent where we reviewed all that has hap- Secretary Rumsfeld. Well. I—as I’m 200122 pened and began to make our plans for thesure you’ve discovered, I do believe in Secretary Powell. Good afternoon, ladies efforts we will taking in the future, notopenness, and I think it’s enormously and gentlemen. I thought what I would do only to bring these perpetrators to notimportant in a free system with a free is to update you on the activities of the only justice, but to the punishment thatpress and a democratic underpinning to last several hours since I spoke to the they deserve. But at the same time toour wonderful success as a country that press this morning. Let me begin once undertake a worldwide effort to build awe recognize that and respect it. I also again by saying that our hearts go out to coalition against all forms of terrorism,know that you’re quite right, there are all the victims and to their families. It is a wherever it may occur and however itthings that get classified that ought not to tragedy, but as the President has made rears its ugly head.be classified. clear, it is a tragedy that we are strong This will be a major priority of the But what I said is enormously impor- enough to overcome. Our spirits will not Administration. And I can assure it will,tant, and that is that when classified infor- be broken. The resilience of this society therefore, be a major priority of the Statemation is compromised by people who will not be broken. We will find out who Department. I have also in the course ofought to know better because they’re is responsible for this and they will pay the day spoken to the foreign minister ofunprofessional or uncaring, and perfectly for it. Great Britain, Germany, Canada. I havewilling to violate federal criminal law, and We are undertaking a full court press spoken to Foreign Minister Peres twice—seemingly willing to put people’s lives at diplomatically, politically, militarily, and Prime Minister Sharon, Chairman Arafat,risk—their colleagues and their neighbors in the course of the morning and early Foreign Minister Manley of Canada, if Iand their friends—I think it’s something afternoon I have been in touch with a didn’t mention that, Foreign Ministerthat should stop. number of foreign leaders and internation- Ivanov of Russia, Foreign Minister Rug- al organizational leaders to coordinate the giero of Italy. And I have a number of Q. Was sloppy handling of classified diplomatic approach to this. I have talked other calls that are in the process of beinginformation—did that play some role in to Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the made so that we can bring all of thisthe attack? United Nations, and I thank the United together. And I must say I am deeply Nations for the Security Council resolu- touched by the expressions of support I22 Winter 2002
  • 22. September 11, 2001have received from my colleagues. whether it’s limited or other than limited. sarily will participate in the attack, but it And as I think you all know the Presi- You should respond to those who did it. makes it easier to obtain support in thedent has been very busy. And I am sure And if you are able to stop terrorist way of overflight rights and things of thatthe White House has announced his two attacks, you should stop terrorist attacks. nature.phone calls to President Putin, as well as But I don’t want to get into what weto Mr. Chirac, Jiang Zemin, President Q. Secretary Powell, one country you might or might not to, and who might goJiang Zemin, Prime Minister Blair, Prime didn’t mention was Pakistan. with us and who might not go with us,Minister Schroeder, and Prime Minister because that’s just too speculative at theCretien. So he has spoken to all the four Secretary Powell. Yes. moment.members of the Security Council. And Iwill leave it to my other Cabinet col- Q. And I understand that your Q. Can I follow that? Having beenleagues to talk about the issues under their Deputy has spoken with the Ambas- through the Gulf War as you were,purview over at Defense, Justice and FBI. sador to Pakistan and that this evening would you hope to build the kind of There are, of course, lots of reports and the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan will be coalition that extends perhaps beyondrumors out there, and I think it is wise for meeting with General Musharaff. What NATO and includes perhaps Muslimall of us to take many of these reports and specific steps are you asking Pakistan to nations, nations from different parts ofrumors into some context and perspective. take, and have you at all insinuated that the world?This is also a time, of course, in that if all signs do lead to bin Laden that theregard for the American people to try in U.S. would take military action against Secretary Powell. Yes, it should includethis time of tragedy to restore the society Pakistan and Afghanistan? Muslim nations. Muslim nations have justto a sense of normalcy. We’ve got to get as much to fear from terrorism that strikesback to our jobs, we’ve got to get back to Secretary Powell. Our Ambassador is at innocent civilians, and I do have a num-work. And I know that Secretary Mineta, going to be having that meeting that you ber of calls in—I just haven’t connectedas soon as it is possible, and as soon as it made reference to. It will probably not be yet—with other leaders in the world rep-makes sense and is safe, will restore the this evening, more likely tomorrow as a resenting Muslim populations. As I wasair traffic system and commercial air traf- result of scheduling problems. But coming down, I was waiting to receive afic will be brought back on-line. And I Ambassador Armitage, Deputy Secretary call from Amr Moussa, Head of the Arabwill wait for him to make those announce- Armitage, did meet with Pakistani offi- League, and I also will be talking to myments with respect to that, and I know cials today, and really to share views. Egyptian colleagues and Jordanian col-that’s very much on your mind. We have not made a determination yet leagues before the evening is out. Once again, we’re building a strong as to who is responsible for yesterday’scoalition to go after these perpetrators, but attack, but we thought as we gather infor- Q. Mr. Secretary, you have not yetmore broadly, to go after terrorism wher- mation and as we look at possible sources mentioned the point that Presidentever we find it in the world. It’s a scourge, of the attack, it would be useful to point Bush made last night, the idea of hold-not only against the United States, but out to the Pakistani leadership at every ing other countries responsible. Thisagainst civilization, and it must be brought level that we are looking for and expect- seems to be a dramatic escalation in theto an end. ing their fullest cooperation and their help U.S. view on how it responds to terror- I will be delighted to take a few ques- and support as we conduct this investiga- ism. Is that a correct interpretation oftions. tion and as we generate more information, it? and see if they can be helpful in generat- And as a follow-up, you talk about Q. Mr. Secretary, the State Depart- ing information, as well as how helpful returning to normal, yet there havement has been advocating restraint in they might be if we find a basis to act been all these mentions of “acts of war,”response to terrorism, with the argu- upon that information. the idea that the country is in a war.ment that violence only provokes more So, yes, we are doing what you describe How can we just return to normal in aviolence, it’s an endless cycle. I won- with the Pakistanis. situation like this?dered if the U.S. will be guided by itsown admonition now that the U.S. has Q. Just to clarify, when you say Secretary Powell. Well, on your firstbeen horribly attacked by terrorists. you’re building a strong coalition to go point, I mentioned in my earlier state- after the perpetrators, does this mean ments, and I will mention it again, that it’s Secretary Powell. I think when you are that you are expecting or hoping that not just a matter of going after the perpe-attacked by a terrorist and you know who other countries will participate in some trators, but it’s going after and dealingthe terrorist is, and you can fingerprint kind of military retaliation? with the sources of support that they have,back to the cause of the terror, you should whether that source of support mightrespond. Secretary Powell. Under Article V, if come from a host country or other organi- we go that far and it actually is executed, zations that provide them. We have to Q. I mean, a limited response, or— then there is an obligation on the part of make sure that we go after terrorism and our NATO allies to assist if we go in this get it by its branch and root. Secretary Powell. You should respond, direction. It doesn’t mean that they neces- And so we will hold accountable those Foreign Policy Bulletin 23
  • 23. Featurecountries that provide support, that give vide haven and do provide support for ter- And we just identified another one thishost nation, if you can call it that, support rorism. week, the AUC in Colombia. And we takeand facilities to these kinds of terrorist certain actions against them. It doesn’tgroups. Q. Deputy Secretary Armitage heads mean we go in and attack them with mili- Now, yes, we believe that acts of war a task force with the Russians on tary force, but there are a variety of politi-have been committed against the Ameri- Afghanistan where the United States cal and diplomatic and legal actions thatcan people, and we will respond accord- and Russia seem to share some inter- you can take against them.ingly. But at the same time, life has to go ests. Can this be used as a platform in With respect to conversations with Arabon. In all of the difficult times we will be the coming days? leaders, I am sure I will discuss with themfacing ahead, we have to still try to return a full range of possibilities as to what kindlife to a sense of normalcy. We cannot be Secretary Powell. Yes, we are planning of support they can give us of a politicala people who are afraid to live. We cannot to do that. and diplomatic nature. I don’t know ofbe a people who will move away from a any other kinds of support that I wouldrelatively open society. We cannot be a Q. In what way? ask for at this time.people who walk around terrified. We’re I might mention that in the context ofAmericans; we don’t walk around terri- Secretary Powell. As you know, it is a my discussions this morning with Shimonfied. little difficult to travel right now, but we Peres and Chairman Arafat and also Prime We are going to be strong in this diffi- are looking at ways that he and Deputy Minister Sharon, I encouraged all sides tocult period, and we’re going to move for- Foreign Minister Trubnikov can pursue do everything they can to get this processward with pride and with determination. this. of meetings started that we have all beenAnd we will get our society back to nor- waiting for, for Mr. Arafat and Mr. Peresmal with whatever additional precautions, Q. Mr. Secretary, with a country like to find an opportunity in the very nearnevertheless, might be necessary to secure Afghanistan with whom we don’t have future to meet and not have protracted dis-our society without locking ourselves diplomatic relations, there is less lever- cussions about where to meet. It’s moredown. age that we have against that country. important to meet. What kinds of things are you thinking So in this time of tragedy, in this time of Q. Secretary Powell, yesterday Sena- of using now when you talk about going heightened tension throughout the world,tor Gramm said that in response to the after the entire country? Is it food aid? and especially throughout that region, let’sattacks he would be willing to reassess How else can— seize this opportunity to see if we cannotthe ban on assassinations of foreign start this process of meetings—this sched-leaders. And I was wondering, would Secretary Powell. We haven’t singled ule of meetings—so that we can get to theyou support such a reassessment? out any country to go after. What we are Mitchell Peace Plan, so that even while trying to do now is gather the evidence we are dealing with this situation, this cri- Secretary Powell. The ban is an execu- and the information so that we can make a sis that is here in Washington and Newtive order and we have not made such a judgment as to who is responsible for this York. We are also working on the Middlereassessment. And I’ll just leave it there. act. And once we do that, we will go after East situation and seeing if we can get that group and we will determine what that jump-started. Q. India has said many times in the kinds of support they have been getting,past that Pakistanis having terrorism in from what host countries or other support- Q. Do you believe that this attack istheir training camps in Pakistan, and ing agencies, and we will go and deal with linked to the events in the Middle East,now U.S. officials, including a number them as well. to the Arab-Israel crisis? Or is thisof lawmakers here on the Hill, are say- something that preceded this currenting that Usama bin Laden have his Q. Mr. Secretary, there are some 25 Intifada? And secondly, do you believetraining camps in Pakistan and because organizations on the list of FTOs, on that this bombing will somehow servehe is sending all this religious fire or the State Department’s list. Should all as a problem for moderate Arab gov-terrorism fire from Pakistan. those organizations consider themselves ernments whose peoples seem to be So now is it time now to go after those targets of this global campaign against more enthusiastic about this bombingcountries who are harboring terrorism, terrorism? than their governments who have con-really, because how long can we wait or And secondly, when you speak to the demned it?how long—how many innocent people Arab leaders, will you be asking forcan be hurt? specific acts of support, of material Secretary Powell. The governments assistance in this campaign? have condemned it. I think that when it is Secretary Powell. Well, I do want to realized throughout the region what a hor-confirm what the Indian Government may Secretary Powell. On the first question, rible act this truly was, I think it will beor may not have said. But as the President just the very designation that they have sobering for the region. And I hope every-said last night, we will be directing our been put on that list of Foreign Terrorist body will realize that, no matter what youefforts not only against terrorists but Organizations suggests that the United might think about the crisis in the Middleagainst those who do harbor and do pro- States will be taking action against them. East, this is not the way to solve it. This is24 Winter 2002
  • 24. September 11, 2001not the way to express your views about nated in their part of the world? And one NATO nation is an attack on allthat by killing hundreds and thousands of what kind of military latitude would NATO nations.innocent civilians. you like to be able to exercise in that The President is also gratified by the I hope that is sobering to anybody who part of the world with their blessing? United Nations Security Council Resolu-has any civilized drop of blood flowing tion that passed today condemning thisthrough their body and who believe in an Secretary Powell. If we think they can attack and saying that it was a threat toAlmighty of some form or another. This is be helpful in finding those who may be international peace and security.not the way you do it. There is no religion responsible, we will expect that help and Finally, as the President said in histhat would condone the kinds of action we will express that point of view very, remarks this morning, freedom andthat we are seeing. And so I hope this will very clearly. And I have already started to democracy are under attack. The Ameri-be a sobering experience for the world, do so in some of my preliminary conver- can people need to know that we are fac-and especially for those in the Middle sations, and frankly, I expect support. ing a different enemy than we have everEast and in the Persian Gulf. They are outraged; they are shocked; they faced. Those are the President’s words. In are stunned. Whatever their views might this case, we have specific and credible Q. Mr. Secretary, we know you have be, or whatever the views of their people information that the White House and Airsaid that you don’t know who is respon- might be, with respect to the crisis in the Force One were also intended targets ofsible. But your comments this morning Middle East. They are stunned and find these attacks.on television and the President’s com- this to be a deplorable act. I think they are As the President also said in hisments about harboring terrorists do speaking not just as leaders but as leaders remarks, this battle will take time andseem to indicate an organization such of people who, although some might resolve; and, make no mistake, we willas Usama bin Laden, and also about rejoice and shout, most find this to be prevail.harboring terrorism point to deplorable and something to be con- I’m happy to take questions.Afghanistan as a country that harbors demned.terrorists. And going back to an earlier question, Q. Ari, in terms of this specific threat What did you make of the comments obviously the conflict between the Pales- that you talked about against the Whiteby the supreme leader of the Taliban tinians and the Israelis has been going on House and Air Force One, we haveyesterday about the attack? And do you for a long time and is always in the back- heard from administration officials thatthink that the Taliban are still harbor- ground, but some of the terrorist organiza- the plane that went into the Pentagoning Usama bin Laden? And if he is tions that we have seen at work over the may have originally been targeted atdeemed responsible for this attack, do years conduct terrorist activities against the White House. What can you tell usyou think that the Taliban will expel the United States, regardless of how the about that?Usama bin Laden and help the U.S. peace process may or may not be going,bring him to justice? with respect to the Israelis and the Pales- Mr. Fleischer. John, we have real and tinians. credible information that the airplane that Secretary Powell. I’m sure that the Tal- landed at the Pentagon was originallyiban leadership are providing protection intended to hit the White House.and opportunities and facilities for Usama White House Press Briefing,bin Laden, but I don’t want to get into the Q. Can you tell us about the nature ofhypotheticals as to whether or not he is September 12, 200123 that evidence?responsible for it. A body of evidence is The President today has been making abeing developed, and in due course, we series of phone calls to leaders around the Mr. Fleischer. No, of course I cannot.will make an announcement. But I don’t world, to rally an international coalition to Any questions relating to how we havethink it’s useful to say, well, we are 50 combat terrorism. obtained any of this information, sourcespercent, 60 percent, 70 percent sure it’s He has spoken today with Prime Minis- and methods, I will, of course, not answer.this organization or that. That just leads ter Blair, with Prime Minister Chretien,to, very often, incorrect answers, and I with President Chirac, with Chancellor Q.—why it changed course, Ari? Whydon’t think it’s helpful during this time. Schroeder, with President Jiang of China, it went to the Pentagon and not the So as the evidence builds, and it is and twice with President Putin. The Presi- White House?building, in due course, we will make a dent will continue to reach out to leadersjudgment, and we will act upon that judg- throughout the world to develop this coali- Mr. Fleischer. We really do not knowment in the way the President has indicat- tion, send a message that the United States the answer to that. But we are aware ofed. and the world stand united, all the free- what we have. dom loving countries and others to fight Q. Mr. Secretary, what conversations terrorism. Q. If this is the case, why did Vicedo you anticipate having with the lead- The President is also gratified by the President Cheney remain in the build-ers of Persian Gulf countries? What action taken today by the North Atlantic ing?support will you be seeking from them, Treaty Organization, NATO, in which theyif in fact it’s found that the threat origi- invoked Article 5, saying that an attack on Mr. Fleischer. The Vice President was Foreign Policy Bulletin 25
  • 25. Featureremoved to a secure area at the White and not back here to the White House?House. Mr. Fleischer. Let me try to give you a Mr. Fleischer. Because the information little more specific information on each of Q. We were told he was working out that we had was real and credible about those phone calls. The President, as I indi-of the Situation Room with Condoleez- Air Force One. And the manner in which cated, spoke twice with President Putin—za Rice. Air Force One operated maintained the once for five minutes, the second time for security of Air Force One at all times. And seven minutes. He thanked—the President Mr. Fleischer. The Vice President that also is one of the reasons why Air thanked President Putin for his call andworked out of several locations, and the Force One did not come back to Andrews, for the message of condolence that Presi-White House has sufficient secure loca- where some people thought it would. dent Putin sent yesterday.tions in events such as this. And this fol- President Putin informed President Bushlows a regular plan that the White House Q. If we could make the connection that he had signed a decree that there be ahas in case of any such incidents. here, that would suggest, Ari, then, that moment of silence at Russia, and through- the threat against Air Force One came out Russia, at noon tomorrow, with flags Q. Can you confirm reports, though, in the form of another aircraft? at half-mast, to express the outrage andthat the plane flew over the Pentagon solidarity of the Russian people with theand passed over the U.S. Capitol? If the Mr. Fleischer. No, I’m not indicating American people.White House was indeed a target? what form it came in, John, and I will not. The two Presidents agreed that they willThere have been military sources who work closely together in the comingsay it flew over the U.S. Capitol. Q. Ari, at what time did the White weeks to fight those responsible for yes- House get this information? terday’s acts of terrorism. Mr. Fleischer. No, I do not—I have not The President’s phone call with Presi-heard that report. I have not heard that Mr. Fleischer. On the flight from Sara- dent Jiang of China lasted for approxi-report. sota to the first location. mately 10 minutes. President Bush thanked President Jiang for his condo- Q. Ari, then do you have credible Q. So did the evacuation of the White lences and concern for the American peo-information that the plane that crashed House come as a result of that informa- ple, as well. And the two agreed to workin Pennsylvania was intended for Air tion? together also to combat terrorism, whichForce One? is another indication, as I mentioned, of Mr. Fleischer. That’s a detail that I’m the coalition the President is seeking to Mr. Fleischer. I do not have any infor- not going to get into, Terry. But all appro- form as the world unites in the fightmation about that, about that plane. priate security precautions were taken. against terrorism. Q. And if Air Force One happened to Q. And then on the subject of rallying Q. Ari, will that coalition look at allbe a target, isn’t it true that when the this international coalition, does that like the Persian Gulf coalition? Is hePresident went to Louisiana, at that indicate that the President would wait, reaching out to Arab nations, as well?point, once he took off from Louisiana, or try to get the support—either opera-there were no flights in U.S. airspace? tional support or political support of Mr. Fleischer. The President is going to other nations before responding to these continue to have conversations throughout Mr. Fleischer. No, at that moment there attacks? the world. And, as you know, Secretarywere still reports of airplanes that had not Powell has, too, talked to many people.yet been identified as to their where- Mr. Fleischer. Well, I’m not going to And I will try to keep you informed of theabouts. That’s another reason that the indicate anything about—speculate about conversations the President has.White House and the President operated any type of response. You’ve heard whatin the secure manner that they did. At that the President said and his words speak for ****moment, when the President had left themselves about America’s resolve.Florida and was on his way to a base that However, as I indicated in my opening Q. Ari, given the President’s languageno one knew where the President was statement, the President is very heartened today, is there any discussion here ofheading to, there were still reports of as a result of the world reaction and the asking Congress for a declaration ofplanes that had not yet been brought onto solidarity that the world is showing at all war?the ground per the FAA’s order. levels in so many nations toward what has happened. And the President is going to Mr. Fleischer. You know, again, as the Q. If I could follow up, though, but continue to talk to leaders around the President said, there were acts of war thatwhen Air Force One left Louisiana and world as he builds this coalition. were carried out against our country. Andheaded to Nebraska, I believe at that the President will continue to work withtime there were no U.S. planes, or any Q. Did the President secure the sup- Congress on any appropriate measures atplanes, still in U.S. airspace. So then port of President Jiang and President the appropriate time.why did the President go to Nebraska Putin in those phone calls? But, you know, this is also a different26 Winter 2002
  • 26. September 11, 2001situation from situations our nation has words speak for themselves about what he Statement by Secretary offaced in the past, and the President is cog- said and why he said it, and everyonenizant of that. As the President indicated, should be clear about what the President Defense Rumsfeld,in this case, as we ascertain information, said. September 12, 200125we are dealing, at least at this point, withnameless, faceless people. And it is a dif- The following was a videotaped messageferent type of war than it was, say, when Remarks by President Bush, from Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to theyou knew the capitol of the country that members of the U.S. Armed Forces.attacked you. September 12, 200124 Great crises are marked by their memo- So we will continue to work with the President Bush delivered his remarks rable moments. At the height of peril toCongress on appropriate language on the while touring the damage at the his own nation, Winston Churchill spokeappropriate time. Pentagon. of their finest hour. Yesterday, America I am so grateful to the people who are and the cause of human freedom came **** working here. We’re here to say thanks to under attack, and the first great crisis of not only the workers on this site, but the America’s 21st century was suddenlyQ. Ari, as to the meeting with the lead- workers who are doing the same work in upon us.ers of Congress today, does the Presi- New York City. I want to say thanks to the And we saw the memorable moments.dent come out of that thinking he has folks who have given blood to the Red Who will ever forget the display ofcarte blanche in a response, et cetera? Cross. I want to say thanks for the hun- national unity on the steps of the Capitol dreds of thousands of Americans who Building? People will long remember see- Mr. Fleischer. No, the President does pray for the victims and their families. ing and hearing the members of Congressnot think that. The President is going to Secretary Rumsfeld told me, when I spontaneously breaking out into “Godwant to continue to consult. The President talked to him, that he felt the blast shake Bless America.” What a wonderful thingis going to continue to lead. But the Presi- the Pentagon—even though he was on the for the world to see, and what pride wedent understands that at all times, it’s other side of the building, the building can take in that moment.important to work with Congress. But it’s rocked. And now I know why. So, too, President Bush’s address to theparticularly important now to consult with Coming here makes me sad, on the one nation will live in memory. He spoke forthe Congress. hand; it also makes me angry. Our country all of us when he showed his compassion One of the greatest strengths of our will, however, not be cowed by terrorists, and concern but also noted a quiet,country is that we are a constitution-based by people who don’t share the same val- unyielding anger among the Americandemocracy. Our Constitution and our ues we share, by people who are willing people. He offered a clear-sighted view ofnation have survived acts of terror and to destroy people’s lives because we what needs to be done to prepare for theattacks on our nation before. And the embrace freedom. The nation mourns, but future.President knows that the strength of our our government will go on, the country As one of those working with him onnation comes from that Constitution, will function. We are on high alert for his national security team, I can reportwhich gives an important role to Con- possible activity. that throughout the crisis, the presidentgress. And he will continue to consult But coming here confirms what the Sec- has been as commanding and impressiveclosely with Congress and its leaders. retary and I both know, that this is a great in person as he has been in his public nation. People here working hard prove it; addresses. As Americans, we can be proud **** people out here working their hearts out to of our president, our vice president and answer families’ questions, to remove the our leaders in Congress.Q. Let me ask you about the idea of rubble and debris from this office. I want But I’m speaking to you now a littlewillingness to attack those who host ter- to thank everybody not only on this site, more than 24 hours after yesterday’srorism. Is this a change in the U.S. poli- but all across America, for responding so attack. I must add that one of the finestcy for how we treat these countries who generously, so kindly, in their prayers, in hours of this crisis was here at the Penta-may not have participated in the act, their contributions of love and their will- gon.but may have known that these terror- ingness to help in any way they can. For a long time to come, Americans willists were in-country? Is this a change in take pride and feel gratitude for howU.S. policy? And, if so, where does it nobly and professionally our military andcome from? civilian personnel have responded here at the Department of Defense. I left my Mr. Fleischer. Well, you know, I’m office here in the Pentagon and went tonot—I don’t know if this is a change or the site of the attack minutes after itnot. Of course, given the fact that Presi- occurred. The scene was appalling, anddent Bush has been in office, now, for even as I speak to you now, the human tollnine months, this is, I think, an example of this tragedy is being counted. Most inof how President Bush is going to address this building have lost friends and col-this in a resolute manner. The President’s leagues. We’re doing all we can for the Foreign Policy Bulletin 27
  • 27. Featurefamilies of those who were killed or hurt. them to act worthy of their past, to act Secretary Powell. They did not. AndOur grief is beyond description, and our worthy of the future of peace and freedom the simple reason is that this act is so hor-condolences go out to all of those who they want for their children. Most of all, rible, so horrendous in its nature andhave lost a loved one. as you set about your dangerous work, dimensions, that there can be no justifica- But we have pride, too; pride in their believe in them to give you every support tion. Even though we have a difficult situ-service to country and to us all, and pride and give you their hearts and their ation between the Israelis and the Pales-that in the morning, the flag was still prayers. tinians, no way could that justify this kindthere; the Stars and Stripes was over the We extend our condolences, and ask of attack against innocent people whichwreckage to mark their place of honor. God’s tender mercies on our fallen com- costs thousands of lives. And none of Our gratitude is also all but indescrib- rades and their loved ones, and we ask His them suggested that, nor would I haveable for the firefighters and the police and blessing and guidance as we turn to the expected them to.the personnel from so many local, county, work of defending this nation and preserv-and state, as well as federal agencies who ing human freedom. Q. How strong a link would you sayhave assisted us. Their work and commit- there is now from all that you knowment have been an inspiration to me and about yesterday’s attacks between whatto us all. happened and people associated with But in addition to telling you of Ameri- Remarks by Secretary of Usama bin Laden?ca’s pride in Defense Department person-nel during the last 24 hours, it is my duty, State Powell, September 12, Secretary Powell. Well, I am going toas head of this department, to tell you that 200126 let the intelligence community and ourmore, much more, will be asked of you in law enforcement agencies describe thethe weeks and months ahead. Secretary Colin Powell was interviewed strengths of links to any particular terror- This is especially true of those who are on National Public Radio. ist organization or network. Let me justin the field. We face powerful and terrible Q. The Secretary of State Colin Powell say that there is a body of evidence that isenemies, enemies we intend to vanquish, today pledged a global fight against ter- developing that I think in the very nearso that moments of horror, like yesterday, rorism involving not only NATO but future will point us in a specific direction.will be stopped. also Muslim states. But I don’t want to handicap that with The task of vanquishing these terrible Secretary Powell, do you expect to describing it as being either strong orenemies and in protecting the American have the active support of friendly Mus- we’re this sure or that sure.people and the cause of human freedom lim states in that effort?will fall to you, the men and women in the Q. How important is it in whateverDepartment of Defense. I know we are Secretary Powell. Yes, I have already the United States does, say if there isready. I know America can continue to been in touch with some Arab states in the some military retaliation down thecount on your selflessness and courage region. They realize that terrorism of this road, how important is it that there beand dedication to duty. kind is a threat to any civilization. And allies, including Muslim nations, in that Let us never forget what this great insti- they are friends of ours and they want to action?tution is about. With its hallways filled work with us and they want to help us, sowith the pictures of Medal of Honor recip- I know that there will be a number of Secretary Powell. I think it is alwaysients and our country’s great military lead- nations in the region, in the Persian Gulf best to have a coalition when you areers, this building is a place dedicated to and the Middle East region, that will be going after a problem or dealing with athe ethos of heroism. Heroes have gone cooperating with us. And I am continuing threat that really is not just directed atbefore us. Here at the Pentagon yesterday, to make phone calls to that end. America; it is directed at civilization. Andheroes were here again. so to the extent that you can put a coali- I know I am speaking to many now, Q. Have you spoken to people in tion together, you are bringing the weightespecially those of you in the field, those Saudi Arabia and Egypt? of the international community along withof you who wear the uniform of our coun- you. It doesn’t mean that every member oftry, who will in the days ahead also be Secretary Powell. I have spoken to peo- that coalition has to participate in somecalled heroes. I salute each of you for ple in Saudi Arabia. I have spoken to the military way. Political support, diplomaticyour conduct and commitment. And with- Chairman of the Arab League, Mr. Amr support, other kinds of support can be justout hesitation, I ask you now to stay the Moussa. And I have calls in to other lead- as useful. It is not clear to me we wouldcourse in the challenging days ahead. A ers in the region now. need anyone’s direct military involvementnation stands behind you. should we go down a road of military I’ve been in public life for a long time, Q. When you spoke with them today, retaliation.and if there’s one lesson I have learned did they raise the linkage of this terror-from it, it is this: Believe in the American ist attack to Israeli actions in the Mid- Q. Secretary Powell, the newspaperpeople. dle East or to U.S. policy on the Israel- headlines in New York today, a lot of Believe in them especially when trouble Palestinian dispute? them, screamed the word “war.” I won-starts, when the crisis comes. Believe in der, is that appropriate? Do we regard28 Winter 2002
  • 28. September 11, 2001this as the equivalent to war? them quite unlike those that had called seen as something done by Arabs or NATO into existence. More specifically, Islamics; it is something that was done by Secretary Powell. The President they condemned terrorism as a serious terrorists, and we ought to see it that waybelieves that it was an act of war against threat to peace and stability and reaf- and we ought to rally the entire civilizedus, not a war of the kind that we have seen firmed their determination to combat it in world against this kind of activity.before such as World War II or Korea or accordance with their commitments to oneVietnam. And Korea and Vietnam were another, their international commitments Q. Are you sending a message tonot called wars but they certainly were and national legislation. Afghanistan tonight through Pakistan?wars. But it is an act of war. When you Article 5 of the Washington Treaty stip- And if you are, what is that message?attack our homeland, when you attacked ulates that in the event of attacks fallingtwo places such as the World Trade Center within its purview, each Ally will assist Secretary Powell. We are sending abuildings and the Pentagon, that is an act the Party that has been attacked by taking variety of messages to any nation thatof war against our sovereignty, against the such action as it deems necessary. Accord- might have knowledge about such terroristsecurity of our people. When you kill ingly, the United States’ NATO Allies activity. We are not accusing any organi-thousands of our civilians, there is no stand ready to provide the assistance that zation yet, but there is a body of evidenceother way to characterize it. may be required as a consequence of these that is slowly growing. And what we are It doesn’t mean necessarily that it acts of barbarism. saying to the Pakistanis is that we wouldresults in, say, a declaration of war—Con- like to have any information that yougress would have to make that judgment might have that would shed light on thisanyway—but it means that we have to Remarks by Secretary of incident or who might have caused it, andreally mobilize ourselves and all of the as we go forward, we might want to comeassets at our disposal—political, diplomat- State Powell, September 12, to you for assistance if the response turnsic, legal, law enforcement, intelligence 200128 out to be in an area where you can be ofand military—to deal with those who per- assistance.petrated this act of war against us. Secretary Colin Powell was interviewed With respect to Afghanistan, we have on NBC’S Dateline by Tom Brokaw. always told the Taliban leadership that Q. Joining us now from Washington, they should not be harboring Mr. UsamaStatement by the North DC, is Secretary of State Colin Powell. bin Laden and a network that he controls. And we are reinforcing that message andAtlantic Council, September Mr. Secretary, NATO today invoked also making it clear to them that they Article V, which means that an attack12, 200127 on the United States is an attack on any should disavow themselves of any kind of NATO member. That will give you great involvement with such organizations ifOn September 12th, the North Atlantic they want the world to try to help them military and political cooperation. ButCouncil met again in response to the with these serious problems that they have what about the states like Kuwait andappalling attacks perpetrated yesterday in their society and in their economy. And Jordan and Egypt and Saudi Arabia,against the United States. The Council we are doing this throughout the region, who were so critical to us during Oper-agreed that if it is determined that this throughout the world wherever terrorists ation Desert Storm? Do you expectattack was directed from abroad against find host nations to take care of them, to from them outspoken positions of sup-the United States, it shall be regarded as give them support. port?an action covered by Article 5 of the The President was very clear last night.Washington Treaty, which states that an We are not only going after the perpetra- Secretary Powell. Yes, I do, Tom. Andarmed attack against one or more of the tors. We will go after those nations, states we have been in touch with many of themAllies in Europe or North America shall and organizations who give them succor, in the course of the day and I’ll be talkingbe considered an attack against them all. who provide them assistance and give to more of them this evening and tomor- The commitment to collective self- them a place from which they an launch row. I have been very, very satisfied withdefense embodied in the Washington their terrorist attacks. the degree of support we have received,Treaty was first entered into in circum- not only from our NATO allies but otherstances very different from those that exist Q. But, Mr. Secretary, it is one thing European countries, from our friends herenow, but it remains no less valid and no to go after a headquarters of a terrorist in the Western Hemisphere at the Organi-less essential today, in a world subject to organization or even its leader, but zation of American States summit yester-the scourge of international terrorism. when you begin to attack the country day. And as I have called around the Per-When the Heads of State and Government that may be harboring them, that can sian Gulf region, I am getting expressionsof NATO met in Washington in 1999, they change the political equation very of support.paid tribute to the success of the Alliance quickly, can’t it? I got a letter from Mr. Amr Moussa,in ensuring the freedom of its members who is the Chair of the Arab League,during the Cold War and in making possi- Secretary Powell. Well, it can, and we expressing condolences, and I also spokeble a Europe that was whole and free. But will be very cautious in how we might use to him on the phone. And they find this anthey also recognized the existence of a our military strength. And I don’t want to outrage against humanity. It should not bewide variety of risks to security, some of Foreign Policy Bulletin 29
  • 29. Featureget into hypotheticals, but one always has nations will be expected to assist in the Now Congress must act. I ask the Con-to consider that. But at the same time, response and come to the defense and gress to immediately pass and send to methese countries tend to put themselves at assistance of the nation that has been the enclosed request for $20,000,000,000risk by harboring terrorist activity of this attacked from outside the Alliance. in FY 2001 emergency appropriations totype. That is why it is in their interest to provide resources to address the terroristbecome part of a civilized world and get attacks on the United States that occurredrid of this sort of activity and not let it Proclamation by President on September 11, 2001, and the conse-perpetuate and exist within their borders. quences of such attacks. Passing this sup- Bush, September 12, 200129 plemental appropriations bill without Q. After the terrorist attacks on the As a mark of respect for those killed by delay will send a powerful signal of unityUnited States embassies in Tanzania the heinous acts of violence perpetrated to our fellow Americans and to the world.and Kenya, there was a swift response by faceless cowards upon the people and If additional resources are necessary, Iat two targets; later, some question the freedom of the United States on Tues- will forward another request for additionalabout whether or not, in fact, one of the day, September 11, 2001, I hereby order, funding.targets was appropriate. Are you going by the authority vested in me as President I designate the entire amount as anto take more time this time? of the United States of America by the emergency requirement pursuant to sec- Constitution and the laws of the United tion 251(b)(2)(A) of the Balanced Budget Secretary Powell. Well, let’s first of all States of America, that the flag of the and Emergency Deficit Control Act ofdetermine who is responsible and then United States shall be flown at half-staff 1985, as amended.determine the best response. The response at the White House and upon all publicmay be political, certainly diplomatic, and buildings and grounds, at all military postsit may well be military. And you can be and naval stations, and on all naval vessels Statement by United Nationssure that we will do it carefully, we willdo it prudently, and we will make sure of the Federal Government in the District Secretary-General Annan, of Columbia and throughout the Unitedwe’ve got the goods on them, or at least a States and its Territories and possessions September 12, 200131high probability of having the goods on until sunset, Sunday, September 16, 2001.them, before launching military strikes, if Secretary General Kofi Annan delivered I also direct that the flag shall be flown atthat turns out to be the proper recommen- the following statement at a special half-staff for the same length of time at alldation coming from the Pentagon to the meeting of the United Nations Security United States embassies, legations, con-President and the President approves it. Council. sular offices, and other facilities abroad, including all military facilities and naval We meet, as you have said, in exceptional- Q. Mr. Secretary, you grew up as a vessels and stations. ly grave circumstances. Our host country,military man and in a bipolar world. and this host city, have been subjected to aWe formed NATO, the greatest military terrorist attack which horrifies us all. Wealliance in the history of mankind, to Letter from President Bush do not yet know the full extent of theface down the Russians if it ever came damage, but it seems certain that thou-to that. Are we going to have to form to the Speaker of the House sands of people have lost their lives andmore permanent alliances now to deal of Representatives, many have suffered dreadful injuries.with terrorism long term, not short All of us, Mr. President, feel deep shockterm? September 12, 200130 and revulsion at the cold-blooded vicious- Yesterday, evil and despicable acts of ter- ness of this attack. Secretary Powell. I think we do have to All of us condemn it, and those whoform other kinds of alliances. I’m not sure ror were perpetrated against our fellow citizens. Our way of life, indeed our very planned it—whoever they may be—in thewe need a new organization. I mean, you strongest possible terms.saw what NATO did today. They invoked freedom, came under attack. Our first pri- ority is to respond swiftly and surely. We All of us, I am sure, extend our mostArticle V of the Washington Treaty, which profound sympathy to the victims, to theirwas never designed for this kind of pur- need to do so in a way that will make Americans proud, especially those heroes loved ones and to the people and Govern-pose, but when you look at the spirit of ment of the United States.the Washington Treaty, where all of these who are struggling so valiantly to deal with yesterday’s tragedy. More than that, we must express ournations are going to come to each other’s solidarity with the American Governmentaid in time of danger in the event of an Immediate steps are being taken to pro- tect our citizens at home and around the and people in this hour of trial.attack, this in the 21st century is the kind Terrorism is an international scourge,of attack that we have to be prepared to world. I implemented our Government’s emergency response plans, and the func- which the United Nations has many timesdefend against, to respond to. And NATO condemned. A terrorist attack on onecame forward today and understood the tions of our Government continue without interruption. I have directed the full country is an attack on humanity as anature of this new threat, and I think cor- whole. All nations of the world must workrectly invoked Article V of the Washing- resources of our intelligence and law enforcement communities to find those together to identify the perpetrators andton Treaty. Any nation attacked, all other bring them to justice. responsible and to bring them to justice.30 Winter 2002
  • 30. September 11, 2001United Nations Security 1. Strongly condemns the heinous acts resilient and we remain calm and confi- of terrorism, which have caused enormous dent. Our co-operation with the USA inCouncil Resolution 1368, loss of human life, destruction and dam- the fight against terrorism is more neces-September 12, 200132 age in the cities of New York, host city of sary than ever and must be pursued with the United Nations, and Washington, D.C., renewed vigor.The Security Council, and in Pennsylvania; This barbaric attack was directed against Reaffirming the principles and purposes 2. Expresses its condolences and soli- the free world and our common values. Itof the Charter of the United Nations, darity with the people and Government of is a watershed event and life will never be Determined to combat by all means the United States of America in these sad quite the same again. European Institu-threats to international peace and security and tragic circumstances; tions and Governments will work closelycaused by terrorist acts, 3. Urgently calls for international coop- together with our American friends and Recognizing the inherent right of indi- eration to bring to justice the perpetrators, partners in the defense of freedom.vidual or collective self- defense in accor- organizers and sponsors of the outrages of We shall not allow terrorism to triumph.dance with the Charter, 11 September 2001; We shall not allow terrorism to divide the 1. Unequivocally condemns in the 4. Also urgently calls for international world, as its perpetrators intend it to. Westrongest terms the horrifying terrorist cooperation to prevent and eradicate acts shall deny them this victory.attacks which took place on 11 September of terrorism, and stresses that those In the darkest hours of European histo-2001 in New York, Washington (D.C.) and responsible for aiding, supporting or har- ry, the Americans stood by us. We standPennsylvania and regards such acts, like boring the perpetrators, organizers and by them now.any act of international terrorism, as a sponsors of such acts will be heldthreat to international peace and security; accountable. 2. Expresses its deepest sympathy and Remarks by British Primecondolences to the victims and their fami-lies and to the People and Government of Statement by European Minister Blair, September 12,the United States of America; Union President Prodi, 200135 3. Calls on all States to work togetherurgently to bring to justice the perpetra- September 12, 200134 First of all, I would like to give you antors, organizers and sponsors of these ter- update on this morning’s meeting of therorist attacks and stresses that those This morning the Commission held an Civil Contingencies Committee. We haveresponsible for aiding, supporting or har- extraordinary meeting. agreed to keep in place the additionalboring the perpetrators, organizers and We observed a minute’s silence and then security measures that I announced yester-sponsors of these acts will be held discussed various political aspects for day, at least for the rest of the day. This isaccountable; which the Commission has particular a purely precautionary measure but wise 4. Calls also on the international com- responsibility. in the circumstances, and I hope thosemunity to redouble their efforts to prevent This afternoon I shall go to the Euro- who are suffering the disruption under-and suppress terrorist acts including by pean Parliament and the General Affairs stand why we believe this to be necessary.increased cooperation and full implemen- Council (Foreign Ministers). The Com- Most of the City and business throughouttation of the relevant international anti-ter- mission stressed, and I shall reaffirm, the the country is functioning as normal.rorist conventions and Security Council need to send the strongest possible signal We also discussed what practical helpresolutions, in particular resolution 1269 of European solidarity with the American and expertise we can offer to America inof 19 October 1999; people and I will call for a common Euro- dealing with the immediate aftermath of 5. Expresses its readiness to take all pean approach to all aspects of this this tragedy. I will chair a further meetingnecessary steps to respond to the terrorist tragedy. of this Committee later today and in addi-attacks of 11 September 2001, and to The Commission expressed its horror at tion, there will be a special meeting of thecombat all forms of terrorism, in accor- these acts of barbaric crime, its compas- Cabinet tomorrow. Also, I should tell youdance with its responsibilities under the sion for the victims and their families and that the Government has requested thatCharter of the United Nations; its solidarity with the American people. Parliament be recalled and The Speaker 6. Decides to remain seized of the mat- We share their grief, mourn with them has agreed to this.ter. and commit ourselves to working together I have consulted the Leader of the with President Bush and the U.S. Govern- Opposition and the Leader of the Liberal ment to build a safe, democratic world for Democrats, and other parties, and proposeUnited Nations General all our peoples. that Parliament be recalled for this Friday, We have acted to protect our own staff 14 September, when I will make a state-Assembly Resolution 56/1, and interests in Europe and in our over- ment to the House, and the Foreign Secre-September 12, 200133 seas delegations. We stand ready to offer tary will then open a full debate on the any practical assistance we can. I con- issues that arise from yesterday’s atrocity.The General Assembly, veyed this message to the U.S. Ambas- I believe Parliament should be recalled Guided by the purposes and principles sador yesterday evening. Our economy both because of the sheer magnitude ofof the Charter of the United Nations, and social structures are strong and the event, and its implications, but also Foreign Policy Bulletin 31
  • 31. Featurebecause this was an attack not just on a allies around the world, this is the task to this point, can you say how important itnumber of buildings, but on the very which we now turn.” is for whatever the American response,notion of democracy. It is therefore all the whatever that is, for that to be support-more important that democratic voices are Q. This is maybe one of those ques- ed by American’s key allies and in par-heard and in our country, Parliament is the tions, Prime Minister, you can’t answer ticular by Britain?place for that to happen. but there have been official and semi- I have also spoken to several world official comments from the United Prime Minister Blair. Well I’m not,leaders, including the Presidents of France States about Osama Bin Laden’s group you know forgive me if I repeat to youand Russia, Chancellor Schroeder, and being the likely culprit for this. What is what I said earlier. I am not going to enterPrime Minister Verhofstadt in his capacity the British view of that and do we have into a discussion of what that responseas the current President of the EU. any intelligence view about where these may be or any participation of anyone else We all agreed that this attack is an attacks have come from? in it. I simply repeat what I’ve saidattack not only on America but on the already to you that I think it is importantworld, which demands our complete and Prime Minister Blair. I won’t comment that we demonstrate our support for theunited condemnation, our determination to on the identification of who is responsible United States of America at this moment.bring those responsible to justice and our at this stage but obviously this is some- Yes, Kristiana.support for the American people at this thing that is under close consideration bytime of trial. our agencies here as well as other agen- Q. Analysts, leaders, people have been It is also clear that given the likely death cies round the world and particularly saying, and you yourself just said, thistoll, there will be many citizens of other those in the United States of America. Yes, is not just an attack on America but onstates who will have died. I have to say sir. the civilized world. Are you prepared tothat I fear significant numbers of them say that this is a stage of war, a declara-will be British. So in a very real and direct Q. Prime Minister, to what extent— tion of war against the United Statessense, the interests of our country are and I know you don’t want to be specif- and the civilized world? And, evenengaged. ic—but are there no limits to which you though you don’t want to be specific, But even if that were not so, the world would co-operate with the United States you yourself said that we have tonow knows the full evil and capability of government in pursuing the terrorist “defeat and eradicate these people.”international terrorism which menaces the and, given the possibility, the real possi- What possible way can you do that andwhole of the democratic world. The ter- bility that Britain could become a tar- do you envision a sort of 1990’s stylerorists responsible have no sense of get if you either endorse or insist on coalition that might be built in like-humanity, of mercy, or of justice. reprisals, to what extent do you think minded countries to confront these peo- To commit acts of this nature requires a the British public is prepared for that? ple once evidence comes to establishfanaticism and wickedness that is beyond certain responsibility?our normal contemplation. The USA will Prime Minister Blair. As I said abe considering the action it considers moment or two ago Mike, I don’t think it Prime Minister Blair. Well of one thingappropriate against those found to be is wise to speculate on what the nature of I’ve no doubt and that this was an attackresponsible. But beyond that, there are any American response would be to this upon the whole of the world and that isissues connected with such terrorism that act of terror or indeed what support they why I think it is so important that in addi-the international community as a whole may call upon from this country or any tion to whatever action America considersmust consider: where these groups are, other countries in making that response. appropriate that the world as a whole ishow they operate, how they are financed, But I want to make one thing very clear prepared to act. And I sketched out to youhow they are supported, and how they are indeed—this was not an attack on Ameri- a moment or two ago I think some of thestopped. ca alone. This was an attack on the free questions that we need to pose. It is too One final point. I was pleased to see the and democratic world everywhere and this early, it is premature to give specificvery strong statement of condemnation is the responsibility that the free and answers to those questions but this was anfrom the British Muslim Council, echoing democratic world have got to shoulder act of terrorism on a scale I don’t thinkthat of the American Muslim Council. As together with America. And at this time of anyone had contemplated before and itMuslim leaders and clerics around the tragedy in the United States of America shows the new menace that there is thatworld are making clear, such acts of that has consequences right across the threatens our world. And it is importantinfamy and cruelty are wholly contrary to world—and as I say there will be British therefore that the international community,the Islamic faith. The vast majority of people that have lost their lives—in this as a whole as well as responding to thisMuslims are decent, upright people who time of tragedy and this time of grief and particular atrocity, considers the nature ofshare our horror at what has happened. anger and trial in America it is important these groups, how they are financed, how People of all faiths and all democratic that Americans know that their allies and they operate and how we defeat them.political persuasions have a common their friends around the world do stand And I am sure from the discussions that Icause: to identify this machinery of terror shoulder to shoulder with them. Yes, John. have had with other leaders in the pastand to dismantle it as swiftly as possible. few hours that those questions are at theWith our American friends, and other Q. But Prime Minister just continuing forefront of their mind as well because we32 Winter 2002
  • 32. September 11, 2001all of us know that America may have period of time, simply to say that the impudent challenge to all mankind. Andbeen singled out by these terrorists but United States of America will be consider- what happened on September 11 oncetheir attack is aimed at all of us and it is ing who is responsible and they will take more underlines the urgency of the task oftherefore vitally important that we stand the action that they consider appropriate. combining the efforts of the internationaltogether in defeating them. And as I said earlier, what support we community to fight terror, this plague of may give to that is something that we will the 21st century. This task was set in U.N. Q. Noting what you said about consider at an appropriate time. But be Security Council Resolution 1269, unani-Britain’s Muslims, it is nonetheless the under no doubt at all we stand with the mously adopted on Russia’s initiative.case isn’t it that this international ter- United States of America in this matter. Yesterday’s statement by the Council androrism over the past decade has had a Yes, Trevor. the resolution being adopted today unam-common thread of Islamic Fundamen- biguously confirm the determination of itstalism and isn’t it rather inadequate to **** members to do everything they can not totry and address this problem by treat- let a single terrorist act go unpunished anding it as evil terrorism and isolation and Q. Do you feel by standing shoulder to to redouble their efforts to prevent andlooking at the functionalities of where shoulder with the United States and eradicate terrorism.the money comes from without looking saying we are determined to eradicate Russian President Vladimir Putin said inat the basic clash of ideologies and this threat we are ourselves a possible his statement on September 11:indeed the basic concept of what human target? “Russia knows not through hearsayrights and the value of human life is? what is terror. And therefore we best Prime Minister Blair. I don’t think understand the feelings of the American Prime Minister Blair. Of course it is there’s any doubt at all that this threat is people and, addressing on behalf of Rus-evil terrorism and we shouldn’t disguise aimed at the whole of the democratic sia the people of the United States, I wantthat for a moment but I think you are right world. The United States has been singled to say that we are with you, we whollyin saying that we also have to make it out but there is no doubt at all that these and entirely share and feel your pain. Weclear and this is done best indeed by voic- terrorists will regard us all as targets and support you.es within the Muslim community and the therefore it is important for us, whilst thisIslamic faith that such acts of wickedness has happened in the United States ofand terrorism are wholly contrary to the America, to remember that very basic Statement by Pakistaniproper principles of the Islamic faith. And fact: this is an attack on the free andone of the reasons I mentioned the state- democratic world as a whole. And of President Musharraf,ment of the Muslim Council of Britain course, as I was pointing out to you just a September 12, 200137was in order to underscore the shock and moment or two ago, because of the sheerthe sense of horror and sense of outrage scale of the death toll and the carnage as a The people of Pakistan are deeply shockedfelt by the vast majority of Muslims round result of this atrocity, there will be many and outraged at the dreadful terroristthe world. So this is not a situation in British people that have been caught up in attacks in New York and Washington,which we should see this as a cause it. So our interests are engaged in a very which have resulted in unprecedented lossbetween the Muslim faith and the world real and direct way. of thousands of innocent lives. It is diffi-but between terrorism and the rest of the cult to describe in words our sorrow andworld, including the Muslim faith. grief at this moment of national tragedy Statement by Russian for the American people. I have conveyed Q. Prime Minister, beyond the the deepest condolences and sympathy ofappalling loss of life and injury, one Ambassador Lavrov, the people and Government of Pakistan tothing is very clear that there has been September 12, 200136 President George Bush, the bereaved fam-an appalling breakdown of intelligence ilies and the American people in a mes-in America in particular and in the Ambassador Sergei Lavrov, Permanent sage last evening.West in general. The same breakdown Representative of the Russian Federation We strongly condemn this barbaric actin intelligence has delivered the wrong to the United Nations, delivered his of terrorism, which will live in memory astargets in previous reprisals. Will you, remarks at a meeting of the United a most heinous crime against humanity.before you put at the disposal of the Nations Security Council. As the world tries to grasp the magnitudeUnited States any British facility or of the tragedy and mourns those who have The USA has encountered an unprece-armed forces, require independent perished, we pray for the recovery of dented act of aggression on the part ofintelligence assessments to be made of thousands of others who have suffered international terrorism.any evaluation that the United States injuries. On behalf of the Russian leadership wemight make as to what should be done? We regard terrorism as an evil that express sincere and deeply-felt condo- threatens the world community. Concerted lences to all the victims, their families, the Prime Minister Blair. Well Jon, if you international effort is needed to fight ter- people and government of the USA.forgive me going to enter into any discus- rorism in all its forms and manifestations. Yesterday’s event in the United Statession of what may happen in the coming The carnage in New York and Washington goes beyond national borders. This is an has raised this struggle to a new level. Foreign Policy Bulletin 33
  • 33. FeaturePakistan has been extending cooperation ber 11, 2001, and its consequences. The basis of simple doubts or even whimsical-to international efforts to combat terrorism comments we made on the next day of the ly, and can send their American missilesin the past and will continue to do so. All event represent the essence of our position and the NATO fighters to where ever theycountries must join hands in this common regarding this event and other events, but want to destroy and harm whoever Ameri-cause. the aftermath of what happened in Ameri- ca decides to harm in a fit of anger, by I wish to assure President Bush and the ca, in the West in particular and in the greed, or by being pushed by Zionism.U.S. Government of our unstinted cooper- world in general, makes it important for Many countries of the world have suf-ation in the fight against terrorism. every leader to understand the meaning of fered from America’s technological might, responsibility toward his people, his and many peoples do recognize that nation, and humanity in general to follow America had killed thousands or even mil-Statement by Pakistani up the development of the situation, to lions of human beings in their countries. understand the meaning of what is going The event that took place in AmericaPresident Musharraf, on, and hence to elaborate his country’s was an extraordinary one. It is not a sim-September 12, 200138 and people’s position so as not to restrict ple event. oneself to only following the event. It is the first time that someone crossesMy dear Pakistanis! When the event took place Arab rulers to America to unleash the fire of his anger The despicable and devastating act and the rulers of countries whose religion inside it, as indicated by what was said byagainst innocent people in New York and of their people is Islam, rushed to con- the media, on the hypothesis that theWashington has caused great anguish and demn the event. The Westerners rushed executors of this act came from abroad.concern among the Government and the within hours to make statements and Since this event is unprecedented, is itpeople of Pakistan. As a peace-loving adopt resolutions, some of which are dan- wise to deal with it by precedent methodsnation we join the world community in gerous ones, in solidarity with America that can be used by whoever has the tech-strongly condemning these brutal acts and and against terrorism. nical and scientific capacities of Americathe consequent loss of precious lives. Ter- Even before being sure, western govern- and the West!?rorism is a threat to humanity and to the ments decided to join their forces to the If the target and the aim is one or morehuman civilization. Pakistan condemns all America even if that meant declaring war Islamic countries, as it has been said byacts of terrorism anywhere in the world on the party that will be proved to have the media and the intelligence services ofand shares the sorrow and grief of the been involved in what happened. some Western countries, this would onlypeople of the United States. It is only normal to say that by the fall in the same direction that America and I urge upon all of you, living in the explanation of the present situation, as it the West have always taken by targetingUnited States of America, to extend all has been said or by comparison to the their fire on wherever they want to experi-possible help and assistance to all victims. action previously taken by America ment a new weapon on.I urge you to step forward and donate against specific countries, it could be We ask again: America’s targeting themuch needed blood for the injured. Step enough for some of the executors of the fire of its weapons on specific targets, andout and provide your service and your operation to have come from a country harming it or destroying it with the sup-resources to all those who need them named by America or said to have insti- port of Western governments and of a fab-there. gated the operation, for the American mil- ricated story would it solve the problem? I am confident you would rise to the itary retaliation on what they call an Would this bring security to America andoccasion and assist, help and assuage the aggression. We don’t know if they would the world? Or Isn’t the use by Americagrieved. My heart goes out to the families do the same thing whether any of the and some Western governments of theirof all those who have suffered and partic- planners and executors of the operation fire against others in the world including,ularly to the families of those who lost were found, to have lived or held the or in the forefront of whom the Arabs andtheir lives whether Americans, Pakistanis nationality of a Western country or the Muslims, is one of the most importantor from any other country.” whether the intention and the designs are reasons of the lack of stability in the already made against an Islamic party. world at the present time? It is most probable from the beating of Isn’t the evil inflicted on America in theOpen Letter from Iraqi media war drums that America and some act of September 11, 2001, and nothingPresident Hussein to the Western governments are targeting a party else is a result of this and other acts? This who won’t be but Muslim. is the main question and this is what theGovernment and People of The event that took place in America is American administration along with of theAmerica and other Western an extraordinary event. It is not a simple Western governments or the Western pub- one. According to figures announced by lic opinion should answer in the first placeNations, September 12, official American sources or by what has with serenity and responsibility, without200139 been spread by the media, the number of emotional reaction and without the use of victims is great. Nobody has any doubts, the same old methods that America usedIn the name of God, Most Gracious, Most or denies that America and the West have against the world.merciful the capabilities to mobilize force and use On September 12, 2001, we said that no Once again, we would like to comment it, to inflict destruction on others on the one crossed the Atlantic to America carry-on what happened in America on Septem-34 Winter 2002
  • 34. September 11, 2001ing weapons before this event, except the bridges, churches, mosques, colleges, ty, the pain you are feeling would beWesterners who established the United schools, factories, palaces, hotels, and appeased.States of America. America is the one who thousands of private houses were Americans should feel the pain theycrossed the Atlantic carrying arms of destroyed or damaged by the American have inflicted on other peoples of thedestruction and death against the world. and Western bombardment, which is world, so as when they suffer, they willHere we want to ask a question: wasn’t ongoing even today against Iraq. If you find the right solution and the right path.the use of American weapons, including replay the images of the footage taken by All that has been inflicted on the Arabsthe nuclear weapon against Japan, enough the western media itself of this destruc- and Muslims by America and the West,before September 11, 2001, for America tion, you will see that they are not differ- didn’t push Muslims to become raciststo prepare to use it in a heavier and a ent from the images of the two buildingsstronger way? Or isn’t using it in an irre- hit by the Boeing airplanes, if not moresponsible way, and without justification as atrocious, especially when they are mixeddoes any oppressive force in the world, is with the remains of men, women, and [W]e say to the American peoples, whatwhat made America the most hated coun- children. There is, however, one differ- happened on September 11, 2001 shouldtry in the world, starting from the Third ence, namely that those who direct their be compared to what their government andWorld, to the Medium World and passing missiles and bombs to the targets, whether their armies are doing in the world, forto the civilized world, as is the world Americans or from another Western coun-divided by the West and America? try, are mostly targeting by remote con- example, the international agencies have The national security of America and trols, that is why they do so as if they stated that more than one million and athe security of the world could be attained were playing an amusing game. As for half Iraqis have died because of theif the American leaders and those who those who acted on September 11, 2001, blockade imposed by America and somebeat the drums for them among the rulers they did it from a close range, and with, Iof the present time in the West or outside imagine, giving their lives willingly, with Western countries, in addition to the tensthe West become rational, if America dis- an irrevocable determination. of thousands who died or are injured in theengages itself from its evil alliance with For this reason also, the Americans, and military action perpetrated by AmericaZionism, which has been scheming to the world with them, should understand along with those who allied with it againstexploit the world and plunge it in blood the argument that made those people give Iraq. Hundreds of bridges, churches,and darkness, by using America and some their lives in sacrifice, and what they sac-Western countries. rificed themselves for, in that way. mosques, colleges, schools, factories, What the American peoples need mostly When one million and a half Iraqi palaces, hotels, and thousands of privateis someone who tells them the truth, human beings die, according to Western houses were destroyed or damaged by thecourageously and honestly as it is. They documents, from a population of twenty American and Western bombardment,don’t need fanfares and cheerleaders, if five million, because of the Americanthey want to take a lesson from the event blockade and aggression, it means that which is ongoing even today against Iraq.so as to reach a real awakening, in spite of Iraq has lost about one twenty-fifth of itsthe enormity of the event that hit America. population. And just as your beautiful sky-But the world, including the rulers of scrapers were destroyed and caused your and harass the Westerners who walk in theAmerica, should say all this to the Ameri- grief, beautiful buildings and precious streets of Baghdad, Damascus, Tunis,can peoples, so as to have the courage to homes crumbled over their owners in Cairo and other Arab capitals, even whentell the truth and act according to what is Lebanon, Palestine and Iraq by American the Westerners, and especially Americansright and not what to is wrong and unjust, weapons used by the Zionists. In only one insulted the holy sites of Muslim andto undertake their responsibilities in fair- place, which was a civilian shelter, which Arabs by what is almost an occupation ofness and justice, and by recourse to rea- is the Ameriyah Shelter, more than four Saudi Arabia in order to launch their evilson, passion, according to the spirit of hundred human beings, children, young fires against Baghdad, and when thechance and capability. and old men and women, died in Iraq by American carriers roam the Arab Gulf, In addition, we say to the American American bombs. and their fighters daily roam the sky topeoples, what happened on September 11, In the same day, the 11th of September, throw tons of bombs and missiles over2001 should be compared to what their one of their aggressive military airplanes Iraq, so that about two hundred thousandgovernment and their armies are doing in was shot down over Iraq. And on the same tons of bombs have been used againstthe world, for example, the international day of the event in America on 11th Sep- Iraq, in addition to using depleted urani-agencies have stated that more than one tember, and American jetfighter was per- um!! All these are facts that are very wellmillion and a half Iraqis have died petration aggression against Iraq and was known not only to Arabs and Muslims,because of the blockade imposed by shot down. but to the whole world also. But becauseAmerica and some Western countries, in As for what is going on in Palestine, if of only one incident that happened inaddition to the tens of thousands who died Zionist let you see on your TVs the bodies America in one day, and upon an uncon-or are injured in the military action perpe- of children, women and men who are firmed accusations so far, Arabs and Mus-trated by America along with those who daily killed by American weapons, and lims, including some who hold the Ameri-allied with it against Iraq. Hundreds of with American backing to the Zionist enti- can citizenship, are being harassed openly Foreign Policy Bulletin 35
  • 35. Featureand publicly in America and some West- ca that really is real. safety officers to their families, any bene-ern countries. Some western countries are Also, though, I can’t tell you how proud fits to their families. And the Attorneypreparing themselves to participate in an I am of the good citizens of your part of General, as I understand it, will be makingAmerican military action, against an the world, and the extraordinary job you a formal announcement of your requestIslamic country as the indications point all are doing. You’re doing, really, a great today.out. In this case, who is being fanatic? job on behalf of the citizens of New York I told Allbaugh, anything—anything it Isn’t this solidarity, and this in-advance City, New York State and in the tri-state takes to help New York. I have been inapproval by some Western leaders, of a area. So I want to thank you very much touch with the Congress, they are expedit-military aggression against an Islamic for your leadership and dedication. ing a supplemental. We’ve worked in greatcountry, the most flagrant form of the new cooperation with members of the Con-Crusades, fanaticism. It reminds Arabs Mayor Giuliani. Thank you, Mr. Presi- gress in both political parties. So just keepand Muslims of those Crusade wars dent. in touch—I know you will. This isn’t thelaunched by the West and NATO against first time we’ve talked, and I really appre-Iraq? President Bush. Secondly, I’ve been in ciate the fact that you all are in charge and Finally, if you, rulers respect and cher- touch with you all. You’ve extended me a I know the citizens of New York and theish the blood of your peoples, why do you kind invitation to come to New York City. tri-state area, people of New Jersey andfind it easy to shed the blood of others I accept; I’ll be there tomorrow afternoon, Connecticut are appreciative, as well.including the blood of Arabs and Mus- after the prayer service at the Nationallims? If you respect your values, why Cathedral. I look forward to joining with Mayor Giuliani. Mr. President, the uni-don’t you respect the values of Arabs and both of you in thanking the police and formed officers, the police, the fire, theMuslims? fire, the construction trade workers, the emergency services officers, their families America needs wisdom, not power. It restaurant owners, the volunteers—all of will really appreciate this. We’re going tohas used power, along with the West, to its whom have really made a huge display for sustain a tremendous loss of our bravestextreme extent, only to find out latter that the world to see of the compassion of and our best people. And the relief thatit doesn’t achieve what they wanted. Will America, and the bravery of America and you’re now making available to the fami-the rulers of America try wisdom just for the strength of America. lies is going to mean a lot to them.once so that their people can live in secu- Every world leader I’ve talked to in They’re going to be able to think aboutrity and stability? recent days has been impressed by what the fact that their children are going to be In the name of God, Most Gracious, they have seen about our nation, and the taken care of, that they’re going to be ableMost merciful, fabric of our nation. And I want to thank to go to college, that they’re going to be Invite all to the way of thy Lord with everybody when I come; so thank you for able to carry on.the wisdom and beautiful preaching, and your hospitality. So I can’t express to you how apprecia-argue with them in ways that are best and tive we are of your acting so swiftly. And,most gracious, for the lord knoweth best Governor Pataki. Well, Mr. President, also, on that terrible day when our citywho have strayed from His path and who thank you for coming to New York. I’m was being attacked, you were in immedi-receive guidance. sure it’s going to be a great inspiration to ate communication with us, Mr. President, all of us and, particularly, those thousands and helped to secure the city. And the of men and women still downtown trying work you’ve done for us, we all eternallyRemarks by President Bush, to help us with the rescue efforts. appreciate. You’ve been a terrific leader I also want to thank you for all the help and we’re taking direction from you, andNew York Governor Pataki, we’ve gotten from the federal government, we’re following your example. You’veand New York City Mayor it’s been tremendous; and for your words. done a terrific job, Mr. President. You are right, our nation is united as neverGiuliani, September 13, 200140 before and we will triumph over this evil President Bush. Well, thanks, Rudy;President Bush. Good morning, men. with your leadership and your inspiration. and thanks, George. Let me make it clear And I also have to congratulate the Mayor to you all as my close friends that my Mayor Giuliani. Good morning, Mr. for the tremendous effort he has made. mind set is this: one, I weep and mournPresident. Mr. President, you would be proud of with America. I’m going to a hospital the leadership and the cooperation we’ve right after this to comfort families. I wish Governor Pataki. Good morning, Mr. seen here. The city has taken the lead. I could comfort every single family whosePresident. Your people have been enormously sup- lives have been affected. portive and we’re very grateful. But make no mistake about it, my President Bush. Thank you all very resolve is steady and strong about winningmuch for taking my phone call. First of President Bush. Well, thanks, George, this war that has been declared on Ameri-all, I can’t tell you how sad I am, and and Rudy; thank you all. I know you’ve ca. It’s a new kind of war. And I under-America is, for the people of New York put in a request, and I’ve directed the stand it’s a new kind of war. And this gov-City and the tri-state area. I want to let Attorney General to expedite any pay- ernment will adjust. And this governmentyou know there is a quiet anger in Ameri- ments of benefits for those fallen public will call others to join us, to make sure36 Winter 2002
  • 36. September 11, 2001this act, these acts, the people who con- and secret. My administration will not talk front, and do you have a message forducted these acts and those who harbor about how we gather intelligence, if we those—them are held accountable for their gather intelligence and what the intelli-actions. Make no mistake. gence says. That’s for the protection of the President Bush. I would refer you to And as we do so, I urge—I know I don’t American people. It is important as we the statements that the Pakistani leaderneed to tell you all this, but our nation battle this enemy to conduct ourselves that gave about his—I don’t have the exactmust be mindful that there are thousands way. words in front of me—but his willingnessof Arab Americans who live in New York Secondly, I’ve been on the phone this to work with the United States. And ICity who love their flag just as much as morning, just like I was yesterday, and appreciate that statement and now we’llthe three of us do. And we must be mind- will be on this afternoon, on the phone just find out what that means, won’t we?ful that as we seek to win the war that we with leaders from around the world who We will give the Pakistani government atreat Arab Americans and Muslims with express their solidarity with this nation’s chance to cooperate and to participate, asthe respect they deserve. I know that is intention to rout out and to whip terror- we hunt down those people who commit-your attitudes, as well; it’s certainly the ism. ted this unbelievable despicable act onattitude of this government, that we They understand, fully understand that America.should not hold one who is a Muslim an act of war was declared on the Unitedresponsible for an act of terror. We will States of America. They understand, as Q. Mr. President, how confident arehold those who are responsible for the ter- well, that that act could have as easily you that Osama bin Laden is behindrorist acts accountable, and those who har- been declared on them; that these people these attacks? Do you know what hisbor them. can’t stand freedom; they hate our values; whereabouts are? And, secondly, what You’ll see—and I look forward to visit- they hate what America stands for. Many kind of support are you looking foring with you in person tomorrow—about of the leaders understand it could have from Congress, in terms of your willing-the resolve of this government. And so I easily have happened to them. ness to act?thank you very much for your leadership Secondly, they understand that, unlikeon the ground. I wish I was visiting under previous war, this enemy likes to hide. President Bush. We are—we will notbetter circumstances. But it will be a They heard my call loud and clear, to discuss intelligence matters, how we gath-chance for all three of us to thank and hug those who feel like they can provide safe er intelligence and what we know—aboutand cry with the citizens of your good harbor for the terrorists, that we will hold anybody. When our government acts,area. them responsible, as well. And they join you’ll be informed. me in understanding not only the concept Secondly, I am—we had a great meeting of the enemy, but that the enemy is a dif- yesterday here in the Cabinet Room withRemarks by President Bush, ferent type of enemy. They join me also in leadership of the House and the Senate. I solidarity about holding those who fund was touched by their response, theirSeptember 13, 200141 them, who harbor them, who encourage encouragement and their willingness toQ. Mr. President, is it safe to fly? And, them, responsible for their activities. work together. And I would be veryspecifically, would you want a close I’m pleased with the outpouring of sup- pleased to see a strong resolution comemember of your family to get on a com- port. Jiang Zemin, Vladimir Putin; had a out of Congress supporting the adminis-mercial air flight today? great visit this morning with His Royal tration and what we intend to do, and Highness, Prince Abdullah of Saudi Ara- we’re working closely with Congress. President Bush. We have taken every bia. I will continue to stay on the phone. Secondly, progress is being made on aprecaution to make sure that it is safe to And there is universal support for the supplemental. I thought that was veryfly in America. There is beefed-up securi- American people, sadness in their voice; swift action and I’m most appreciative,ty at airports. There is increased presence but understanding that we have just seen again, of Senator Daschle and Representa-on the airplanes. Yes, I would—if a family the war of the 21st century. And there is tive Gephardt, as well as my Republicanmember asked whether they should fly, I’d universal approval of the statements I have colleagues, for really showing solidaritysay, yes. made, and I am confident there will be again and uniting the nation. Now is the universal approval of the actions this gov- time for the country to be united. Q. Mr. President, how close are you, ernment takes. You know, through the tears of sadness Isir, to finding out, to nailing down who see an opportunity. Make no mistakeis responsible for these acts? And what Q. Mr. President, if this is a different about it, this nation is sad. But we’re alsokind of international coalition are you kind of war it might require, perhaps, a tough and resolute. And now is an oppor-trying to build? Is it similar to the one different kind of coalition. Many people tunity to do generations a favor, by com-your father built for the Persian Gulf believe that for a real war on terrorism ing together and whipping terrorism; hunt-War? to work you’ll need cooperation from ing it down, finding it and holding them governments that haven’t necessarily accountable. The nation must understand, President Bush. First, let me condition done so in the past—specifically, Pak- this is now the focus of my administra-the press this way. Any sources and meth- istan and Afghanistan. tion. We will very much engage in domes-ods of intelligence will remain guarded Have you made any progress on that tic policy, of course. I look forward to Foreign Policy Bulletin 37
  • 37. Featureworking with Congress on a variety of the Pentagon, causing great loss of life I invite the people of the world who shareissues. and tremendous damage. The fourth plane our grief to join us in these solemn obser- But now that war has been declared on crashed in the Pennsylvania countryside, vances.us, we will lead the world to victory, to killing all on board but falling well shortvictory. of its intended target apparently because of the heroic efforts of passengers on Statement by the NATO- Q. Mr. President, what is your under- board. This carnage, which caused the col-standing of the threat to Air Force lapse of both Trade Center towers and the Russia Permanent JointOne? And do you believe that the ter- destruction of part of the Pentagon, killed Council, September 13, 200143rorists attempted to assassinate you, more than 250 airplane passengers andsir? thousands more on the ground. The NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Coun- Civilized people around the world cil, meeting in extraordinary session at President Bush. I will not discuss the denounce the evildoers who devised and Ambassadorial level on 13 Septemberintelligence that our country has gathered. executed these terrible attacks. Justice 2001, expressed its anger and indignation demands that those who helped or har- at the barbaric acts committed against the Q. Do you believe they tried to assas- bored the terrorists be punished—and people of the United States of America.sinate you? punished severely. The enormity of their The deepest sympathies of Allies and Rus- evil demands it. We will use all the sia lie with the victims and their families. President Bush. I believe I took the—I resources of the United States and our While Allies and Russia have sufferedknow—I don’t believe, I know I took the cooperating friends and allies to pursue from terrorist attacks against civilians, theappropriate actions as the Commander in those responsible for this evil, until justice horrific scale of the attacks of 11 Septem-Chief, to be in a position to be able to is done. ber is without precedent in modern histo-make the decisions necessary for our gov- We mourn with those who have suffered ry. NATO and Russia are united in theirernment to handle the crisis. great and disastrous loss. All our hearts resolve not to let those responsible for You didn’t hear the end of the phone have been seared by the sudden and sense- such an inhuman act to go unpunished.call with the Mayor and George Pataki— less taking of innocent lives. We pray for NATO and Russia call on the entire inter-both of whom thanked me for the fact that healing and for the strength to serve and national community to unite in the strug-we were immediately on the phone with encourage one another in hope and faith. gle against terrorism.them from Air Force One, and our govern- Scripture says: “Blessed are those who NATO and Russia will intensify theirment responded quickly. mourn for they shall be comforted.” I call cooperation under the Founding Act to on every American family and the family defeat this scourge. Q. About the prayer day tomorrow, of America to observe a National Day ofMr. President. Could you give us a Prayer and Remembrance, honoring thesense as to what kind of prayers you are memory of the thousands of victims of Remarks by Secretary ofthinking and where your heart is for these brutal attacks and comforting those State Powell, September 13,yourself, as you— who lost loved ones. We will persevere through this national tragedy and personal 200144 President Bush. Well, I don’t think loss. In time, we will find healing andabout myself right now. I think about the recovery; and, in the face of all this evil, Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Ifamilies, the children. I am a loving guy, we remain strong and united, “one Nation thought I would come down and give youand I am also someone, however, who has under God.” an update on the activities of the Depart-got a job to do—and I intend to do it. And Now, therefore, I, George W. Bush, ment over the last 24 hours since last wethis is a terrible moment. President of the United States of America, spoke. But this country will not relent until we by virtue of the authority vested in me by Let me begin by first expressing ourhave saved ourselves and others from the the Constitution and laws of the United regrets to other nations who have lost pre-terrible tragedy that came upon America. States, do hereby proclaim Friday, Sep- cious lives in this tragic occurrence on the tember 14, 2001, as a National Day of 11th. We are focusing of course on Ameri- Prayer and Remembrance for the Victims cans, but we also have seen that Great Britain thinks they have lost 100 people;Proclamation by President of the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, I’ve heard from Australians, Japanese, 2001. I ask that the people of the UnitedBush, September 13, 200142 States and places of worship mark this South Koreans, Mexicans, Irish nationals, National Day of Prayer and Remembrance Israelis and many others who worked inOn Tuesday morning, September 11, this World Trade Center. And our sympa-2001, terrorists attacked America in a with noontime memorial services, the ringing of bells at that hour, and evening thy goes to not only these victims whoseries of despicable acts of war. They will be in our prayers, but our sympathieshijacked four passenger jets, crashed two candlelight remembrance vigils. I encour- age employers to permit their workers go to their families.of them into the World Trade Center’s In the last 24 hours, we have continuedtwin towers and a third into the Headquar- time off during the lunch hour to attend the noontime services to pray for our land. to work on our coalition-building effort,ters of the U.S. Department of Defense at and I am very pleased with the results we38 Winter 2002
  • 38. September 11, 2001have been able to achieve. We spoke about We have been in very close touch with Does it raise any red flags with you thatNATO Article V yesterday. The U.N. the Pakistani Government. Deputy Secre- Saddam Hussein and Iraq have beenSecurity Council resolution, I think, is an tary Armitage met with the Pakistani rep- silent about this?especially effective resolution in that it resentatives again this morning, and Icalls on all states to participate and expect to speak with President Musharraf Secretary Powell. I am not surprised.expresses the U.N. Security Council’s in the very near future, in the next several He is one of the leading terrorists on thedetermination and its readiness to take all hours, if I am able to reach him, to discuss face of the Earth, and I would not expectnecessary steps to respond to the Septem- the situation and exchange views on the the slightest drop of the milk of humanber 11th attacks in accordance with the situation in the region. kindness to be flowing in his veins.U.N. charter. By that language it gives us Our embassies are all hard at work.the ability, and any nation the ability, to There have been some closures, and they Q. Mr. Secretary, could you talkput forward on the agenda for Security go down and come back up in response to about links between Iraq and UsamaCouncil deliberation any other issues threat conditions, but our plan is to be bin Laden?related to this attack that we might want actively engaged around the world and notthe Security Council to take up. let this heightened sense of tension affect Secretary Powell. No, I would not. If I I am very pleased also with the response our ability to do our job. And so we are were able to talk about such a matter, Iof the European Union, with all of the encouraging all of our ambassadors to do don’t think I would do it here.other international organizations who have smart things, to take all necessary safetycome forward and responded in one way precautions and to make sure their securi- Q. Secretary Powell, you keep talkingor another. The President has been on the ty is intact, but at the same time to contin- about this specific list provided to Pak-phone constantly, as have I, talking to ue doing America’s business throughout istan. When you talk to them later,leaders around the world. And we are get- the world. when Secretary Armitage talks to themting a solid expression not only of condo- I think I will stop at that point and take later or you talk to them, will it be,lences and support, but of action. They your questions. “You have to do everything on this listwant to work with us—not only in this or you’re against us”? The Unitedspecific case of what happened on the Q. Could I pursue Pakistan with you States keeps putting out this you’re-11th of September, but in response to the a bit? The President there has made with-us-or-you’re-against us—general recognition that terrorism is a some general statement about coopera-crime against all civilization. Terrorism is tion. What does the United States want Secretary Powell. Pakistan is a friendlya crime against all humanity. It knows no from Pakistan? And frankly, I am con- country. We have had friendly relationsethnic, religious or other national or geo- fused whether the U.S. sees Pakistan as with Pakistan for many, many years.graphic boundaries. And we must see it in an ally or, as the Patterns of Global Ter- Those relationships have had ups andthat context and that’s why we are calling rorism pointed out, a place where ter- downs as a result of various things thatit a war. rorist groups get training—or is it a have happened over the years. But right I have also been on the phone within the mixture? now we have friendly relations with Pak-last two hours with Prime Minister Sharon istan, and I have spoken to the Presidentand Chairman Arafat and with Foreign Secretary Powell. We have provided to of Pakistan over the months and we had aMinister Shimon Peres of Israel trying to the Pakistani Government a specific list of very good conversation just a month or somove forward the process of a cease-fire things that we think would be useful for ago. And so I will approach this as if I amin the region, trying to begin those meet- them to work on with us, and I will be talking to a friend and let a friend knowings that we have been talking about, discussing that list with the President of what we would like to see happen in orderwhich would lead to implementation of Pakistan later this afternoon. to improve the situation in the region andthe Mitchell Plan. I am still hopeful that the situation in the world. And I hope thatsomething can be done in the next several Q. Mr. Secretary, as you said, since the president will respond as friend.days to have that first meeting, and we the attacks you have been receiving lots Our initial indications are that he will.will be in close touch with the leaders as of messages of condolence, lots of state- He put out a very fine statement that youthe next days unfold. ments of condemnation about the have a copy of. It’s general and we will In addition to the United Nations Secu- attacks, some that appear to be solicited get more specifics on it. And our ambas-rity Council resolution, I mention the like this morning from the Pakistanis sador who went in yesterday—we got aGeneral Assembly has passed its Resolu- who seem to be falling all over them- report of her discussions with him aftertion, 56-1. We will be having a meeting selves to condemn terrorism in all its she presented her credentials. She justwith the Russians in the near future, when forms, but also some unsolicited ones arrived. And he gave her a strong expres-Mr. Armitage, Deputy Secretary Armitage, like, I assume, from the Cubans, from sion of support, the kind of expression oftravels to Moscow next week. And the Libyans, from the North Koreans. support that you would expect from aRichard Boucher will give you an But of all of the seven countries on friend who is trying to help us during thisannouncement on that a little later for the the State Department’s state sponsors time of trial.U.S.-Russian working group meeting on list, only one of them, I believe, has notAfghanistan. condemned this, has not said anything. Q. Just to follow that, will you be ask- Foreign Policy Bulletin 39
  • 39. Featureing the President of Pakistan to have for this meeting to take place. DeputyU.S. troops stationed in Pakistan if you Secretary Armitage has spoken to his Secretary Powell. I don’t think I saidchoose that— counterpart in Moscow, and two conversa- that. What I’m saying is that we are tions that President Putin had with Presi- assembling the evidence that will tell us, Secretary Powell. I really don’t want to dent Bush suggest to me that they are in a way that the world will fully concurget into what I might or I might not be ready for active discussions. But I don’t with us, who is responsible for this. Andasking the President of Pakistan until I have the specific agenda with me right when we have done that, we willhave asked the President of Pakistan. now. announce it. And at that point, we will go after that group, that network, and those Q. But, Secretary Powell, it sounds as Q. The Russians know Afghanistan who have harbored, supported and aidedif what you’re saying is that up until very well from their time in the ‘80s. that network, to rip the network up. Andnow you’ve been hearing very positive They will be able to be helpful on when we’re through with that network, westatements. But that now it’s sort of topography, installations—what kinds will continue with a global assault againsttime to put their money where their of things? terrorism in general.mouth is? Secretary Powell. I am sure they will Q. Mr. Secretary, the list for Pakistan, Secretary Powell. I wouldn’t character- be helpful on many things. It’s their does it include only requests for assis-ize it quite that crudely, Andrea. neighborhood. They do have a great deal tance in terrorism to wrap up this net- of experience in Afghanistan, and we will work that you’re talking about? Or Q. I’m sorry; I’m not a diplomat. draw on all of that experience. does it go broader than that? Secretary Powell. Some say neither am Q. [Inaudible] the reports, as of 1:00 Secretary Powell. I would rather notI. But the fact of the matter is, we’re a.m., that bin Laden was reported characterize or comment on the list untilgoing to have a responsible, sober discus- under house arrest by the Taliban, also we have had a chance to discuss it withsion with the Pakistani Government, and two leaders, one an Egyptian and a mil- the Pakistanis in detail.when the results of those discussions are itary commander. If so, where would wecomplete, and we have something to pre- ask—would we ask The Hague for Q. Mr. Secretary, just for the record,sent to you, I assure you I will present it extradition to the world court? What when you spoke of the candidate whoto you. would we do? resides in that region, were you speak- Q. Why all the focus on Pakistan? ing of Usama bin Laden?Why is it so— Secretary Powell. Well, I have seen those reports, but I have also seen subse- Secretary Powell. Yes. Secretary Powell. We are focusing on quent reports that say the first reports areeverything and everybody. We are looking not accurate. So let me not speculate onat those terrorist organizations that have what is at the moment just rumor. White House Press Briefing,the kind of capacity that would have beennecessary to conduct the attack that we **** September 13, 200145saw on the 11th. We haven’t yet publicly Q. Ari, why did—the President is notidentified the organization we believe was Q. Mr. Secretary, what kind of leverage legally bound to seek a resolution fromresponsible. But when you look at the list do we have with Pakistan? They are Congress authorizing the use of mili-of candidates, one resides in that region. sanctioned up to the eyeballs; we give tary force against whoever is responsi- So without waiting for the whole body them very, very little aid anymore. ble for these terrorist acts. And indeed,of evidence to be ready for us to make a What can we possibly offer them that he already has a resolution from Con-judgment and a presentation to you, I would make them cooperative in this gress showing solidarity in any responsethink we are acting in a prudent way by case? that he chooses to undertake. Why doestalking to those governments in the the President believe it’s necessary toregion. Secretary Powell. You kind of said it in have a separate resolution authorizing your question there, “sanctioned up to the the use of military force? Q. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us what eyeballs.” And they don’t have that muchyou expect Under Secretary Armitage aid now. But I think that we have been Mr. Fleischer. Well, the President viewsto get out of his talks with the Russians exploring with the Pakistani Government this as a real show of unity by the Unitedon Afghanistan? Are you asking for a many ways that we can move forward in States Congress. This is a real result of thevery specific kind of help? the relationship, and we want to do so. expression of the bipartisan, bicameral leadership that met with the President two Secretary Powell. We have not yet put Q. Mr. Powell, are you delivering an days ago to discuss Congress’ role in thistogether the agenda, but what impressed ultimatum to the Taliban to deliver bin matter. So while the premise of your ques-me is that Foreign Minister Ivanov, when I Laden, or else to face the wrath of the tion is accurate, per the Constitution, thespoke to him the other day, was anxious United States? President as Commander-in-Chief has40 Winter 2002
  • 40. September 11, 2001authority vested in him to take actions as generic terms which you can take. action against the parties guilty for thehe deems appropriate. It is also a recogni- We gave the President today, as we September 11 attacks. We must all under-tion of the unity of our nation as should have and as is our responsibility, stand that the use of force will not be easyexpressed by the Congress. all the authority he needs to prosecute war or quick. In extending this broad authority against the individuals or countries to cover those “planning, authorizing, responsible, without yielding our constitu- committing, or aiding the attacks” itRemarks by Senator Biden, tional right to retain the judgment in the should go without saying, however, that future as to whether or not force against the resolution is directed only at usingSeptember 14, 200146 others could, should, or would be used. force abroad to combat acts of internation-Senate Foreign Relations Committee That is remarkable. I suspect not many al terrorism.Chairman Joseph Biden (D- DE) people know, other than my distinguished The authority granted is focused ondelivered his remarks on the Senate colleague, the Senator from Texas, a for- those responsible for the attacks of Sep-floor. mer professor, one of the brightest guys tember 11. The President’s lawyers origi- with whom I ever worked, unfortunately nally proposed that the resolved clauseMr. President, my mom has an expression: leaving the Senate at the end of his term; also include language authorizing militaryOut of every tragedy, something good will what the leading scholar in the Senate, force to “deter and pre-empt any futurecome if you look hard enough. I know the Senator Byrd, knows and what the experi- acts of terrorism against the UnitedPresiding Officer, if he will forgive this enced Senator from Alaska knows. My States.” Of course, the President has thepoint of personal reference, has had his friend from Oklahoma is the only one in Constitutional authority to deter terrorismshare of personal tragedy. Everyone in this this place who can fully understand, I sus- through a broad range of means, includingChamber has. Some of us have gotten pect, along with his Oklahoma colleague, diplomatic measures, economic sanctions,those phone calls that the people in New what our friends from New Jersey, New seizing of financial assets, or deploymentYork are getting from cell phones and/or York, Virginia, the District, and Maryland of forces. The President must also ensurefrom a police officer and/or from a are going through. He understands it. He that Executive Branch agencies devote themorgue. has internalized it. He knows it. necessary resources and apply the full We know there is not a darn thing we I believe it is fairly remarkable that, in measure of the federal criminal laws tocan do now for those people except—it is spite of the reasons for the attack on us deter, prevent and punish terrorism. Fur-strange the way human nature works, and and our way of life, we adhered to the rule ther, the President has the authority underI know the Presiding Officer knows this— of law; that even in this calamity, we acted the Constitution to use force to pre-emptexcept it is amazing how those people in with dispatch but under the law, under the an imminent attack, including a terroristthat circumstance draw strength from the Constitution. The resolution provides the attack, against the United States. Ratherknowledge that other people understand President clear authority “to use all neces- than purporting to extend these authoritiestheir pain, that other people empathize sary and appropriate force against those in the resolved clause, the final whereaswith them, that other people care about nations, organizations, or persons that he clause reflects these recognized powers ofwhat they are going through. It amazes me determines planned, authorized, commit- the President.that you can draw strength from that. I ted, or aided the terrorist attacks that I suggest what others have said, and thatthink what we are doing and the Nation is occurred on September 11, 2001, or har- is, the President of the United States hasdoing is the right thing. Most important, bored such organizations or persons, in our prayers, he has our good wishes, andwhat we did today should be noted is not order to prevent any future acts of interna- he has our commitment under the Consti-likely to occur in any other country in the tional terrorism against the United States tution now to support him in what actionworld, and that is, that we just a few by such nations, organizations or persons.” he takes as defined by the authority hemoments ago operated under the rule of In short, the President is authorized to go has. That is a big deal. It is a big deal. It islaw. after those responsible for the barbaric worth being noting. In all our anger, all our frustration, all acts of September 11, 2001 to ensure that Lastly, I compliment the President onour feelings, very bluntly, of hatred that those same actors do not engage in addi- his patience, on his resolve, and his under-exists now for those who perpetrated the tional acts of international terrorism standing of the need for certitude becauseact against us, we did not pell-mell just against the United States. the worst thing we can do, as he is unitingsay: Go do anything, anytime, anyplace, The authority permits the President wide the world, is to act precipitously to meetMr. President; you have to just go. We latitude to use force against the broad our instinct for response immediately. Ioperated as our Founders, who were not range of actors who were responsible for compliment him. I compliment his Secre-naive people, intended us to operate. We the September 11 attacks. If any nation tary of State for the way he is handlingoperated under the rule of law. harbored the terrorists while they were in this situation. We went to our civil bible, the Constitu- training, that nation may be subject to I conclude by saying that I do not seetion, and we said: What does it call for American military power. If a nation or what happened on the 11th as the begin-here? What it calls for is the U.S. Con- organization financed the operation, they ning of the end of our way of life. I see itgress to meet its constitutional responsi- may be subject to American military as the beginning of the end of terrorism asbility, to say: Mr. President, we authorize power. It does not limit the amount of it has been able to be spawned over theyou, in the name of the American people, time that the President may prosecute this last three decades. The world has cometo take action, and we define the action in Foreign Policy Bulletin 41
  • 41. Featureface to face with the reality that nation (1) Specific Statutory Authorization— Sec. 2. To allow for the orderly adminis-states, no matter what their ideological Consistent with section 8(a)(1) of the War tration of personnel within the armeddisposition, are all in jeopardy. We are Powers Resolution, the Congress declares forces, the following authorities vested inunited in understanding that we cannot that this section is intended to constitute the President are hereby invoked to theallow these networks to be spawned. specific statutory authorization within the full extent provided by the terms thereof: I thank my colleagues for allowing me meaning of section 5(b) of the War Pow- section 527 of title 10, United Statesto speak at this moment. Again, I compli- ers Resolution. Code, to suspend the operation of sectionsment them all, Democrat and Republican, (2) Applicability of Other Require- 523, 525, and 526 of that title, regardingin the way we have stood united. ments—Nothing in this resolution officer and warrant officer strength and I yield the floor. supercedes any requirement of the War distribution; and sections 123, 123a, and Powers Resolution. 12006 of title 10, United States Code, to suspend certain laws relating to promo-Senate Joint Resolution 23, tion, involuntary retirement, and separa-September 14, 200147 Executive Order, September tion of commissioned officers; end strength limitations; and Reserve compo- 14, 200148 nent officer strength limitations.Whereas, on September 11, 2001, acts oftreacherous violence were committed By the authority vested in me as President Sec. 3. To allow for the orderly adminis-against the United States and its citizens; by the Constitution and the laws of the tration of personnel within the armedand United States of America, including the forces, the authorities vested in the Presi- Whereas, such acts render it both neces- National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. dent by sections 331, 359, and 367 of titlesary and appropriate that the United States 1601 et seq.) and section 301 of title 3, 14, United States Code, relating to theexercise its rights to self-defense and to United States Code, and in furtherance of authority to order to active duty certainprotect United States citizens both at the proclamation of September 14, 2001, officers and enlisted members of the Coasthome and abroad; and Declaration of National Emergency by Guard and to detain enlisted members, are Whereas, in light of the threat to the Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks, which invoked to the full extent provided by thenational security and foreign policy of the declared a national emergency by reason terms thereof.United States posed by these grave acts of of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Sec. 4. The Secretary of Defense isviolence; and Center, New York, New York, and the Pen- hereby designated and empowered, with- Whereas, such acts continue to pose an tagon, and the continuing and immediate out the approval, ratification, or otherunusual and extraordinary threat to the threat of further attacks on the United action by the President, to exercise thenational security and foreign policy of the States, I hereby order as follows: authority vested in the President by sec-United States; and Section 1. To provide additional author- tions 123, 123a, 527, and 12006 of title Whereas, the President has authority ity to the Department of Defense and the 10, United States Code, as invoked byunder the Constitution to take action to Department of Transportation to respond sections 2 and 3 of this order.deter and prevent acts of international ter- to the continuing and immediate threat of Sec. 5. The Secretary of Transportationrorism against the United States: Now, further attacks on the United States, the is hereby designated and empowered,therefore, be it authority under title 10, United States without the approval, ratification, or other Resolved by the Senate and House of Code, to order any unit, and any member action by the President, to exercise theRepresentatives of the United States of of the Ready Reserve not assigned to a authority vested in sections 331, 359, andAmerica in Congress assembled, unit organized to serve as a unit, in the 367 of title 14, United States Code, when Section 1. Short Title. Ready Reserve to active duty for not more the Coast Guard is not serving as part of This joint resolution may be cited as the than 24 consecutive months, is invoked the Navy, as invoked by section 2 of this“Authorization for Use of Military Force”. and made available, according to its terms, order, to recall any regular officer or Sec. 2. Authorization for Use of United to the Secretary concerned, subject in the enlisted member on the retired list toStates Armed Forces. case of the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, active duty and to detain any enlisted (a) in General—That the President is and Air Force, to the direction of the Sec- member beyond the term of his or herauthorized to use all necessary and appro- retary of Defense. The term “Secretary enlistment.priate force against those nations, organi- concerned” is defined in section 101(a)(9) Sec. 6. The authority delegated by thiszations, or persons he determines planned, of title 10, United States Code, to mean order to the Secretary of Defense and theauthorized, committed, or aided the terror- the Secretary of the Army with respect to Secretary of Transportation may be redel-ist attacks that occurred on September 11, the Army; the Secretary of the Navy with egated and further subdelegated to civilian2001, or harbored such organizations or respect to the Navy, the Marine Corps, subordinates who are appointed to theirpersons, in order to prevent any future acts and the Coast Guard when it is operating offices by the President, by and with theof international terrorism against the Unit- as a service in the Navy; the Secretary of advice and consent of the Senate.ed States by such nations, organizations or the Air Force with respect to the Air Sec. 7. Based upon my determinationpersons. Force; and the Secretary of Transportation under 10 U.S.C. 2201(c) that it is neces- (b) War Powers Resolution Require- with respect to the Coast Guard when it is sary to increase (subject to limits imposedments— not operating as a service in the Navy. by law) the number of members of the42 Winter 2002
  • 42. September 11, 2001armed forces on active duty beyond the and families and friends of the lost, we disabled stranger, carried her down sixty-number for which funds are provided in offer the deepest sympathy of the nation. eight floors to safety. A group of menappropriation Acts for the Department of And I assure you, you are not alone. drove through the night from Dallas toDefense, the Secretary of Defense may Just three days removed from these Washington to bring skin grafts for burnprovide for the cost of such additional events, Americans do not yet have the dis- victims.members as an excepted expense under tance of history. But our responsibility to In these acts, and in many others, Amer-section 11(a) of title 41, United States history is already clear: to answer these icans showed a deep commitment to oneCode. attacks and rid the world of evil. another, and an abiding love for our coun- Sec. 8. This order is intended only to War has been waged against us by try. Today, we feel what Franklin Roo-improve the internal management of the stealth and deceit and murder. This nation sevelt called the warm courage of nationalexecutive branch, and is not intended to is peaceful, but fierce when stirred to unity. This is a unity of every faith, andcreate any right or benefit, substantive or anger. This conflict was begun on the tim- every background.procedural, enforceable at law by a party ing and terms of others. It will end in a It has joined together political parties inagainst the United States, its agencies, its way, and at an hour, of our choosing. both houses of Congress. It is evident inofficers, or any person. Our purpose as a nation is firm. Yet our services of prayer and candlelight vigils, Sec. 9. This order is effective immedi- wounds as a people are recent and and American flags, which are displayedately and shall be promptly transmitted to unhealed, and lead us to pray. In many of in pride, and wave in defiance.the Congress and published in the Federal our prayers this week, there is a searching, Our unity is a kinship of grief, and aRegister. and an honesty. At St. Patrick’s Cathedral steadfast resolve to prevail against our in New York on Tuesday, a woman said, “I enemies. And this unity against terror is prayed to God to give us a sign that He is now extending across the world.Remarks by President Bush, still here.” Others have prayed for the America is a nation full of good fortune, same, searching hospital to hospital, car- with so much to be grateful for. But weSeptember 14, 200149 rying pictures of those still missing. are not spared from suffering. In everyPresident Bush delivered his remarks at God’s signs are not always the ones we generation, the world has produced ene-a service at the National Cathedral in look for. We learn in tragedy that his pur- mies of human freedom. They haveWashington. poses are not always our own. Yet the attacked America, because we are free- prayers of private suffering, whether in dom’s home and defender. And the com-We are here in the middle hour of our our homes or in this great cathedral, are mitment of our fathers is now the callinggrief. So many have suffered so great a known and heard, and understood. of our time.loss, and today we express our nation’s There are prayers that help us last On this national day of prayer andsorrow. We come before God to pray for through the day, or endure the night. remembrance, we ask almighty God tothe missing and the dead, and for those There are prayers of friends and strangers, watch over our nation, and grant uswho love them. that give us strength for the journey. And patience and resolve in all that is to come. On Tuesday, our country was attacked there are prayers that yield our will to a We pray that He will comfort and consolewith deliberate and massive cruelty. We will greater than our own. those who now walk in sorrow. We thankhave seen the images of fire and ashes, This world He created is of moral Him for each life we now must mourn,and bent steel. design. Grief and tragedy and hatred are and the promise of a life to come. Now come the names, the list of casual- only for a time. Goodness, remembrance, As we have been assured, neither deathties we are only beginning to read. They and love have no end. And the Lord of life nor life, nor angels nor principalities norare the names of men and women who holds all who die, and all who mourn. powers, nor things present nor things tobegan their day at a desk or in an airport, It is said that adversity introduces us to come, nor height nor depth, can separatebusy with life. They are the names of peo- ourselves. This is true of a nation as well. us from God’s love. May He bless theple who faced death, and in their last In this trial, we have been reminded, and souls of the departed. May He comfort ourmoments called home to say, be brave, the world has seen, that our fellow Ameri- own. And may He always guide our coun-and I love you. cans are generous and kind, resourceful try. They are the names of passengers who and brave. We see our national character God bless America.defied their murderers, and prevented the in rescuers working past exhaustion; inmurder of others on the ground. They are long lines of blood donors; in thousandsthe names of men and women who wore of citizens who have asked to work and Remarks by Secretary ofthe uniform of the United States, and died serve in any way possible.at their posts. And we have seen our national character State Powell, September 14, They are the names of rescuers, the ones in eloquent acts of sacrifice. Inside the 200150whom death found running up the stairs World Trade Center, one man who couldand into the fires to help others. We will have saved himself stayed until the end at We continue to work hard to build theread all these names. We will linger over the side of his quadriplegic friend. A coalition that you’ve heard me talkingthem, and learn their stories, and many beloved priest died giving the last rites to about for the last several days and to getAmericans will weep. a firefighter. Two office workers, finding a this campaign plan in place. We talked To the children and parents and spouses about it at the Cabinet meeting this morn- Foreign Policy Bulletin 43
  • 43. Featureing. The President is very pleased with the activating the ANZUS Treaty as an ever I had it, or about 10:30, I guess itwork that the Cabinet has been doing, and expression of support, and a little similar was, with the Indian Foreign Minister.we can start to see the air traffic system to what NATO did. But those alliancescome back up, begin to see the relief that we hold dear and have used so effec- Q. Mr. Secretary, we have heard aefforts picking up speed. tively to keep us together as friendly lot—yourself and other Cabinet mem- We are very grateful for the resolution nations over these many years, are now, it bers and officials say as we reach out tothat has come from the Senate and the seems to me, paying off as people come countries and ask for help, you’re eithersupport that the Congress is giving to our forward to help us. with us or you’re against us. Now, ofefforts. It shows the United States as a I’m also pleased at expressions of sup- course we hope that all countries wouldnation, as a people, coming together in port we have received from countries such be with us, but if we ask for somethingthis time of crisis, and showing our deter- as Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan and oth- from a country, we ask them to root outmination to move forward deliberately and ers are coming in. I don’t have all of them terrorism in all its forms or to providedecisively to deal with this particular inci- on my list or in my memory, and Richard logistical or any type of other supportdent, as well as the broader threat repre- Boucher will, in the course of the day, let that we need for any eventual militarysented by world terrorism. you know who we have heard from and response, if they decline, if they say that I have been in touch with a number of what kind of responses we have received they won’t do what the U.S. asks, whatofficials in addition to the Cabinet meet- from them. are the consequences for “being againsting and the very moving memorial service And let me just stop there and take a us”?that we just had up at the National Cathe- couple of questions before I have to makedral earlier in the morning. I spoke to the a phone call. Secretary Powell. I think we have to beForeign Minister of India, Mr. Singh, and careful as we go forward, and we intendI was very pleased to receive an excep- Q. Mr. Secretary, any indications of to be. We are talking with countries thattionally strong statement of support from what the Pakistani—whether you get a are friendly to us and we will presentthe Indian Government. We had heard that positive response from Pakistan? You’re requests to them and see what they arepreviously, but he confirmed it this morn- going to call the Syrian; any indications able to do within their capacity and withining. yet of their position? their political circumstances. But if we I have also had conversations with the find a particular country, especially thosePortuguese Foreign Minister, the Saudi Secretary Powell. Yes. The Syrians, that might be serving as a haven or is aForeign Minister, Moroccan and Tunisian President Assad sent to President Bush a well known supporter of this kind ofForeign Ministers, my colleague Foreign very strong letter of support and efforts activity, and they are simply unresponsive,Minister Tanaka of Japan. I’ll be speaking against terrorism. Now, of course we have and we deem that unresponsiveness to beto the Israeli Defense Minister in a few had a mixed relationship with Syria over contributing to additional terrorism or tomoments, and I have a call in to the Syri- the years, and in the course of my conver- the fertile ground in which terrorisman Foreign Minister. And this will contin- sation, hopefully, this afternoon, with my thrives, then that will certainly affect theue throughout the day for me. colleague, I’ll pursue the spirit of the let- kind of relationship we are going to have But beyond that, we have instructed our ter that President Assad sent to President with them in the future.ambassadors around the world to go in Bush and see where that takes us. I am not threatening so much as I amand talk to their colleagues in those capi- saying this has become a new benchmark,tals to let them know how serious we are Q. And any indications from the Pak- a new way of measuring the relationshipabout this and begin to set the stage for istanis, even though there is no final and what we can do together in the futureany other requests we might have for them answer? and what kind of support we can providewith respect to what we do as we go for- to you in the future across the wholeward. Secretary Powell. So far I am very range of issues and activities. In addition, our regional assistant secre- encouraged, but I think it’s best that I dotaries here in the State Department have wait for a final answer. Q. Mr. Secretary, for the last two daysbeen inviting in ambassadors resident here you’ve been saying how important youin Washington to discuss the situation Q. Mr. Secretary, Indian media says think it is that despite the events here,with them and to receive any questions that that government handed over some the tragic events here, that it is stillthey may have and to pass on any guid- maps to you today of guerilla camps very, very important for the Israelisance that we have available to them. and other training areas that and the Palestinians to have high-level As you know, we are waiting to hear Afghanistan is said to be using. meetings between Chairman Arafat andfrom President Musharraf of Pakistan, and Can you confirm that that’s— Foreign Minister Peres. Now PrimeI am quite encouraged that the Pakistani Minister Sharon has now called thatGovernment is taking this so seriously and Secretary Powell. I can’t confirm it. I meeting off.so deliberately. And our Ambassador is just don’t know. Richard can chase that And secondly, you’re speaking to thewaiting for a reaction from them. down for you, but I can’t confirm it here. Israeli Defense Minister later. Are you I might also say that I am pleased at the It wasn’t mentioned to me in my phone going to bring up his comments thatactions of the Australian Government in call at about 9:00 or 9:30 or 10:00, when- were quoted in an Israeli newspaper44 Winter 2002
  • 44. September 11, 2001this morning in which he said that the And the point the President made this for the loss of life and for those whosedisasters in New York and here were a morning is that the whole Cabinet is lives have been so deeply affected by thiscatastrophe for Arafat because the involved, and we are going to use all the despicable act of terror.Israelis had killed 14 Palestinians since tools and weapons at our disposal to fight I am going to describe to our leadershipthen and no one had noticed? this campaign and to win this war. what I saw: the wreckage of New York I only have time for one more, and I City, the signs of the first battle of war. Secretary Powell. I don’t know what apologize. We’re going to meet and deliberate andwe will discuss. I haven’t seen those com- discuss—but there’s no question about it,ments, but I know him rather well and I’m Q. Mr. Secretary, do you have a mes- this act will not stand; we will find thosesure we’ll have many things to discuss. sage for the Taliban? who did it; we will smoke them out ofBut I won’t prejudge what I might raise or their holes; we will get them running andwhat he might raise and announce it Secretary Powell. The message is: To we’ll bring them to justice. We will notbefore he raises it or I raise it. the extent that you are providing havens, only deal with those who dare attack I would still hope that a way is found support, encouragement and other America, we will deal with those who har-for the Israelis and the Palestinians to resources to organizations such as the bor them and feed them and house them.meet. When they meet is a judgment for organization headed by Mr. Usama bin Make no mistake about it: underneaththem to make. We have two leaders who Laden that is attacking civilization, that is our tears is the strong determination ofhave to judge their own interests. We killing innocent people—and I would give America to win this war. And we will winbelieve a meeting is important to get the this message to any other regime and it.process started. This conflict isn’t going other country that might be doing similar I’m going to ask the Secretary of Stateaway and I don’t think it’s going to be things—to the extent that you are doing to say a few things, and then the Attorneysolved by continuing conflict between the these sorts of things, even though we have General.two sides. So I hope that conditions will not yet—notwithstanding words likepresent themselves soon so that a meeting “prime suspect,” we have not yet identi- Secretary Powell. Thank you, Mr. Pres-can begin. fied Usama bin Laden as the direct perpe- ident. I might just say that I’m very But I think it is also fair to say that the trator, but we have a lot of evidence that is pleased with the response we’ve been get-events of the 11th of September have fun- mounting which will allow us to deter- ting from the international community. Idamentally changed the way in which mine in the near future who it is. think every civilized nation in the worldpeople look at terrorism and acts of terror- But he certainly is the leader of that recognizes that this was an assault not justism. kind of organization, and to the extent that against the United States, but against civi- governments such as the Taliban govern- lization. Q. Secretary Powell, as your strategy ment in Afghanistan supports such things, We should also take note, it’s not justto fight global terrorism begins to take you need to understand you cannot sepa- Americans who lost lives in the Worldshape and as these international coali- rate your activities from the activity of Trade Center—dozens of countries losttions that you have been trying to build these perpetrators. And in our response, lives and they realize that this was ansolidify, it is obviously a very different we will have to take into account not only attack against them, as well.war that you are preparing to fight in the perpetrators, but those who provide We are receiving expressions of supportthat the enemy is not in one country. haven, support, inspiration, financial and from around the world—and not justCould you explain this to us? other assets to the perpetrators, as the rhetorical support, but real support for President said in his very first set of whatever may lay ahead in this campaign Secretary Powell. Yes. I was raised a remarks some days ago. that is ahead of us to win the war that thesoldier and you are trained: there is the President has spoken of.enemy occupying a piece of ground. We I might especially want to thank thecan define it in time, space and other Remarks by President Bush, President and the people of Pakistan fordimensions, and you can assemble forces the support that they have offered andand go after it. This is different. The Secretary of State Powell, their willingness to assist us in whateverenemy is in many places. The enemy is and Attorney General might be required in that part of the worldnot looking to be found. The enemy is as we determine who those perpetratorshidden. The enemy is very often right here Ashcroft, September 15, are. It’s a coalition that will stay intact,within our own country. And so you have 200151 that will be built upon over time. Andto design a campaign plan that goes after what we have to do is not just go afterthat kind of enemy, and it isn’t always President Bush, Secretary Colin Powell these perpetrators, and those who gaveblunt force military, although that is cer- and Attorney General John Ashcroft them haven, but the whole curse of terror-tainly an option. It may well be that the delivered their remarks at Camp David. ism that is upon the face of the earth. Anddiplomatic efforts, political efforts, legal, President Bush. I’ve asked the highest this is a campaign that we have begun thisfinancial, other efforts, may be just as levels of our government to come to dis- week and we will stick with it until we areeffective against that kind of an enemy as cuss the current tragedy that has so deeply successful.would military force be. affected our nation. Our country mourns Foreign Policy Bulletin 45
  • 45. Feature President Bush. Attorney General. will be held accountable for this action. upon America by terrorists, and we will respond accordingly. And I appreciate Attorney General Ashcroft. Four days Q. Sir, are you satisfied that Osama very much the American people under-ago we began an investigative effort to bin Laden is at least a kingpin of this standing that. As we plan, as we put ourunderstand not only those who perpetrate operation? strategy into action, we will let you knowthis heinous assault against America and when we think it’s appropriate—not onlyfree people everywhere, but to develop an President Bush. There is no question to protect the lives of our servicemen andunderstanding of those who are associated he is what we would call a prime suspect. women, but to make sure our coalition haswith it and how it was conducted. And if he thinks he can hide and run from had proper time to be noticed, as well. But The FBI, together with very cooperative the United States and our allies, he will be we’re going to act.local and state officials and law enforce- sorely mistaken.ment agencies has processed thousands of Q. What is the risk of additionalleads. We are making the kinds of contacts Q. Mr. President, do you have a mes- attacks on us at this point?and developing the information that allow sage for the Reservists that you calledus to describe this as proceeding with rea- up yesterday? Can you tell us whether President Bush. I would think thesonable success. We believe that the pic- you think more may have to be called American people need to be—go aboutture is developing a kind of clarity that’s up? their business on Monday, but with aappropriate. We have named 19 individu- heightened sense of awareness that aals that we have high levels of confidence President Bush. The message is for group of barbarians have declared war onwere the hijackers. And we are further everybody who wears the uniform: get the American people.refining our understanding of the ways in ready. The United States will do what itwhich this terrible crime was developed. takes to win this war. And I ask patience Q. Sir, how much of a sacrifice are I might add that we have put in place of the American people. There is no ques- ordinary Americans going to have to bevery serious measures that we believe will tion in my mind we’ll have the resolve—I expected to make in their daily lives, inprovide greater security and provide a witnessed it yesterday on the construction their daily routines?basis for our country returning to the kind site. Behind the sadness and the exhaus-of freedom and business and conduct that tion, there is a desire by the American President Bush. Our hope, of course, isis characteristic of this great nation. people to not seek only revenge, but to that they make no sacrifice whatsoever. win a war against barbaric behavior, peo- We would like to see life return to normal Q. Sir, what do you say to Americans ple that hate freedom and hate what we in America. But these people havewho are worried that the longer it takes stand for. declared war on us and we will do what-to retaliate, the more chance the perpe- And this is an administration that is ever it takes to make sure that we’re safetrators have to escape and hide and just going to dedicate ourselves to winning internally. So, therefore, people may notescape justice? that war. be able to board flights as quickly. Our borders are tighter than they’ve ever been President Bush. They will try to hide, Q. What did Pakistan say it would do before. We’re taken a variety of measuresthey will try to avoid the United States to help the United States? to make sure that the American people areand our allies—but we’re not going to let safe, just as the Attorney General spokethem. They run to the hills; they find holes Secretary Powell. We put before the about.to get in. And we will do whatever it takes Pakistani government a specific list of But we hope, obviously, that the mea-to smoke them out and get them running, things that we would like cooperation on, sures we take will allow the Americanand we’ll get them. and they’ve agreed to all those items. I’m economy to continue on. I urge people to Listen, this is a great nation; we’re a not prepared to announce today what go to their businesses on Monday. I under-kind people. None of us could have envi- those specific items are. But the Pakistani stand major league baseball is going tosioned the barbaric acts of these terrorists. government was very forthcoming and start playing again. It is important forBut they have stirred up the might of the we’re appreciative. America to get on about its life. But ourAmerican people, and we’re going to get government will be on full alert and we’llthem, no matter what it takes. Q. Mr. President, what kind of mili- be tracing every lead, every potential to In my radio address today I explained to tary options are you considering, if you make sure that the American people arethe American people that this effort may could talk broadly? safe.require patience. But we’re going to— President Bush. This is an administra- Q. How long do you envision— Q. How long— tion that will not talk about how we gather intelligence, how we know what we’re President Bush. The definition is what- President Bush. As long as it takes. going to do, nor what our plans are. When ever it takes.And it’s not just one person. We’re talking we move, we will communicate with youabout those who fed them, those who in an appropriate manner. We’re at war.house them, those who harbor terrorists There has been an act of war declared46 Winter 2002
  • 46. September 11, 2001Remarks by President Bush, asked for resolve; for, the conflict will not another. And tomorrow when you get back be easy. You will be asked for your to work, work hard like you always have.September 15, 200152 strength, because the course to victory But we’ve been warned. We’ve been may be long. warned there are evil people in this world.President Bush delivered the following In the past week, we have seen the We’ve been warned so vividly—and we’llradio address to the nation. American people at their very best every- be alert. Your government is alert. TheGood morning. This weekend I am where in America. Citizens have come governors and mayors are alert that evilengaged in extensive sessions with mem- together to pray, to give blood, to fly our folks still lurk out there.bers of my National Security Council, as country’s flag. Americans are coming As I said yesterday, people havewe plan a comprehensive assault on ter- together to share their grief and gain declared war on America, and they haverorism. This will be a different kind of strength from one another. made a terrible mistake, because this is aconflict against a different kind of enemy. Great tragedy has come to us, and we fabulous country. Our economy will come This is a conflict without battlefields or are meeting it with the best that is in our back. We’ll still be the best farmers andbeachheads, a conflict with opponents country, with courage and concern for oth- ranchers in the world. We’re still the mostwho believe they are invisible. Yet, they ers. Because this is America. This is who innovative entrepreneurs in the world. Onare mistaken. They will be exposed, and we are. This is what our enemies hate and this day of faith, I’ve never had more faiththey will discover what others in the past have attacked. And this is why we will in America than I have right now.have learned: Those who make war prevail.against the United States have chosen Q. Mr. President, are you worriedtheir own destruction. Victory against ter- this crisis might send us into a reces-rorism will not take place in a single bat- Remarks by President Bush, sion?tle, but in a series of decisive actionsagainst terrorist organizations and those September 16, 200153 President Bush. David, I understandwho harbor and support them. Today, millions of Americans mourned that there are some businesses that hurt as We are planning a broad and sustained and prayed, and tomorrow we go back to a result of this crisis. Obviously, Newcampaign to secure our country and eradi- work. Today, people from all walks of life York City hurts. Congress acted quickly.cate the evil of terrorism. And we are gave thanks for the heroes; they mourn the We worked together, the White House anddetermined to see this conflict through. dead; they ask for God’s good graces on the Congress, to pass a significant supple-Americans of every faith and background the families who mourn, and tomorrow mental. A lot of that money was dedicatedare committed to this goal. the good people of America go back to to New York, New Jersey and Connecti- Yesterday I visited the site of the their shops, their fields, American facto- cut, as it should be. People will be amazeddestruction in New York City and saw an ries, and go back to work. at how quickly we rebuild New York; howamazing spirit of sacrifice and patriotism Our nation was horrified, but it’s not quickly people come together to reallyand defiance. I met with rescuers who going to be terrorized. We’re a great wipe away the rubble and show the worldhave worked past exhaustion, who cheered nation. We’re a nation of resolve. We’re a that we’re still the strongest nation in thefor our country and the great cause we nation that can’t be cowed by evil-doers. world.have entered. I’ve got great faith in the American peo- But I have great faith in the resiliency of In Washington, D.C., the political par- ple. If the American people had seen what the economy. And no question about it,ties and both Houses of Congress have I had seen in New York City, you’d have this incident affected our economy, but theshown a remarkable unity, and I’m deeply great faith, too. You’d have faith in the markets open tomorrow, people go back tograteful. A terrorist attack designed to tear hard work of the rescuers; you’d have work and we’ll show the world.us apart has instead bound us together as a great faith because of the desire for peoplenation. Over the past few days, we have to do what’s right for America; you’d have Q. Mr. President, do you believelearned much about American courage— great faith because of the compassion and Osama bin Laden’s denial that he hadthe courage of firefighters and police offi- love that our fellow Americans are show- anything to do with this?cers who suffered so great a loss, the ing each other in times of need.courage of passengers aboard United 93 I also have faith in our military. And we President Bush. No question he is thewho may well have fought with the have got a job to do—just like the farmers prime suspect. No question about that.hijackers and saved many lives on the and ranchers and business owners and fac-ground. tory workers have a job to do. My admin- Q. Mr. President, can you describe Now we honor those who died, and pre- istration has a job to do, and we’re going your conversation with the President ofpare to respond to these attacks on our to do it. We will rid the world of the evil- Pakistan and the specific comments henation. I will not settle for a token act. doers. We will call together freedom lov- made to you? And, in addition to that,Our response must be sweeping, sustained ing people to fight terrorism. do you see other—you’ve asked Saudiand effective. We have much do to, and And on this day of—on the Lord’s Day, Arabia to help out, other countries?much to ask of the American people. I say to my fellow Americans, thank you You will be asked for your patience; for, for your prayers, thank you for your com- President Bush. John, I will—obvious-the conflict will not be short. You will be passion, thank you for your love for one ly, I made a call to the leader of Pakistan. Foreign Policy Bulletin 47
  • 47. FeatureWe had a very good, open conversation. haven’t seen this kind of barbarism in aAnd there is no question that he wants to long period of time. No one could have Q. Mr. President, in your conversa-cooperate with the United States. I’m not conceivably imagined suicide bombers tion with Pakistan’s leader, was thereat liberty to detail specifically what we burrowing into our society and then any request or demand you made ofhave asked him to do. In the course of this emerging all in the same day to fly their him that he failed to satisfy?conduct of this war against terrorism, I’ll aircraft—fly U.S. aircraft into buildingsbe asked a lot, and members of my admin- full of innocent people—and show no President Bush. The leader of Pakistanistration will be asked a lot of questions remorse. This is a new kind of—a new has been very cooperative. He has agreedabout our strategies and tactics. And in kind of evil. And we understand. And the with our requests to aid our nation to huntorder to protect the lives of people that American people are beginning to under- down, to find, to smoke out of their holeswill be involved in different operations, stand. This crusade, this war on terrorism the terrorist organization that is the primeI’m not at liberty to talk about it and I is going to take a while. And the Ameri- suspect. And I am pleased with hiswon’t talk about it. can people must be patient. I’m going to response. We will continue to work with But I can tell you that the response from be patient. Pakistan and India. We will work withPakistan; Prime Minister Vajpayee today, But I can assure the American people I Russia. We will work with the nations thatof India, Saudi Arabia, has been very pos- am determined, I’m not going to be dis- one would have thought a couple of yearsitive and very straightforward. They know tracted, I will keep my focus to make sure ago would have been impossible to workwhat my intentions are. They know my that not only are these brought to justice, with—to bring people to justice. But moreintentions are to find those who did this, but anybody who’s been associated will be than that, to win the war against terroristfind those who encouraged them, find brought to justice. Those who harbor ter- activity.them who house them, find those who rorists will be brought to justice. It is time The American people are used to a con-comfort them, and bring them to justice. for us to win the first war of the 21st cen- flict where there was a beachhead or a I made that very clear. There is no doubt tury decisively, so that our children and desert to cross or known military targets.in anybody’s mind with whom I’ve had a our grandchildren can live peacefully into That may occur. But right now we’re fac-conversation about the intent of the United the 21st century. ing people who hit and run. They hide inStates. I gave them ample opportunity to caves. We’ll get them out.say they were uncomfortable with our Q. Mr. President, you’ve declared The other day I said, not only will wegoal. And the leaders you’ve asked about we’re at war and asked those who wear find those who have affected America, orhave said they were comfortable. They the uniform to get ready. Should the who might affect America in the future,said, we understand, Mr. President, and American public also be ready for the we’ll also deal with those who harborwe’re with you. possibility of casualties in this war? them. Q. Mr. President, the Attorney Gen- President Bush. Patsy, the American Q. Mr. President, would you confirmeral is going to ask for enhanced law people should know that my administra- what the Vice President said this morn-enforcement authority to surveil and— tion is determined to find, to get them run- ing, that at one point during this crisisthings to disrupt terrorism that might ning and to hunt them down, those who you gave an order to shoot down anybe planned here in the United States. did this to America. Now, I want to civilian airliner that approached theWhat will that mean for the rights of remind the American people that the Capitol? Was that a difficult decision toAmericans? What will that mean— prime suspect’s organization is in a lot of make? countries—it’s a widespread organization President Bush. Terry, I ask you to talk based upon one thing: terrorizing. They President Bush. I gave our military theto the Attorney General about that subject. can’t stand freedom; they hate what Amer- orders necessary to protect Americans, doHe’ll be prepared to talk about it publicly ica stands for. So this will be a long cam- whatever it would take to protect Ameri-at some point in time. But what he is paign, a determined campaign—a cam- cans. And of course that’s difficult. Neverdoing is, he’s reflecting what I said earlier paign that will use the resources of the did anybody’s thought process about howin my statement, that we’re facing a new United States to win. to protect America did we ever think thatkind of enemy, somebody so barbaric that They have roused a mighty giant. And the evil-doers would fly not one, but fourthey would fly airplanes into buildings full make no mistake about it: we’re deter- commercial aircraft into precious U.S. tar-of innocent people. And, therefore, we mined. Oh, there will be times when peo- gets—never. And so, obviously, when Ihave to be on alert in America. We’re a ple don’t have this incident on their was told what was taking place, when Ination of law, a nation of civil rights. minds, I understand that. There will be was informed that an unidentified aircraftWe’re also a nation under attack. And the times down the road where citizens will was headed to the heart of the capital, IAttorney General will address that in a be concerned about other matters, and I was concerned. I wasn’t concerned aboutway that I think the American people will completely understand that. But this my decision; I was more concerned aboutunderstand. administration, along with those friends of the lives of innocent Americans. I had We need to go back to work tomorrow ours who are willing to stand with us all realized there on the ground in Florida weand we will. But we need to be alert to the the way through will do what it takes to were under attack. But never did I dreamfact that these evil-doers still exist. We rout terrorism out of the world. we would have been under attack this48 Winter 2002
  • 48. September 11, 2001way. rorist networks the access to their real yet? That’s why I say to the American people estate and their facilities. We need them towe’ve never seen this kind of evil before. cooperate in a host of ways if this goal is Secretary Rumsfeld. I don’t think—IBut the evil-doers have never seen the going to be achieved. have certainly been in touch with the min-American people in action before, My guess is there will be a number of ister of defense of the U.K. And as youeither—and they’re about to find out. different coalitions that will be function- well know, they are cooperating with us in ing over time. Some will be able to do various coalitions already in Iraq, and they some things; other will be able to do other fly beside us. They are certainly a veryRemarks by Secretary of things. And how that will work and how close ally with capabilities that are impor- that will play out, I think it’s hard to say tant.Defense Rumsfeld, at the moment. But the one thing you canSeptember 16, 200154 be sure is it’ll take a lot of time; it’ll take Q. Will you use the military to secure years not days. airlines and the airports?[Those] who are attacking our way of lifedo not have armies, navies or air forces. Q. Do you think it’s achievable— Secretary Rumsfeld. The United StatesThey do not have capital. They do not [inaudible]—that you’ve outlined? military is war- fighters. The role of airhave high-value targets that the typical marshals is a notably different thing. Andweapons of war can go in and attack. Secretary Rumsfeld. I do think it’s people need to be trained for that to beThey have—which is why the president achievable. I think that it is particularly good at it, and our people have not beenhas said what he has said. It will take a something that strikes at free people. trained for it. And we have any number ofbroad, sustained effort that will be—half Everyone of the people listening got up demands on our people at the present timeto use our diplomatic, our political, our this morning and walked out of the door around the world, and I think it is—economic, our financial strength as well as of their house and they did not have to Second, the armed forces of the Unitedour military strength and unquestionably look to the left and look to the right. They States have as their charter the defense ofunconventional techniques. And it will didn’t have to wear a flak jacket. They the United States from threats from thetake time. It’s not a matter of days or didn’t have to get into an armored car. outside. The threats from the inside tendweeks. It’s years. It’s going to take the They didn’t have to hide in their base- to be the task of the local law enforce-support of the American people, and I ment, because we have enjoyed all of the ment, the FBI, the sheriffs and people likehave every confidence it’ll be there. It’ll privileges and opportunities of free peo- that, unless there is some unusual eventtake the support of countries around the ple. And it’s a wonderful thing. And we that requires the calling up of the Nationalworld. cannot allow terrorists to deny that of us. Guard as opposed to the active force. But There are a number of countries that are Therefore we must—there is no choice because of the laws and the Constitutionharboring terrorists. They in some cases other than to root out terrorists wherever and posse comitatus, the practice has beenfacilitate them, in some cases finance, in they are across this globe. for us, the armed forces of the Unitedother cases just tolerate. But these people States to address external threats.could not be functioning around the globe Q. Do you support changing the U.S.with the success they are unless they had policy on assassination? Q. Are you thinking about closingthat help from countries. And those coun- National Airport?tries, some of them do in fact have armies Secretary Rumsfeld. I’m not a lawyer.and navies and air forces, and they do There’s no question but that there are net- Secretary Rumsfeld. Any decision thathave capitals and they do have high-value works and countries that need to change alters the way we live our lives is unfortu-targets. And we are going to need them to their ways, and we need to find a host of nate. Clearly, for a period, we’re going tostop tolerating terrorists. ways, political, economic and military, to have to be living and functioning with a stop them. heightened sense of awareness. Given the **** attack on the Pentagon, given the attack Q. Will the assistance you’re seeking on the World Trade Center and given theQ. Secretary, Abdul Abdullah of from your allies include the use of non- risks that exist and the flight paths beingAfghanistan’s Northern Alliance has American troops in some of these oper- right near the Pentagon, the White House,offered his organization’s support in ations? the Capitol building, it seems to me aany operation against the Taliban or necessity to close National Airport for aOsama bin Laden. What roles should Secretary Rumsfeld. This is not a period. And I think it was the correct deci-these Taliban resistance groups play problem that’s unique to the United States. sion.and what role will the U.S. ask them to There’s not a doubt in my mind but thatplay? there will be other countries that will vol- Q. And how long will it be before unteer a variety of different types of assis- you— Secretary Rumsfeld. The United States tance.needs assistance from countries with intel- Secretary Rumsfeld. We have airportsligence information. We need assistance Q. Have you asked Britain for that at Dulles; we have airport at Baltimore,from countries to deny terrorists and ter- Foreign Policy Bulletin 49
  • 49. Featurewhich give a great deal more time for a defense is an effective offense, in this states, holding an international conferencefighter interceptor to do something than a case. And that means they have to be root- to fight terrorism has become an interna-plane taking off from Washington Nation- ed out. tional necessity. No countries, or group ofal Airport, which flies right past the Penta- nations should be exempted. But to set upgon day after day after day and right past coalitions would divide the ranks of thethe White House. Remarks by Egyptian international community in two or three fronts. Q. Did the FAA give you a timely President Mubarak,warning about a plane approaching September 16, 200155D.C.? And why did our nation’s air Remarks by President Bush,defenses fail to protect the Pentagon? Egyptian President Mubarak made his comments during an interview broadcast September 17, 200156 Secretary Rumsfeld. We don’t have air on NBC. President Bush made the followingdefenses that are designed to protect the [There is] a big difference between war remarks at the Islamic Center ofAmerican people from a person inside the and terrorism. In war you know the goal Washington, D.C.United States commandeering an Ameri- and the two fighting parties and the mis-can Airline plane filled with American cit- Thank you all very much for your hospi- sion which should be accomplishedizens. That is a customs, immigration, tality. We’ve just had a—wide-ranging through war such as liberating land orlocal law enforcement task. Anyone who discussions on the matter at hand. Like the occupying a position.has looked around the skies over the past good folks standing with me, the Ameri- Terrorism uses the world as a scene. Youseveral years knows that we do not keep can people were appalled and outraged at do not know from where it will come oraircraft in the air to anticipate some local last Tuesday’s attacks. And so were Mus- what is its target. No one country in thesituation like that. lims all across the world. Both Americans world can provide protection for all its Now, what happens is, when an aircraft and Muslim friends and citizens, tax-pay- vital installations. Who could have imag-goes off-course, the FAA, as a matter of ing citizens, and Muslims in nations were ined that airliners would be used, withnormal behavior, calls our combatant just appalled and could not believe what their passengers, in terrorists acts.commander, our CINC, as we say, at we saw on our TV screens.NORAD, which is the North American These acts of violence against innocents Q. The United States is seeking todefense zone, and says, “There’s a plane violate the fundamental tenets of the mobilize an international coalitionthat’s off-pattern.” In this case, a plane Islamic faith. And it’s important for my against terrorism similar to the coali-took off from Dulles apparently and flew fellow Americans to understand that. tion in the Gulf War. Would it be diffi-west and then came and circled Washing- The English translation is not as elo- cult to mobilize a coalition to fight andton, D.C., and then plowed into the Penta- quent as the original Arabic, but let me resist terrorism?gon. You have matter of minutes, unless quote from the Koran, itself: In the longyou have airplanes in the air or something run, evil in the extreme will be the end of President Mubarak. Setting up a coali-like that that you would use. those who do evil. For that they rejected tion would divide the ranks of the interna- We do of course today have some fight- the signs of Allah and held them up to tional community. No coalition can beer aircraft in the air at various places in ridicule. established all over the world to fight ter-the United States. In addition, we have The face of terror is not the true faith of rorism. It is not practical, at least from myaircraft on strip alert, 10- to 15-minutes Islam. That’s not what Islam is all about. point of view. Perhaps U.S. Secretary ofnotice, at some 26 bases across the coun- Islam is peace. These terrorists don’t rep- State Colin Powell would have a differenttry. Our forces are on what’s called Def- resent peace. They represent evil and war. opinion.Con 4 at the present time, down from 3, a When we think of Islam we think of a I have said that setting up coalitionsheightened sense—status of alert. And in faith that brings comfort to a billion peo- would divide the ranks of the internationalterms of force protection around the world ple around the world. Billions of people community. What I have repeatedly calledand the United States, we’re on what’s find comfort and solace and peace. And for was to hold an international confer-called Charlie. We were at Delta, which is that’s made brothers and sisters out of ence to fight terrorism under the umbrellathe highest, and we’ve moved to Charlie. every race—out of every race. of the united nations, in New York, Gene-It is a very high state of alert. America counts millions of Muslims va or anywhere else. The reality is that a terrorist can attack amongst our citizens, and Muslims make It was agreed but some countries,at any time in any place using any tech- an incredibly valuable contribution to our including the united states, used “veto” asnique, and it is physically impossible for a country. Muslims are doctors, lawyers, a pretext against what it is taking placefree people to try to defend in every place law professors, members of the military, between the Palestinians and Israelis. Theat every time against every technique. entrepreneurs, shopkeepers, moms and Palestinians say they are struggling for Now, what does that mean? It means dads. And they need to be treated with self-determination. The Israelis say some-that the president is exactly right, that we respect. In our anger and emotion, our fel- thing different and created a big problem.have to take this battle, this war to the ter- low Americans must treat each other with Hence, the idea was set aside. But in therorists, where they are. And the best respect. light of the recent events in the united Women who cover their heads in this50 Winter 2002
  • 50. September 11, 2001country must feel comfortable going out- weapons—all for the purpose of getting at having a role with that kind of participa-side their homes. Moms who wear cover terrorism, terrorism that destroys lives, tion.must be not intimidated in America. terrorism that destroys our lives as well asThat’s not the America I know. That’s not anyone else’s lives. Q. Some people think that Israel isthe America I value. When we look at what happened at the capitalizing on that war against terror- I’ve been told that some fear to leave; World Trade Center, thousands of Ameri- ism and on the victims of the U.S. bysome don’t want to go shopping for their cans were lost, but also hundreds of Arabs intensifying their efforts in the area—infamilies; some don’t want to go about were lost. And so it is a war against those the Palestinian areas. Are you trying totheir ordinary daily routines because, by individuals, those groups, who have for- do something about that?wearing cover, they’re afraid they’ll be saken the teachings of the Bible and theintimidated. That should not and that will Koran, and they have used terrorism for Secretary Powell. I’m working withnot stand in America. political aims, terrorism that kills innocent both sides. I speak regularly with Chair- Those who feel like they can intimidate people. That’s what this war will be about. man Arafat, with Prime Minister Sharonour fellow citizens to take out their anger and with Foreign Minister Peres.don’t represent the best of America, they Q. Some people were upset when they I have a singular goal. One of myrepresent the worst of humankind, and heard President Bush on Sunday nam- biggest priorities since I became Secretarythey should be ashamed of that kind of ing that war a crusade and wonder of State was to eliminate the violence inbehavior. what Muslims are going to do in that that part of the world and begin the peace This is a great country. It’s a great coun- crusade. process again. And so that is why I havetry because we share the same values of been working so hard to get the Mitchellrespect and dignity and human worth. And Secretary Powell. Well, I think that the Plan started. The Mitchell Plan leads toit is my honor to be meeting with leaders best description of what we are doing is to negotiations, negotiations that will be thewho feel just the same way I do. They’re launch a campaign, a campaign that basis of U.N. resolutions 242 and 338,outraged, they’re sad. They love America everybody can be a part of. We believe Land-for-Peace. That’s where we have tojust as much as I do. that there are so many Arab nations that go. I want to thank you all for giving me a should be a part of this campaign because And what I have been saying to bothchance to come by. And may God bless us they have suffered from terrorism over the sides, right now, let’s not take advantageall. years. of what happened in New York and Wash- So people have said to me, well, should ington last week. Let’s see that as a way Arabs be a part of this? Of course. And so of sobering ourselves to what we areRemarks by Secretary of I hope people will see that this is a cam- doing when we suffer with violence, and paign of the civilized world against unciv- let’s both sides exercise maximum effortState Powell, September 17, ilized forces within the world, and those to get the violence down, get the counter-200157 uncivilized forces attacked all nations response to violence down and see if we throughout the world, and that’s why we can get started on a cease-fire and into theSecretary Colin Powell was interviewed must all come together. And it is as much Mitchell Plan, leading to negotiations onby Al-Jazeerah. a cause for Arab nations and Arab leaders the bases of 242, 338 and Land-for-Peace.Q. Mr. Secretary, thank you very much as it is for other leaders, such as American My heart breaks with every death that Ifor allowing Al- Jazeerah to be a vehicle leaders. see of a Palestinian or an Israeli. A childfor your voice, a voice of moderation is a child; a child has a family, no matterand wisdom in this country, to reach Q. Israel was not allowed to be in the what that family might call their religionout to the Arab world. previous war, the Gulf War, for Arab or their ethnic background. And so we all Let me ask a question first that we sensitivities being the target and the should work to end the killing totally andalways hear in the Arab world. This victims of that war will be [inaudible] begin the peace process.war that we are about to launch from Arabs and Muslims. Israel is participat-the U.S., war against whom, who is the ing this time. How do you see this? Q. Should the Mitchell Plan be imple-enemy, where is the attack coming mented without the seven days that Mr.from? Secretary Powell. I can’t tell yet. I Sharon enforced? think that there are many nations that Secretary Powell. Well, I hope there could provide assistance in the form of Secretary Powell. Right now, we wouldisn’t going to be a war in the traditional intelligence or in the form of removing like to see the Mitchell Plan implementedsense. It’s not a war against Arabs. It’s not from their lands these terrorist organiza- immediately, if that were possible. Mr.a war against those who believe in Islam. tions and saying, no, we cannot have you Sharon has asked for seven days of quietIt’s a war against terrorism. And it isn’t a here any longer. And there may come a previously. Now he has asked for twowar in the usual sense of just battles time when there is military force to be days of quiet in order to have Mr. Peresfought by the military. It’s a war for intel- applied, and I suspect that will most part meet with Mr. Arafat.ligence, it’s a war that will use legal be American power. There will be other I am just anxious to see enough quiet soweapons, it is a war that will use financial nations. I don’t see a nation such as Israel that both sides have confidence that a Foreign Policy Bulletin 51
  • 51. Featuresense of trust can be rebuilt so that they and al-Qaida organization. But there are Arab American community here over thecan start talking to one another. We must other organizations in the world that con- loss of life of Arabs and Arab-Americansget away from the battlefield and into the duct terrorist activities and conduct them at the World Trade Center. This afternoon,conference room. The United States will against the U.S.—U.S. citizens and U.S. President Bush visited the Islamic Centerplay every role we can and make every interests. and conveyed similar feelings and emo-effort that we can to not only see that hap- To the extent that we have to defend tions, and let them know that Presidentpen but then to be a party to those discus- ourselves and protect ourselves, we obvi- Bush and I will continue to do everythingsions, if need be. ously have to go and see what we can do we can in the quest for peace so that about those terrorist organizations as well. Israeli and Palestinian can find a way to Q. Many people in the Arab world And we have identified a number of them live together in peace and harmony in thisrepeat the question why the U.S. has not who have attacked our interests over time. blessed land.asked itself, or herself about the But for this particular situation, our initial[inaudible] obligations, [inaudible] why focus is against the al-Qaida organization.the U.S. is perceived in the Arab and Remarks by Secretary ofMuslim world and hated in the Arab Q. Syria does not have to ban any ofand Muslim world is because of what these organizations— State Powell, September 17,they call blind support of destruction, 200158of killing Palestinians and others. Do Secretary Powell. Syria—as you know,you have an answer? we have had concerns about Syria and Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Iran over the years, because of their spon- Sorry I’m a little late. I just got off the Secretary Powell. I think that’s not a sorship of terrorist organizations. And phone with the President of Yemen, Presi-correct characterization of the United even though both of those nations have dent Salih, and we had a good conversa-States. We deplore violence. We also come forward in this current crisis and tion about the support that Yemen is giv-know that very often violence and terrorist expressed their condolences and also a ing to us in this crisis. They have beenacts come out of political frustration, a willingness to explore how we might work very helpful recently in the continuationsense of hopelessness, a sense of helpless- together, at the same time we cannot over- of the Cole investigation and now areness. I am not unmindful of those kind of look the fact that for years we have helping us with respect to leads in thismotivations. But I am also of the view that expressed to them our concern that they current crisis, the September 11th inci-the best way to deal with this sense of have been harboring what we consider and dent.hopelessness is not through violence and what the world considers are terrorist He also mentioned to me that the Presi-terrorism against someone against whom organizations. dent of Syria is visiting and that later thisviolence and terrorism will not prevail, So I am hoping that the difficulties that afternoon the two presidents will issue awill not achieve a political agenda. we have had with these two countries in joint statement, once again condemning And so I can assure you that America is the past, because of this we might be able the actions of last week, condemningtrying to play a unifying role, trying to to explore a new way for the future. But those who are responsible for it, condemn-play a helpful role in bringing the vio- you can’t just pick the terrorist group you ing terrorism, and committing themselveslence down, ending the killing on both are against and then say all the others are to work with us in the days and weekssides and getting to a peace table, where okay. If we are going to explore this with ahead as we deal with this problem.we can discuss the kinds of issues that those countries, Syria and Iran, I think we This expression of support is character-cause a sense of hopelessness. Terrorism will have to explore the entire issue of ter- istic of the expressions of support we haveis fueled by these sorts of grievances over rorist organizations or whatever. continued to receive as we call leaderstime, from the past. And I am not insensi- around the world and as we begin thistive, nor is America. We are prepared to Q. Including two Jewish organizations building of a coalition, a coalition thatdo whatever we can to get through these that are on your list, the terrorist list,? will be conducting a campaign, a cam-barriers to understanding. paign that will have many parts to it, as I Secretary Powell. Yes, yes. have said to you before, legal, political, Q. Mr. Secretary, who is out that we diplomatic, law enforcement, intelligencewill not even accept their offer to be in Q. Your last word to the Arab world. collection, and military as appropriate.the effort [inaudible] Arab to Arab, that And so I am pleased that the coalition isanother question would be [inaudible] Secretary Powell. Let me say to my coming together.in the Liberation Organization in Dam- friends in the Arab world and all other I think everybody recognizes that thisascus or the other Arab world would be people how much we admire them and let challenge is one that went far beyondtargeted in the same countries? them know that this conflict, this cam- America, far beyond New York City and paign we are about to begin is not directed far beyond Washington. Thirty-seven Secretary Powell. We believe that ter- against Arabs or anyone of the Islamic countries lost citizens in the World Traderorism, in whatever form it shows up, is faith; it’s against terrorism. My heart also Center, and what we have to do is notan uncivilized act. Now, right now, our goes out to those members of the Arab only deal with this present instance but theprincipal concern is the Usama bin Laden community overseas, as well as the strong whole concept of terrorism, deal with it as a scourge upon civilization and go after it.52 Winter 2002
  • 52. September 11, 2001 But in the first round of this campaign, ing with a message of support and com- Q. Mr. Secretary, can you say whetherwe have to deal with the perpetrators of mitment. this government intends to contact thethe attacks against America in New York I know that they are looking at a num- Taliban and to give either an ultima-and in Washington. It is becoming clearer ber of ways in which they can help us, tum, or whatever words you care towith each passing hour, with each passing and we will welcome that help and assis- choose of the language? Can you dealday, that it is the al-Qaida network that is tance. They are good friends of ours. They with these people?the prime suspect, as the President has have condemned this act from the verysaid. And all roads lead to the leader of outset, from the very beginning, from last Secretary Powell. I am sure there willthat organization, Usama bin Laden, and Wednesday morning on. I am sure he is be some communication in the future, buthis location in Afghanistan. That is why coming with a message of continued sup- I would not like to characterize what thatwe are pleased that the Pakistani Govern- port and commitment, but I don’t want to communication might be yet.ment sent emissaries in to try to persuade get into what specifically we might bethe Afghans, the Taliban leadership, that asking of them. Q. Mr. Secretary, as you put thethey should do what they have been pieces of your diplomatic puzzle togeth-required to do for a number of years under Q. Any early indications of what Tal- er, what is the—could you sort of elabo-U.N. resolutions and reject this presence iban is saying? rate for us on the importance thatin their country, this invasion of their Saudi Arabia, Morocco and othercountry by a terrorist organization. Secretary Powell. The Taliban, of Islamic states play within the Arab We mean no ill toward the people of course, is responding in the way that it world in sort of building this interna-Afghan; they are a suffering people, they always has, that Usama bin Laden and his tional consensus?are a poor people. It is for that reason associates are guests in their country.alone they should not allow these invaders Well, it is time for the guests to leave. Secretary Powell. I think they areto put their society at risk and to connect important, not only those specific coun-themselves to the government of Q. First of all, the Pakistanis are say- tries but all countries, Arab and other-Afghanistan. ing that there was a deadline of three wise—but especially Arab to come out So I am very pleased that more and days to hand over Usama bin Laden. Is and condemn this kind of activity, becausemore people around the world recognize that true? this is a threat to their own countries.the nature of this campaign, recognize that There isn’t one of them you mentionedwe have to get involved, recognize it is Secretary Powell. Whose deadline? that hasn’t faced some kind of terroristnot going to be solved in one day or one attack against their legitimacy, againstweek, but will be a long-term campaign. Q. The deadline for the Taliban to their own sovereignty. And so it is impor-As the President and other government turn over Usama bin Laden. tant for them to speak out, especiallyofficials have indicated earlier, we are also when we have seen the strong statementsdoing everything necessary to protect our- Secretary Powell. The Pakistanis gave from Pakistan. And I think Pakistan wouldselves here at home and to put ourselves them a deadline? like to see other Arab and Islamic coun-on the right kind of security footing so tries speak out and act in as strong a waythat we can be vigilant and alert to the Q. Yes. Well, that’s what I’m asking. as Pakistan has.threats that still exist within the country or Is it a Pakistani— And, you know, Uzbekistan has beenmay be directed at us in the future. rather forthcoming and others have been With that, I will take a few questions. I Secretary Powell. I don’t know if that rather forthcoming. I think, as the days goam once again under a time limit. is the case that the Pakistanis actually said by and as the various plans come together, that and whether they said it in their own you will see more and more of them Q. Is it too early—do you have any name or whose name, but it wasn’t in our speaking out. The UAE has said that it isindications of how the message is being name. reviewing its relationship with Talibanreceived by Taliban? The Saudi Foreign activities within the UAE and we will seeMinister is coming here Wednesday, Q. And secondly, have you made spe- where that leads. The Sudan has becomeand could you tell us what you will ask cific and formal requests to all frontline suddenly much more interested and activeof the Saudis and, whatever they do, states around Afghanistan, including in working with us on various items. Sowould you prefer this time that they be Iran? there are a lot of things that are going onexplicit? that will become more manifest as time Secretary Powell. We have not made goes on. Secretary Powell. I always like explicit specific requests for assistance. Thoserather than vague, and I look forward to requests are being considered now by our Q. Mr. Secretary, did you get the timeseeing Foreign Minister Saud when he intelligence, law enforcement and military to talk to the Greek Foreign Minister,comes here. I have spoken to him, I guess communities to see what might be needed Yeoryios Papandreou, for this cause?it was last Thursday or Friday—I’m losing as we put our contingency plans together.track of the days—and so I expect he will Nothing has been asked of Iran, in partic- Secretary Powell. Yes, I did. I did. Ibe forthcoming. I expect he will be com- ular. talked to my colleague, Yeoryios Papan- Foreign Policy Bulletin 53
  • 53. Featuredreou, over the weekend. I can get the Q. Mr. Secretary, are you certain that terrorism. And if there are states andspecific date for you. Richard has a rather Usama bin Laden is still in Afghanistan regimes, nations, that support terrorism,imposing list of phone calls, but I can no and are you confident that the Taliban we hope to persuade them that it is inlonger remember which day—it was over could actually find him? their interests to stop doing that. But Ithe weekend—both to my Greek and to think ending terrorism is where I wouldmy Turkish colleagues on the same day. Secretary Powell. I can’t be certain of like to leave it, and let Mr. Wolfowitz where he is. I am reasonably confident speak for himself. Q. Mr. Secretary, is turning over and certain that if the Taliban governmentUsama bin Laden enough? Are there wanted to find him, they would know Q. What countries have fallen short,other things the Taliban will also have where he is, if he is still in Afghanistan, let’s say?to do? and I have seen nothing to indicate he is not still in Afghanistan. Secretary Powell. Oh, I really don’t Secretary Powell. We are after the al- Q. Mr. Secretary, how do you plan to have a list of fall-shorts. Some have beenQaida network. It is not one individual; follow up on the positive signals being able to do more than others. Some it isit’s lots of individuals and it’s lots of cells. sent from Iran? rhetorical in nature and they really don’tAs I said on television yesterday, Usama have much else to give us other thanbin Laden is the chairman of a holding Secretary Powell. From Iran? words of support and encouragement.company and within that holding company Others it is far more than that, to the pointare terrorist cells and organizations in Q. Yes. of if you have to something militarily, askdozens of countries around the world, any us if we can participate.one of them capable of committing a ter- Secretary Powell. As I said yesterday, So it is a full range. But within therorist act. So it is not enough to get one these are positive signals, and I’ve had it capabilities that they have, I am satisfied,individual, although we will start with that reinforced that it is a positive signal. And very satisfied, with most of the responsesone individual. It will not be over until we it is worth exploring, and that is where I that I have received. Where there is anhave gotten into the inside of this organi- would leave it right now, not move it any opportunity for a country to do more andzation, inside its decision cycle, inside its further than that—worth exploring. they haven’t yet offered to do more, Iplanning cycle, inside its execution capa- Remember now, as you surely do, that would rather deal with them rather thanbility, and until we have neutralized and Iran is a nation we have designated as single them out.destroyed it. That is our objective. sponsoring state terrorism. And they may One more, then I’ve got to go. want to make cause against the Taliban, Q. Mr. Secretary, the Taliban today is but will they make cause against other ter- Q. Mr. Secretary, NATO said theyapparently offering that an Islamic—a rorist organizations that they have provid- would be with us, but apparentlycourt of Islamic clerics would deter- ed support to? Italy—there was a statement this morn-mine the fate of bin Laden and that And I am willing to explore that, but ing that Italy would not participate mil-they would accept that outcome. But let’s not get any further than that. Some itarily in any sort of action. And therethis is something they’ve offered before suggested that they are part of the coali- have been some countries in the Middleand the U.S. rejected it before. I want to tion, they’re going to be partners. Not so East and elsewhere that have expressedknow if that’s—if that’s still your feel- fast. We recognize the nature of that concern that this is going to be tooing, if that has any kind of flexibility. regime. They have said something that is broad a campaign and they want it toAnd also, is there an interagency team different than what we have heard from be very narrowly focused, and they’replanning to go into Pakistan any time them previously. They, too, are shocked nervous.soon? by what happened, they tell us. And so it What would you say to them? seems to me that is an opening worth Secretary Powell. On the first point, I exploring, and that is as far as we go right Secretary Powell. We are sensitive towill wait and see what they end up doing now. all those concerns. I heard somethingand what that court decides, once it has quite different from Italy, but my Italianconvened in whatever fashion it convenes Q. Mr. Secretary, who has not colleague will be here this week so Rena-itself and whatever action it takes. I don’t responded well? What countries have to and I can talk directly. And we—want to prejudge what we might do in disappointed you in their response?response to what it might do. And secondly, last week Deputy Defense Q. The Taliban—you just said a little With respect to an interagency team Secretary Wolfowitz used the phrase earlier that there will be communica-going to Pakistan, we are making a deter- “ending regimes that sponsor terror- tion but you would prefer not to char-mination now and will take a day or two ism.” No Administration official has acterize it, yet yesterday I think youor a couple of days as to what we might repeated that formula. Are we really said that in a couple of days the Unitedwant to ask the Pakistanis for and, when after ending regimes, or are we simply States would be talking to the Taliban.that has been determined, then we will going to try to change their behavior? Are you suggesting here that the firstform a team appropriate to that task. communication will be military rather Secretary Powell. We are after ending than anything else?54 Winter 2002
  • 54. September 11, 2001 Open Letter from Iraqi gives no heed to the law or rely on it. It Secretary Powell. No. I think both has no concern for the counter viewpointstatements are consistent—communica- President Hussein to the in line with its dangerous policy towardstion, contact. People and Government of this issue or others. That is why we find that it takes no pain to secure evidence. Q. So when will the United States be the United States and other Therefore, it needs no evidence to pass itstalking to the Taliban? Will we be send- Western Countries, verdict. It is content with saying some-ing someone in from Islamabad? thing, passing verdicts, whether people September 17, 200159 other than the American officials are con- Secretary Powell. That’s what I also In the name of God, the most Compas- vinced or not. This means, in keeping withsaid today, that I am not prepared to com- sionate, the most Merciful. the policy it has pursued since 1990, thatment on the modalities or when or under Once again, we make a return to com- it has no regard to the viewpoint of thewhat set of circumstances or what the ment on the incidence that took place in peoples and governments in the world in itnature of the communication will be, America on September 11, not for its sig- entirety. It gives it no weight or heedbecause that is still being resolved. nificance as such, but for the implications despite the fact that it claims to be the Okay, Barbara. Do you remember what surrounding it and its ramifications in democratic state (number one) in thethe question was? I remember the answer. terms of results on the level of the world world. The basic meaning of democracy of which we are part or rather a special even by the standards of its initial emer- Q. I do. The second part of the ques- case as a nation known as it is with the gence in the Western world, that factstion—forgive me, as an ex-New York- basis and uniqueness of its faith. should lay bare before the people so thater—was about Israel. Ariel Sharon has On previous occasions, we have already the people would assume their responsi-not been terribly helpful, it seems, in said that the United States needs to try bility with full awareness. Our descriptionthis. A lot of Arab countries are saying wisdom after it has tried force over the of the U.S. attitude vis-á-vis this incidencewe have to do something about this con- last fifty years or even more. We still see is a practical description. It means thatflict and we have to restrain Sharon or that this is the most important thing the American officials do not respect evena coalition isn’t going to fly. world must advise the U.S. about if there their own people’s viewpoint, let alone the is anybody who wants to say something or world’s. In this conduct, the American Secretary Powell. I think we do have to adopt an attitude towards this incidence, officials behave as though they are delud-do something about the situation in the and who is concerned about world peace ing the peoples, beating up the misleadingMiddle East. I carve out part of my day to and stability. This is the case if the U.S. media drums to do the job of mobilizingpress and work on that. Prime Minister and the world are convinced with the dic- them against enemy or enemies againstSharon and I had a very long phone con- tum and the verdict, namely that what has whom no evidence about their account-versation last night, and we talked about happened came to America from without, ability for the action they are accused ofhis latest approach of his son and an offi- not within. has been furnished. All the officials therecial from the Ministry visiting with Chair- It is among the indisputables in the law seek to achieve is to foment the hostilityman Arafat and talking about how this or general norms, in dealings, in social of the peoples of the U.S. against whoeverseries of meetings could get started. life, and even political life, that any charge they assumed to be an enemy before the And I never lose sight of the fact that should be based on evidence if the one incidence has occurred. The tax-payerone of the underlying continuing problems who makes the accusation is keen to con- would be in a position where he is pre-we will have—we had it before 11 Sep- vince others or has respect to that who lis- pared to accept the blackmail trap armstember, we’re going to have it for the fore- tens to the accusation or is concerned with manufacturers have laid for him in addi-seeable future—is that we have to get into it as part of the minimal obligation of his tion to the wrangled interests on the levelthe Mitchell plan and we have to get back duty. But the U.S. has made the charge of senior military and civil officials in theto negotiations in due course. And so I can before verification, even before possessing U.S..assure you I haven’t taken the United the minimum evidence about such a One might argue that political verdictsStates’ eye off that ball. charge. It has even not availed itself the do not always emanate from the same opportunity to verify things, first and fore- bases, procedures or courses adopted by most. It started a drive of incitement and the judiciary or criminal courts. Rather, threat, or said something irresponsible by precedents and backgrounds could suffice broadening the base of charges to include to arrive at a conclusion which may prove states, circles and individuals. right. Even if, for the sake of argument, American officials set about making we go along this notion, just to keep the charges or giving the guided media, the debate uninterrupted, we say that this Zionist media and its symbols within the could be true about the media and state- authority and outside it a free hand in ments which are of media and propaganda order to prepare the public mind for the nature, even political statements. In this charge.. What does this mean? instance, the error could not be necessarily In a nutshell, it means that the U.S. fatal. Foreign Policy Bulletin 55
  • 55. Feature But is this permissible in war? based on the assumption that their foreign Arabs and Moslems. In so doing, they Once more, we say that war is not an policies are incompatible with the Ameri- have stored the final verdict in theirordinary case. Neither is it procedural in can policy, or they do not give in to the minds. On this basis, they built theirthe life of nations and peoples. It is a case U.S.-Zionist policy vis-á-vis the world and preparation in advance. On this basis too,of unavoidable exception. Evidence based Palestine? they prepared (the mind) of the computer,on conclusion is not enough, even if it is Consider statements by the U.S. offi- which was programmed on this assump-solid to make a charge against a given cials who say the war would be long tion, which has taken the form of a con-party or several parties, a state or several because it is aimed at several states. clusive verdict. This reminds us of the freestates to the extent that the one who reins given to political writers, the so-makes the charge declares war at the party called thinkers, including past heads ofor parties against which charges were The U.S. has declared it is at war. It is state and ministers who the Zionist policymade and bears the responsibility of what- wanted, over the last ten or fifteen years to gearing up for war since the earlyever harm might be sustained by his own assume that faith based on the religion ofpeople and the others including death, the moments in the wake of the incidence, as Islam with the ensuing implication is thedestruction of possessions and the ensuing though it were the opportunity those new enemy of the U.S. and the West and itserious repercussions. It was only the U.S. concerned have been waiting for. It has is the backdrop against which Americanadministration that has made the charge allocated the necessary funds for the war, rulers act, with the participation of someagainst a certain religion, not just a given Western rulers who came under the pres-nationality. or part of them. Have you ever heard or sure and interpretations of Zionist thought Let us also accept the interventions of read in the near on far history, of a state and scheming.those who contend that the U.S. has not declaring war before even defining who Obviously, this assumption is no longersaid this, through its senior officials and its enemy is? The opportunity to declare a pure assumption for the purpose ofwithin this limitation. In fact, some offi- scrutiny testing and examination. It has the state of war came with the incidencecials have denied that their policy is one become part and parcel of conclusive ver-of making the charge against a given reli- that befell it. It is not yet known whether dicts. That is why the verdict was instanta-gion. However, we believe that the lack of it was carried out by a foreign enemy or neous, without consideration or waitingevidence to make a charge, the disrespect from inside. Thus, the war declared by for the evidence to have a basis, evidenceto the golden sound rule of proper accusa- America would cease to be a reason for on which the pre-supposition is based intion which leads to the declaration of war order to be a conclusive one. The chargeand restricts the charge to a certain nation, the incidence. Rather, it is the incidence has not only been made against all gov-states, designations and individuals, can that has availed the opportunity to launch ernments in Islamic or Arab states but alsoonly be understood as a premeditated the war, which has not been a result of against all Islamic peoples, including thecharge without evidence that the action the incidence under any circumstances! Arab nation and to all designations, par-was carried out by Moslems. This is com- ties, states and governments whose poli-plemented by free reins for the media to cies do not please the U.S., whose policiesfloat it, to prepare the public opinion to and positions are not palatable to the U.S.accept it or to be tuned to it so that any- Notice the blackmail or better, the terror- in particular or because they call for thething opposed to it would sound like a dis- ism they mean and which was designed to liberation of Palestine and a halt to thecord. include several states and parties on a list U.S. aggression on Iraq, and adherence to Below is the list: Afghanistan. Usama that could be longer or shorter in accor- their independence and their nations’ her-bin Laden—the Islamic Qa’ida (base) dance with a policy of sheer terrorism and itage.party or organization. Syria. Yemen-Alge- blackmail, first and foremost, the illusion Any one who is surprised by this practi-ria. Iraq-Lebanon-Palestine. that Arabs and Moslems and the people of cal conclusion, allowing courteous words The list may be curtailed or enlarged Palestine would leave the arena for the to be said on the margin of verdicts toaccording to the pretexts of the policy of aggression of the Zionist entity and its replace it, has to contemplate our verdict:power, which has found its opportunity or vile imperialism. The U.S. has declared it is at war. It isthe power that is looking for its opportuni- These charges which were made without gearing up for war since the earlyty to declare war. Whether the items of the consideration and in an instantaneous way moments in the wake of the incidence, aslist are increased or cut down, would all mean that the mentality of the U.S. though it were the opportunity those con-this mean anything but the accusation of administration has been pre-loaded, prior cerned have been waiting for. It has allo-Moslems, including, or rather in the fore- to the incidence, even if we apply the cated the necessary funds for the war, orfront of whom Arabs? Why should this norms of today and not the norms of the part of them. Have you ever heard or readcross the minds of U.S. officials unless law. It has made assumption tantamount to in the near on far history, of a state declar-they have basically assumed themselves conclusive verdict, namely that Islam, ing war before even defining who itsand their policy to be enemies of Arabs with Arabs in the lead of Moslems are enemy is? The opportunity to declare theand Moslems? enemies of the U.S.. More precisely, the state of war came with the incidence that Could this charge mean anything other U.S. on the level of its rulers has taken it befell it. It is not yet known whether itthan the desire to settle old scores, all as a final verdict that it is the enemy of was carried out by a foreign enemy or56 Winter 2002
  • 56. September 11, 2001from inside. Thus, the war declared by know and fear God, after they have heavenly faiths upheld by the biggest blocAmerica would cease to be a reason for believed in Him. in the world are thrown into conflict. Oth-the incidence. Rather, it is the incidence “For us Allah sufficeth, and He is the erwise, Zionism would be denied thethat has availed the opportunity to launch best disposer of affairs.” (Holy Quran) accomplishment of all its ambitions. Thethe war, which has not been a result of the Once again we say that the peoples do masterminds of Zionism are, therefore,incidence under any circumstances! not believe any more the slogans of the working for a clash between Christianity One might contend it is the nature of the United States, accept those whom it and Islam on the assumption that this, andincidence, the scale of pain the American intends evil against. Even when it says it only this, could secure the chance to dom-officials felt as a result of what their peo- is against terrorism, the United States inate the world, when new opportunitiesples suffered, the embarrassment they felt doesn’t apply this to the World, and open up for their domination. Could theredue to the sufferings that hit the people according to the International Law. But be any better situation than that when thethere, that prompted American rulers to according to its will to impose what it stealing dog finds his household pre-occu-rush to declare war. The suffering of the wants on the World and refuse what it pied by a grief so that it could win thepeople is not caused by the incidence thinks might be harmful to it only, and thing it has set its eye on, the thing thatalone, but by the failure of the authorities export the other kinds of it to the World. whetted its mouth? Would the sensibleconcerned which have been preoccupied To certify this, could the United States tell men in the West be aware of that? Orby hatching conspiracies abroad, assassi- its peoples how many organizations work- would Zionism outsmart them to attain itsnation and sabotage operations against ing against their own countries are exist- aims?world states and freedom-loving people. ing in the United States? And how manyThey rushed to declare war and name the of those, the term terrorism could beparties so that they would leave no option applied to if one standard is used and not Remarks by President Bush,but to launch the war. Once again, we say, the double standards? And how many arecould this be a reason and ground to facil- those it finances overtly and covertly? September 18, 200160itate the charge and the subsequent resolu- How many are those accused with killing Please be seated. Welcome. Last week,tions, why should not it be a ground for and theft in other countries are now in the America suffered greatly. Thousands ofothers as well? United States? If the United States pre- our citizens lost lives. Thousands were If the fall in the whirlwind of rage, not sents such inventory to its peoples and to hurt. But thousands of our citizens rose tothe pre-meditated planning, results into the World, and initiated implementing one the occasion to help.war resolutions on their senior level inside standard and one norm on its agents and Last week was a really horrible weekthe U.S., why should not you expect those it calls friends. And if it starts the for America. But out of our tears and sad-someone to direct his fire to it under the same storm against the killers in the Zion- ness, we saw the best of America as well.pressure of similar considerations or dan- ist entity responsible of killing Palestini- We saw a great country rise up to help.ger? ans in occupied Palestine and in Tunis and Tens of millions of dollars and thou- Once again we say that the U.S. admin- Lebanon. And if it charges its own secret sands of hours and tons of food and cloth-istration and those in the West who allied services with what they committed of spe- ing have all been donated to help rebuildthemselves with it against Arabs and cial actions and assassinations they brag shattered lives. Americans’ love for Amer-Moslems, now and in the past, or rather to publish in the form of stories. Only ica was channeled through our nation’sagainst the world, in all the arenas that then one can believe the new American great charities. And as President of thiswitnessed the scourges of the alliance, are slogans that America is trying to make great land, nothing made me more proud.in need to take recourse to wisdom after them believe. Only then it becomes legiti- In the week since the attack, our com-they have had power at their disposal and mate to ask the World to do what it passion and generous citizens have led thedeployed it to such an extent that it ceased believes is useful for its security and the first phase in the war on terrorism. Theyto frighten those who experienced it. Dig- security of the World. have sustained and strengthened the homenity, the sovereignty of the homeland and It is a chance to air an opinion whose front. Today, I’m joined by representativesthe freedom of the sincere man is a sacred time has come. It is also addressed to the of charities which have brought relief tocase, along with other sacred things which peoples of the U.S. and the Western peo- citizens in New York City and Virginia,real Moslems uphold, including Arabs ple in general. Zionism has been planning Pennsylvania. We’ve got representatives ofwho are in the lead. for the domination of the world since its firefighters, police officers, entrepreneurs If this is the practical description of the well-known conference it convened in who have helped out all across America.pre-mediated intentions that decided war Basle in 1897. Ever since, it has been We’ve got many good citizens here whoagainst Arabs and Moslems, while the working in this direction. It has scored represent the large national charities likeparty that took the decision waits for a successes you can feel by controlling the American Red Cross, the Salvationcover to declare a war, and may launch it finance, media and commerce centers in Army, and the United Way. We’ve gotagainst those whom it has been biding your countries and whoever rules in your folks here in the nation’s Rose Gardentime, could there be anyone who could name, here and there, in decision-making who represent the community-based pro-avert it other than God, the Almighty? centers. But its domination is not yet ful- grams and faith-based programs, firefight-Anyone other than the will of the peoples, filled to have its will absolute and final. er and police associations, local business-when they become fully aware, after they This could only be feasible when two es, nonprofits. Large and small, these Foreign Policy Bulletin 57
  • 57. Featureimportant charitable efforts are saving and hope. and find out how to help. And I urge mylives and, as importantly, are restoring Funds in New York and Washington are fellow Americans to do so.hope. providing food, clothing and financial Americans can not only make on-line I’m also joined by Libby Pataki, the bet- help to husbands and wives and sons and donations, they can figure out where toter half of the Governor of New York. daughters who suffer mightily. Citizens send food, where to donate blood, whereTony Carbonetti, the Chief of Staff to near Ground Zero in New York have pro- to give clothes. They can find out howRudy Giuliani, and my friends and former vided sandwiches, drinks and clean best to donate their time.fellow Governors—actually, they’re Gov- clothes to the tired and hungry rescue Now, it’s important to realize that at thisernors, I was a former governor—Jim workers. moment, many of our charities are over-Gilmore and Tom Ridge. These Governors And in one of America’s greatest tradi- whelmed by the public response. That’sand their wives and the Mayor of New tions, a handful of entrepreneurs from the kind of problem we like in America.York have shown impressive leadership— Springfield, Virginia collected $600 by But because the portals may be jammed,impressive leadership—in the face of the selling lemonade, and gave it to the Red because the phones may be busy, is not anchallenges that faced their cities and their Cross. excuse for Americans not to continue tostates. These acts of generosity and kindness fight to help their neighbors. They put public agencies on full alert to are spreading all across America. There And so, I ask my fellow Americans toprovide immediate assistance to victims are challenges that remain for those who be patient with those charities that wantand their families; and for all those who suffer today; make no mistake about it. their help, to keep trying to give, to nothelped, out nation is most grateful. We’ve got a lot of work to do as a nation. lose sight of the mission. And that is,They’ve called on the men and women of And these good efforts, these good, chari- we’ll fight terrorism on all fronts. We willthe National Guard to help maintain calm table, compassionate efforts need the full not be terrorized so that their hearts areand order. And we thank those who wear support of Americans everywhere. hardened.the uniform as well. And they’ve led and People all across the country are asking Nobody can threaten this country. Oh,supported valiant rescue workers in New how they can help. What can they do to they may be able to bomb buildings andYork City and northern Virginia, whose provide hope. What can they do to help obviously disrupt lives. But we’re toobravery is seared into our national con- heal the wounds by helping their fellow great a nation to allow the evil-doers tosciousness. Americans. Well, there are many ways to affect our soul and our spirit. I was honored to be able to stand amidst contribute. Local stores and businesses on Today, I herald the soul and spirit ofthe rescue workers and looked in their Main Street America are collecting money America with live examples of peopleeyes and saw the determination that would to send to appropriate relief and help who have made a huge difference, andmake all Americans proud. In spite of agencies. National media organizations those who suffer and those who hurt. Thistheir exhaustion, in spite of the fact that are helping collect. Internet portals pro- is a great land. It’s a great land, becausethey had worked themselves into a state of viding an interesting opportunity for peo- our people are so decent and strong andtotal fatigue, they still wanted to keep ple to contribute and provide their help. compassionate.fighting on for their fellow brothers and Many of the charities, themselves, wel- God bless.sisters trapped in the rubble. come donations through web sites. So I Mayor Giuliani, and Pataki, have led urge my fellow Americans to continueNew York City through its most difficult contributing through web sites. If you’re Statement by Presidentof all days, and they have done so with interested in helping, call up one of theclass and bravery and distinction. And we great charities of America and contribute. Bush, September 18, 200161owe them a debt of gratitude. The Mayor, Thus far, I’m proud to report through Today I am signing Senate Joint Resolu-the Governors, all New Yorkers, have the web sites of our charities, Americans tion 23, the “Authorization for Use of Mil-demonstrated the very best American val- have donated $55 million in seven short itary Force.”ues to a world that has been watching to days. Some of America’s high-tech lead- On September 11, 2001, terrorists com-see how our nation would react. ers, AOL/Time Warner and Microsoft, mitted treacherous and horrific acts of vio- The world watches the great country Amazon, Ebay, Cisco Systems and Yahoo lence against innocent Americans andcalled America, and they say: What will have joined together in a private effort to individuals from other countries. Civilizedthey do? What will Americans do? And encourage on-line giving so that we can nations and people around the world havewhat they’ve seen is the best of America. funnel resources to help our citizens in expressed outrage at, and have unequivo-They’ve seen leadership, they’ve seen need. cally condemned, these attacks. Thosecourage, and as importantly, they’ve seen They have formed what’s called “The who plan, authorize, commit, or aid terror-compassion. American Liberty Partnership.” It has a ist attacks against the United States and its Last evening marked the start of Rosh web site called libertyunites.org. And this interests—including those who harbor ter-Hashana. In Jewish teaching, this holy day will help Americans find out how to help. rorists—threaten the national security ofis the anniversary of the creation of the If a concerned American wants to help a the United States. It is, therefore, neces-world. It is a season of renewal and of neighbor in need, even though the neigh- sary and appropriate that the United Stateshope, and people of every faith, all across borhood might not be right next to each exercise its rights to defend itself and pro-America, embraced that spirit of renewal other, they can get on libertyunites.org, tect United States citizens both at home58 Winter 2002
  • 58. September 11, 2001and abroad. the United States. than 30 or 40 or 50 countries died in those In adopting this resolution in response Therefore, it will not be quick and it attacks. So the world has a stake in this asto the latest terrorist acts committed will not be easy. Our adversaries are not well. And the world grieves.against the United States and the continu- one or two terrorist leaders, or even a sin- I know that all Americans, and certainlying threat to the United States and its citi- gle terrorist organization or network. It’s a the men and women in uniform are up tozens from terrorist activities, both Houses broad network of individuals and organi- this challenge. The terrorists who did thisof Congress have acted wisely, decisively, zations that are determined to terrorize in my view will be seen to have made aand in the finest traditions of our country. and, in so doing, to deny us the very mistake. They thought they could frightenI thank the leadership of both Houses for essence of what we are: free people. Americans into retreat and inaction, andtheir role in expeditiously passing this his- The people who committed these acts they will find that Americans have notoric joint resolution. I have had the bene- are clearly determined to try to force the intention of withdrawing from the worldfit of meaningful consultations with mem- United States of America and our values in fear.bers of the Congress since the attacks of to withdraw from the world or to respond I’ll be happy to respond to questions.September 11, 2001, and I will continue by curtailing our freedoms. If we do that, Charlie.to consult closely with them as our Nation the terrorists will have won, and we haveresponds to this threat to our peace and no intention of doing so. Q. Mr. Secretary, due probably in nosecurity. We have a choice, either to change the small part to your admonition about Senate Joint Resolution 23 recognizes way we live, which is unacceptable, or to releasing classified information, nobodythe seriousness of the terrorist threat to change the way that they live, and we in this building is saying anything aboutour Nation and the authority of the Presi- have—we chose the latter. We intend to movements of troops—or planes or any-dent under the Constitution to take action put them on the defensive, to disrupt ter- thing. Do you—to deter and prevent acts of terrorism rorist networks and remove their sanctuar-against the United States. In signing this ies and their support systems. This Secretary Rumsfeld. Good! God blessresolution, I maintain the longstanding requires a distinctly different approach them.position of the executive branch regarding from any war that we have fought before.the President’s constitutional authority to In the past, we were used to dealing Q. Do you plan beyond the 35,500use force, including the Armed Forces of with armies and navies and air forces and that you identified for call-up, mostlythe United States and regarding the consti- ships and guns and tanks and planes. This for homeland defense, do you plan fortutionality of the War Powers Resolution. adversary is different. It does not have any or think there will be a need to call up Our whole Nation is unalterably com- of those things. It does not have high- forces for offensive operations in thismitted to a direct, forceful, and compre- value targets that we can go after. But war, as you say, on terror?hensive response to these terrorist attacks those countries that support them and giveand the scourge of terrorism directed sanctuary do have such targets. The terror- Secretary Rumsfeld. The best defenseagainst the United States and its interests. ists do not function in a vacuum. against terrorists is an offense. You simply They don’t live in Antarctica. They cannot batten down the hatches and try to work, they train and they plan in coun- cope with every conceivable thing any ter-Remarks by Secretary of tries. They’re benefiting from the support rorist could imagine to do. I mean, they’re of governments. They’re benefiting from already done some unimaginable things.State Rumsfeld, September the support of non-governmental organiza- The only answer is to take the effort to18, 200162 tions that are either actively supporting them where they are. them with money, intelligence and With respect to reservists, the presi-As we have said, and I don’t think it can weapons or allowing them to function on dent’s authorization that I recommended isbe repeated enough, this is a very new their territory and tolerating if not encour- one, as I recall, that is up to 50,000type of conflict, or battle or campaign or aging their activities. In either case, it has Reserve-Guard combined. [ Executivewar or effort, for the United States. We are to stop. order ] And we have at the moment nomoving in a—as a result, we’re moving in We’ll have to deal with the networks. plans beyond the 35. And it is purelya measured manner. As we gather infor- One of the ways to do that is to drain the going to be a decision as to how long wemation, we’re preparing appropriate cours- swamp they live in. And that means deal- have to do various things and what spe-es of action. And as I’ve suggested, they ing not only with the terrorists, but those cialties seem to be the most in short sup-run across the political and economic and who harbor terrorists. This will take a ply. And that task is going forward. Dr.financial, military, intelligence spectrum. long, sustained effort. It will require the David Chu is working with the services, It’s not a matter of a single event. We’re support of the American people as well as and they are proceeding to analyze that.talking about a very broadly based cam- our friends and allies around the world.paign to go after the terrorist problem And I must say that the support of the Q. Just one brief question. I realizewhere it exists, and it exists in countries American people has been overwhelming. you won’t discuss operations and all,across the globe. As I’ve indicated, this Indeed, the support across the globe has but there’s been much talk aboutone network, al Qaeda, that’s receiving so been overwhelming. It’s notable that hun- Afghanistan and, at the same time, justmuch discussion and publicity, may have dreds and hundreds of citizens from more how extremely difficult it would be toactivities in 50 to 60 countries, including Foreign Policy Bulletin 59
  • 59. Featuredo anything that would work in most part, people are willing to undergo, would not be a wise thing to do until weAfghanistan. given the fact that it has required a signifi- manage that. People are being inconve- cant change. If you look at the number of nienced at airports with their baggage. Secretary Rumsfeld. That’s true. firefighters and the Red Cross and the Sal- The baggage checks are considerably vation Army and every conceivable orga- more careful—much more careful than in Q. How do you root them out of nization out there, police—trying to get the past. It’s all of those things that areAfghanistan? How do you find them? the bodies out of this building, it’s not a quite understandable, it seems to me.How do you strike them? surprise that some of the roadways are blocked and that they’re using the parking Q. To follow up on something you said Secretary Rumsfeld. I think that one lot there for taking the materials from the earlier, you said that terrorist—stateshas to find ways to alter behavior. And as building and sifting through them and try- that support these terrorists do haveI’ve indicated, that runs across the spec- ing to find bodies and trying to find classi- armies, do have navies.trum. You’re quite right; Afghanistan is a fied material. And it is a very difficultvery poor country. It is a country that has whole set of problems that the people are Secretary Rumsfeld. Some.had—several countries have exhausted trying to manage here, in a way thatthemselves pounding that country and inconveniences people to the least possi- Q. Right, some do. The State Depart-fighting. And as I think I’ve mentioned, it ble way. ment has—I forget what the list is—sixhas a gross domestic product per capita of or seven identified terrorist states. Aresomething like $700, $800, $900 per per- Q. But your own generals are not you this morning declaring war onson a year. So it is—there are not great trusted to park their cars near the these nations that harbor terrorists?things of value that are easy to deal with. building because they supposedly fearAnd what we’ll have to do is exactly what that your generals’ cars would have Secretary Rumsfeld. No. What I’mI said—use the full spectrum of our capa- bombs in them? saying is that the United States of Ameri-bilities. ca has been savagely attacked by terror- Yes? Secretary Rumsfeld. To the extent that ists. Those terrorists live and work and there is a heightened alert, it tends to be function and are fostered and financed and Q. Mr. Secretary, you said that the because there is intelligence that suggests encouraged, if not just tolerated, by aUnited States would not be intimidated, that’s a prudent thing to do. It takes a lot series of countries on this globe. And wewould not be frightened by what has of dogs to check under cars. And even are saying that we think that is strikinghappened. Yet the building in which you though a car may belong to a perfectly directly at the way of life of the Americanwork has become an armed camp. Your responsible individual, it is not necessarily people, and that we intend to find ways toown top generals were unable to get physically in their custody 24 hours a day. alter that behavior.here for hours this morning; there were And they may not be aware of somethingtraffic jams created that would be that could have been done to the vehicle. Q. And you said this morning alsopotential targets for terrorists well out- Now, if that’s the case, and the dogs are that we have to drain the swamp. To doside of the Pentagon. It looks like they busy doing other things, which they are, it that, you sometimes have to get muddy.have succeeded, that they’re winning. seems to me not unreasonable. And I Is the United States prepared to sus- would cast it slightly differently. I would pend or ignore some legal requirements, Secretary Rumsfeld. Well, in a sense, say that what we’ve got here is a distinctly burden of proof, to go after people whoyou’re right. Any time Americans alter different circumstance in the Pentagon, have long been identified as suspect ter-their behavior because of a clear and visi- and the people are dealing with it, in my rorists, but the U.S. hasn’t been able toble threat to their lives, those that did the view, in a very professional way, and I get at, because they just don’t have thethreatening have achieved some portion of think that for the most part the people kind of conclusive evidence to take totheir goal. What we’ve got to do is to find inconvenienced are as well. court?ways to see that those traffic jams areeliminated—and I’m sure we will, in a Q. Before I ask my question, I want to Secretary Rumsfeld. The president hasday or two—and to attempt to get back to follow up on Jack’s. Are you saying that indicated that he intends to take this attackas normal a situation—but as the president there is credible intelligence that the to the terrorists. And he intends to findindicated, with a heightened awareness Pentagon is still a target of terrorist ways to persuade the countries that areand vigilance, because it would be naive attack? harboring terrorists to stop doing that. Ito think that there are no potential threats. think of it in the sense of self-defense, andThere are. Secretary Rumsfeld. No. What I’m there is nothing that inhibits the United Yes? saying is that, as the president indicated, States of America from defending itself. it’s important to get back to work, and it’s And that is what we intend to do. Q. Mr. Secretary, this morning— important to get about your business. But as we know, Washington National’s not Q. Mr. Secretary, American planes Secretary Rumsfeld. And the inconve- open. Why? Well, because it is so close to dropped two targets in southern Iraqnience is something that I think, for the so many very high-value targets that it today, and I was wondering if you could60 Winter 2002
  • 60. September 11, 2001elaborate, if you’ve seen any change in period of time, that source of information during President Kennedy’s time. It is mythe behavior of Iraqi forces since the dries up, and they find other methods of honor to welcome you back to Washing-attacks last week, or— communicating or other methods of pro- ton and to the Oval Office as President of viding information or dealing with each your great nation. Secretary Rumsfeld. The action by other, or that method becomes less useful I look forward to having a very goodcoalition forces in Iraq were part of a very over a period of time. discussion about our relations, as well asnormal pattern that has been under way Now, you have to balance your national what we’re going to do as people whothroughout the time I’ve been in the security interest in getting someone to love freedom about terrorism. And I wantDepartment and before. stop a specific act against your national to thank you very much for your strong To the extent that the Iraqi government security interest in being able to continue statements of support for the Americancontinues to fire at coalition aircraft and to to gather information and know what’s people, and your strong statement againstmove air defense capabilities in those taking place. So it is not a simple matter. terrorist activities. It meant a lot to us. Youareas where we operate, in the no-fly And those are calculations that ultimate- represent the nation with the most Muslimzones, we intend to keep taking action ly get made. And it’s a balance—what are people in the world. I’ve made it clear,against those capabilities—radars, com- you getting for what you’re giving up? Madam President, that the war against ter-munications systems, SAM sites, AAA, And how satisfied are you? It’s not dis- rorism is not a war against Muslims, norand the like—and that’s what took place. similar from the problem when you—a is it a war against Arabs. It’s a war against spy is captured and people, instead of evil people who conduct crimes against Q. Sir, could you explain your com- prosecuting them vigorously, end up mak- innocent people.ments this morning on CBS when you ing an arrangement with them to try to And so, welcome to Washington, D.C. Isaid you didn’t want to provide evi- find out what they compromised, so that look forward to a long discussion. I appre-dence to the Taliban of Osama bin you can save people’s lives. And yet you, ciate so very much your vision for yourLaden’s involvement in this, if there is on the other hand, don’t punish the indi- very important country. Welcome.any? General Zinni in October told the vidual to the extent that they merit it.Senate Armed Services Committee President Megawati. Thank you, Mr.that’s exactly the route he would recom- President. I will speak in Indonesian. I’mmend that people go—in presenting this Statement by the President very honored to be your guest here today,evidence so that the world can see their even though we are in a moment of grief.guilt. Could you explain what your con- of the United Nations I would like to express on behalf of thecern would be in providing—is it that Security Council, September people and government of Indonesia ourthey’d alert individuals, and— deep condolences to the American people. 18, 200163 And we share this moment of grief with Secretary Rumsfeld. It is a dilemma. Members of the Security Council heard a you.What happens is the United States of full briefing by Under-Secretary-General I also want to say thank you, becauseAmerica and our friends around the world Prendergast on the political, military and even though you’re having a differentgather information to provide for their humanitarian situation in Afghanistan, time, you’re still able to meet me in thisnational security. There are pieces of intel- including the dire consequences of Taliban place which I’m quite familiar with.ligence information that come in that we rule for the Afghan people. Thank you very much, Mr. President.do in fact expose to foreign countries from There is one and only one message thetime to time. We do it to make a persua- Security Council has for the Taliban: Q. Mr. President, do you have anysive case. Sometimes we have to do it in a implement United Nations Security Coun- reason to believe Iraq is connected withcourt of law. We do it, for example, also cil resolutions, in particular resolution the terrorist attack? And if so, whatwith respect to counterproliferation 1333, immediately and unconditionally. would your response be?efforts, where we’re trying to get countries And could I ask your guest if sheto stop their people from spreading could respond to her Vice Presidentweapons of mass destruction across the Remarks by President Bush saying that the tragedy would cleanseglobe. the sins of the United States? You have to be very careful in doing it, and Indonesian Presidentbecause if you do it, you are running the Megawati, September 19, President Bush. First, let me—anybodyrisk that you will compromise a source of who harbors terrorists needs to fear theinformation or a method of gathering 200164 United States and the rest of the freeinformation. And to the extent you com- world. Anybody who houses a terrorist, President Bush and President Megawatipromise a source or a method of gathering encourages terrorism will be held account- Soekarnoputri of Indonesia deliveredinformation, you have damaged yourself, able. And we are gathering all evidence on their remarks at a press conference atbecause we have found that when we do this particular crime and other crimes the White House.that, frequently when we do that—not against freedom-loving people.always when we do that, but frequently President Bush. President Megawati was And I would strongly urge any nation inwhen we do it, within a relatively short just telling me she had visited Washington the world to reject terrorism, expel terror- Foreign Policy Bulletin 61
  • 61. Featureists. I would strongly urge the Taliban to are a number of countries who seem to fighting terrorism, and say, help us roundturn over the al Qaeda organizers who be saying, not so fast. China, in particu- up these people; you can play a construc-hide in their country. We’re—we’re on the lar, said that any strike must be preced- tive role.case. We’re gathering as much evidence as ed by irrefutable evidence. Others have We fully understand that certain NGOs,we possibly can to be able to make our raised concerns about civilian casual- nongovernmental organizations, serve ascase to the world about all countries and ties. So the first question is, are you now fronts, as a funding mechanism for terror-their willingness to harbor or not harbor prepared to provide such irrefutable ist organizations. We expect there to beterrorists. evidence to countries, and what in your activity on those fronts, as well. mind is the biggest challenge that you So the challenge is to redefine the terms Q. A specific message to Iraq? face in trying to construct this coali- of the conflict, the campaign, in a way tion? that the leaders understand, and in a way President Bush. The message to every that the people of the world understand.country is, there will be a campaign President Bush. Well, first of all, we’ll There’s a certain impatience with war ofagainst terrorist activity, a worldwide cam- do what we need to do to achieve the first the past. People demand a certain claritypaign. And there is an outpouring of sup- objective of a long campaign. And the first of a specific battlefield. But this is theport for such a campaign. Freedom-loving objective is to bring people to justice who first—this is a new type of struggle. It’speople understand that terrorism knows no we feel like committed this particular set really the first series of battles in the 21stborders, that terrorists will strike in order of atrocities, and to hold the organization century.to bring fear, to try to change the behavior accountable and to hold those who harbor Again I repeat, terrorism knows no bor-of countries that love liberty. And we will them accountable. That’s the first objec- ders, it has no capital, but it does have anot let them do that. tive of a very long campaign. common ideology, and that is they hate Now, this is a campaign in which David, I think that the real challenge for freedom, and they hate freedom-lovingnations will contribute in a variety of America and our allies in this effort is to people. And they particularly hate Ameri-ways. Some nations will be willing to join do a couple of things: One, condition the ca at this moment. But many leadersin a very overt way. Other nations will be world, starting with our own country, that understand that what happened in Newwilling to join by sharing information— this will be a different kind of battle, York City and Washington, D.C. couldand information in a campaign such as series of battles; that they will be fought have easily have happened in their capital,this is going to be incredibly important. visibly sometimes, and sometimes we’ll as well.It’s very important for us to be able to find never see what may be taking place; that It’s a long answer to a short question.where these people are. the—and that we fully understand that There’s going to need to be a cam- some nations will be comfortable support- Q. Can I follow on one point? Do youpaign—there needs to be a financial com- ing overt activities, some nations will be to your mind have irrefutable evidenceponent of the campaign, where we need to comfortable supporting covert activities, that links al Qaeda, and specificallycooperate to make sure we cut off funds, some nations will only be comfortable in Osama bin Laden to these attacks?find these organizations that serve as front providing information, others will be help-groups for funding these terrorist cells. ful and only feel comfortable helping on President Bush. When we take action, And so my message to all nations is we financial matters. I understand that. Third- we will take action because we believe—look forward to full cooperation. ly, as these various—as the campaign because we know we’ll be on the right. Did you have a question for the Presi- evolves, some nations may take a more And I want to remind people that theredent? active role than others. have been terrorist activities on America The mind-set of war must change. It is a in the past, as well. And there has been— Q. Yes. Could you respond, please, to different type of battle. It’s a different type indictments have been handed down.the Vice President of your country who of battlefield. It’s a different type of war. This is a war not against a specific indi-said that the tragedy will cleanse— And that, in itself, is going to be a real vidual, nor will it be a war against solely challenge for America and those other one organization. It is a war against terror- President Megawati. After I heard and nations who understand that, because ist activities. Our nation must do every-witnessed and saw what happened, the sometimes—look, the mission is to root thing we can to protect the homeland, andtragic events in New York and Washing- out terrorist activities. And there’s a vari- we are. The Attorney General briefs on aton, I immediately issued a statement ety of ways in which that can happen. daily basis, as the Director of the FBI,which strongly condemned these attacks, Clearly, one of our focuses is to get peo- talking about what we’re doing to do thewhich were very inhumane. And after- ple out of their caves, smoke them out, get best we can to protect the American peo-wards I sent a letter to President Bush, them moving and get them—is about as ple from any further activity.expressing my condolences. So this is the plainly as I can put it. And we’re focused But the best way to make sure thatposition of my government on this issue. on that. But we’re also focused, and we America is safe, the people of IndonesiaSo it’s very clear. recognize that the al Qaeda organization are safe, is to find terrorism at its roots exists in some 60-plus countries, and and to root it out, to get them out of their Q. Mr. President, since you’ve we’re beginning to work with other caves and get them moving, cut off theirdeclared war against terrorism, there nations that are receptive to the notion of finances, and hold them accountable.62 Winter 2002
  • 62. September 11, 2001 Joint Statement by the Statement by Pakistani Q. Mr. President, now that ChairmanArafat has said he was willing to fight United States and the President Musharraf,terrorism and he wants to join your Republic of Indonesia, September 19, 200166coalition, are you willing to talk to him? And, President Megawati, a quick September 19, 200165 My dear countrymen, Asslam-o-Alaikum:question is, are you able to offer your The situation confronting the nation President George W. Bush and Presidentgovernment and your people’s support today and the international crisis have Megawati Soekarnoputri today con-for this coalition, or do you have that impelled me to take the nation into confi- demned the September 11, 2001 attackssupport in your country? dence. First of all, I would like to express on the United States and pledged to heartfelt sympathies to the United States strengthen existing cooperation in the President Bush. Let me first—I would for the thousands of valuable lives lost in global effort to combat international ter-hope that Chairman Arafat backs up his the United States due to horrendous acts rorism. On behalf of the 210 million peo-strong statement with action. We take his of terrorism. We are all the more grieved ple of Indonesia, President Megawatiwords very seriously that he is interested because in this incident people from about expressed her deepest sympathies to thein doing everything he can to reduce ter- 45 countries from all over the world lost American people and pledged solidarityrorism and violence in the Middle East. their lives. People of all ages old, chil- with the United States in this hour ofThat was a very positive statement he dren, women and people from all and grief. Noting that the victims includedmade. And I hope he stays focused on every religion lost their lives. Many Pak- innocent civilians of many nationalities,achieving the goal he stated. And so to istanis also lost their lives. These people including an Indonesian citizen, the twothat end, our administration and our gov- were capable Pakistanis who had gone to leaders agreed that these indiscriminateernment is continuing to talk to Chairman improve their lives. attacks have no place in a civilized world.Arafat to encourage him to live up to his On this loss of lives I express my sym- The two Presidents reaffirmed theirwords, and at the same time, working with pathies with those families. I pray to Allah commitment to the principles of religiousthe Israelis to encourage them to seize the to rest their souls in peace. This act of ter- freedom and tolerance in relations withinmoment. rorism has raised a wave of deep grief, and among nations. As leader of the Progress is being made. Madam Presi- anger and retaliation in the United States. world’s largest Muslim population anddent, I said at the time, through my tears I Their first target from day one is Osama third largest democracy, Presidentsee opportunity. One of the opportunities I bin Laden’s movement Al-Qaida about Megawati joined President Bush in under-saw was the ability not to put—not only which they say that it is their first target. lining the importance of differentiatingfor freedom-loving nations to come The second target are Taliban and that is between the religion of Islam and the actstogether to say resolutely we will fight ter- because Taliban have given refuge to of violent extremists. Emphasizing thatrorism, but I felt like there would be—this Osama and his network. This has been Islam is a religion of peace that neitherevent may shake up the attitudes of the their demand for many years. They have teaches hatred nor condones violence,Middle East where people would end up been demanding their extradition and pre- President Megawati encouraged Presidentresolving to show the world that there sentation before the international court of Bush in his stated purpose of building acould be peace there as well. justice. Taliban have been rejecting this. broad coalition across religious lines and And progress is being made. And I want The third target is a long war against cultures to deal with these new and dan-to tell the American people, the Secretary terrorism at the international level. The gerous threats. She further emphasized theof State—even though we’re focused on thing to ponder is that in these three tar- importance of taking into account thewhat happened in New York and Washing- gets nobody is talking about war against views of the Muslim world as the Unitedton, D.C., we’re also very much involved Islam or the people of Afghanistan. Pak- States leads an appropriate response to thein the Middle East. And Secretary Powell istan is being asked to support this cam- events of September 11. Noting that Islamwas on the phone yesterday with leaders paign. What is this support? Generally is the fastest growing religion in the Unit-in the Middle East, urging them to seize speaking, these are three important things ed States, President Bush assured Presi-this moment. And so we have a sense of— in which America is asking for our help. dent Megawati that the American peoplewe now have a sense of optimism that First is intelligence and information respect Islam as one of the world’s greatsomething positive may take place in the exchange, second support is the use of our religions and that the United States wouldMiddle East. airspace and the third is that they are ask- join hands with freedom-loving people of ing for logistic support from us. all religions to combat transnational terror. Q. Are you able to offer the support I would like to tell you now that they doof your country to this coalition against not have any operational plan right now.terrorism? Therefore we do not have any details on this count but we know that whatever are President Megawati. Indonesia has the United States’ intentions they have thealways been against violence. Anything support of the U.N. Security Council andthat relates to violence, including acts of the General Assembly in the form of aterrorism, we will definitely be against it. resolution. This is a resolution for war Foreign Policy Bulletin 63
  • 63. Featureagainst terrorism and this is a resolution and the Federal Cabinet. I interacted with 4. And Kashmir cause.for punishing those people who support the media. I invited the religious scholars The four are our critical concerns. Anyterrorism. Islamic countries have support- and held discussions with them. I met wrong judgement on our part can damageed this resolution. This is the situation as politicians. I also invited intellectuals. I all our interests. While taking a decision,it prevailed in the outside world. will be meeting with the tribal chiefs and we have to keep in mind all these factors. Now I would like to inform you about Kashmiri leaders tomorrow. This is the The decision should reflect supremacy ofthe internal situation. Pakistan is facing a same process of consultation that I held righteousness and it should be in confor-very critical situation and I believe that earlier. I noted that there was difference of mity with Islam. Whatever we are doing,after 1971, this is the most critical period. opinion but an overwhelming majority it is according to Islam and it upholds theThe decision we take today can have far- favors patience, prudence and wisdom. principle of righteousness. I would like toreaching and wide- ranging consequences. Some of them, I think about ten percent say that decisions about the national inter-The crisis is formidable and unprecedent- favored sentimental approach. ests should be made with wisdom anded. If we take wrong decisions in this cri- Let us now take a look at the designs of rational judgement. At this moment, it issis, it can lead to worst consequences. On our neighboring country. They offered all not the question of bravery or cowardice.the other hand, if we take right decisions, their military facilities to the United We are all very brave. My own responseits results will be good. The negative con- States. They have offered without hesita- in such situations is usually of daring. But tion, all their facilities, all their bases and bravery without rational judgement tanta- full logistic support. They want to enter mounts to stupidity. There is no clashThe decision we take today can have far- into any alliance with the Unites States between bravery and sound judgement. and get Pakistan declared a terrorist state. Allah Almighty says in the holy Quran,reaching and wide- ranging consequences. They want to harm our strategic assets and “The one bestowed with sagacity is theThe crisis is formidable and the Kashmir cause. Not only this, recently one who get a big favor from Allah”.unprecedented. If we take wrong certain countries met in Dushanbe. India We have to take recourse to sanity. Wedecisions in this crisis, it can lead to was one of them. Indian representative have to save our nation from damage. We was there. What do the Indians want? they have to build up; our national respect.worst consequences. On the other hand, if do not have common borders with “Pakistan comes first, everything elsewe take right decisions, its results will be Afghanistan anywhere. It is totally isolat- comes later”. Some scholars and religiousgood. The negative consequences can ed from Afghanistan. In my view, it would leaders are inclined towards taking emo-endanger Pakistan’s integrity and not be surprising, that the Indians want to tional decisions. I would like to remindsolidarity. Our critical concerns, our ensure that if and when the government in them the events of the first six years of the Afghanistan changes, it shall be an anti- history of Islam. The Islamic calendarimportant concerns can come under Pakistan government. started from migration. The significancethreat. When I say critical concerns, I It is very important that while the entire of migration is manifested from the factmean our strategic assets and the cause world is talking about this horrible terror- that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) went fromof Kashmir. If these come under threat it ist attack, our neighboring country instead Makkah to Madina. He (PBUH) migrated of talking peace and cooperation, was try- to safeguard Islam. What was migration?would be a worse situation for us. ing hard to harm Pakistan and defame God forbid, was it an act of cowardice? On the other hand, we can re-emerge Islam. If you watch their television, you The Holy Prophet (PBUH) signed thepolitically as a responsible and dignified will find them dishing out propaganda charter of Madinah (Meesaq-e-Madinah)nation and all our difficulties can be mini- against Pakistan, day in and day out. I with the Jewish tribes. It was an act ofmized. would like to tell India “Lay off.” sagacity. This treaty remained effective for Pakistan’s armed forces and every Pak- six years. Three battles were fought with istani citizen is ready to offer any sacrifice non-believers of Makkiah during this peri- in order to defend Pakistan and secure its od—the battle of Badr, Uhad and Khan-sequences can endanger Pakistan’s integri- strategic assets. Make no mistake and daq. The Muslims emerged victorious inty and solidarity. Our critical concerns, entertain no misunderstanding. At this these battles with the non-believers ofour important concerns can come under very moment our Air Force is at high Makkah because the Jews had signed athreat. When I say critical concerns, I alert; and they are ready for “Do or die” treaty with the Muslims.mean our strategic assets and the cause of Missions My countrymen! In such a situa- After six years, the Jews were visiblyKashmir. If these come under threat it tion, a wrong decision can lead to unbear- disturbed with the progress of Islam,would be a worse situation for us. able losses. What are our critical concerns which was getting stronger and stronger. On the other hand, we can re-emerge and priorities? These are four; They conspired to forge covert relationspolitically as a responsible and dignified 1. First of all is the security of the coun- with the non-believers of Makkah. Realiz-nation and all our difficulties can be mini- try and external threat. ing the danger, the Holy Prophet (PBUH)mized. I have considered all these factors 2. Second is our economy and its signed the treaty of Hudaibiya with theand held consultations with those who revival. Makkhans who had been imposing warshold different opinions. I met the corps 3. Third are our strategic nuclear and on Islam. This was a no war pact. I wouldcommanders, National Security Council missile assets. like to draw your attention to one signifi-64 Winter 2002
  • 64. September 11, 2001cant point of this pact. The last portion of should not be imposed on Afghanistan and integrity and I shall not disappoint you onthe pact was required to be signed by the that we should engage them. I have been this occasion either. This is firm pledge toHoly Prophet (PBUH) as Muhammad repeating this stance before all leaders but you. In the end before I take your leave, IRasool Allah. I am sorry to say that none of our friends would like to end with the prayer of The non-believers contested that they accepted this. Hazrat Musa (A.S)( Prophet Moses) asdid not recognize Muhammad (PBUH) as Even in this situation, we are trying our given in Sura-e-Taha: “May Allah openthe Prophet of Allah. They demanded to best to cooperate with them. I sent Direc- my chest, make my task easier, untie myerase these words from the text of the tor General ISI with my personal letter to tongue so that they may comprehend mytreaty. The Holy Prophet(PBUH) agreed Mullah Umar. He returned after spending intent”.but Hazrat Umar (R.A) protested against two days there. I have informed Mullah May Allah be with us in our endeavors.it. He got emotional and asked the Holy Umar about the gravity of the situation. Pakistan Paindabad.Prophet (PBUH) if he was not the messen- We are trying our best to come out of thisger of God (God forbid) and whether the critical situation without any damage toMuslims were not on the right path while Afghanistan and Taliban. This is my Remarks by Russiansigning the treaty. The Holy Prophet earnest endeavor and with the blessings of(PBUH) advised Hazrat Umar (R.A) not Allah I will continue to seek such a way President Vladimir Putin,to be led by emotions as the dictates of out. We are telling the Americans too that September 19, 200167national thinking demanded signing of the they should be patient. Whatever theirtreaty at that time. He (PBUH) said, this plans, they should be cautious and bal- President Vladimir Putin was interviewedwas advantageous to Islam and as years anced: We are asking them to come up by German ARD Television.would pass by you would come to know with whatever evidence they have against Q. At this moment an increasing num-of its benefits. “This is exactly what hap- Osama bin Laden; What I would like to ber of signs attest that the Americanspened.” Six months later in the battle of know is how do we save Afghanistan and will respond and not only respond, butKhyber, Muslims, by the grace of Allah, Taliban. And how do we ensure that they also perhaps they will really deliver anagain became victorious. It should be suffer minimum losses: I am sure that you armed strike at Afghanistan. If thisremembered that this became possible will favor that we do so and bring some occurs, what will be the reaction ofbecause Makkhans could not attack improvement by working with the nations Russia?because of the treaty. On 8 Hijra by the of the world. At this juncture, I am wor-grace of Allah glory of Islam spread to ried about Pakistan only. I am the President Putin. We believe that, as IMakkah. What is the lesson for us in this? Supreme Commander of Pakistan and I already said, evil without a doubt must beThe lesson is that when there is a crisis give top priority to the defense of Pak- punished. Moreover the response to thesituation, the path of wisdom is better than istan, Defense of any other country comes aggression with which the United Statesthe path of emotions. Therefore, we have later. has been confronted must be prompt. We,to take a strategic decision. There is no We want to take decisions in the interest of course, believe that the generally recog-question of weakness of faith or cow- of Pakistan. I know that the majority of nized international rules will be observedardice. the people favor our decisions. I also and the United States will consult as it For Pakistan, life can be sacrificed and I know that some elements are trying to takes decisions with its allies as well: witham sure every Pakistani will give his life take unfair advantage of the situation and the direct NATO allies, with Russia andfor Pakistan. I have fought two wars. I promote their personal agenda and with other leading powers of the world.have seen dangers. I faced them and by advance the interests of their parties. They That’s why the Minister of Foreign Affairsthe grace of Allah never committed a cow- are poised to create dissensions and dam- of the Russian Federation, Mr. Ivanov, isardly act. But at this time one should not age the country. There is no reason why in Washington today.bring harm to the country. We cannot this minority should be allowed to holdmake the future of a hundred and forty the sane majority as a hostage. I appeal to Q. How far are you willing to go inmillion people bleak. Even otherwise it is all Pakistanis to display unity and solidari- cooperation with the USA and withsaid in Shariah that if there are two diffi- ty and foil the nefarious designs of such NATO if a military strike is delivered?culties at a time and a selection has to be elements who intend to harm the interests Is it conceivable that Russia will givemade it is better to opt for the lesser one. of the country. At this critical juncture, we consent to the use of airfields on the Some of our friends seem to be much have to frustrate the evil designs of our CIS territory, for example, in Tajik-worried about Afghanistan. I must tell enemies and safeguard national interests. istan?them that I and my government are much Pakistan is considered a fortress of Islam.more worried about Afghanistan and Tal- God forbid, if this fortress is harmed in President Putin. You said: CIS—thisiban. I have done everything for any way it would cause damage to the means the Commonwealth of IndependentAfghanistan and Taliban when the entire cause of Islam. My dear countrymen, States. These states are independent in theworld is against them. I have met about Have trust in me the way you reposed true sense of the word. We, of course,twenty to twenty five world leaders and trust in me before going to Agra. I did not have certain influence, just as they havetalked to each of them in favor of the Tal- disappoint the nation there. We have not some on us. We all come from one state—iban. I have told them that sanctions compromised on national honor and the Soviet Union—we have many ties, we Foreign Policy Bulletin 65
  • 65. Featureeconomically are present there quite impossible to act so long as a protracted terrorism cannot, must not and is not lim-weightily, but political decisions of this debate goes on there, weighing up some ited to military methods, if we want tokind these states make independently. or other positions for a long time, while achieve positive results.That’s the first point. there is the perfectly clear interest of As to our plans, military plans in the Second, as regards the possible involve- the USA in using military force as soon Caucasus, they have been achieved. And Iment of Russia, we are ready to cooperate as possible? cannot agree with you that our militarywith the United States in the struggle actions there have not led to the resultsagainst terrorism in the broadest terms. President Putin. I have sufficiently which we had expected. Indeed, we didn’tWe haven’t yet had any specific requests clearly defined my position at the first expect any other results. We’ve destroyedon this question, but security services have reaction after the terrorists dealt their large bases of terrorists, have destroyedlong since been cooperating. The question strike against the United States. I said that their organized structures, they don’t exist.is, this cooperation should be taken to a this was a strike against the whole of We set ourselves this task, and it has beennew qualitative level. We are ready for humanity, at least against the entire civi- achieved. But we never really thought thatthis. And, of course (I cannot fail to say lized world, of which Russia considers the very roots of this phenomenon couldthat), all of our actions must and will be in itself a part. Therefore we regard the strike be fully eradicated there in a year and afull conformity with Russian law and the against the United States in the broadest half or two. That requires lots of intense,international obligations assumed by Rus- sense as a strike against the entire civi- large and many-sided work. This work issia and the rules of international law. lized world. In this sense we do not divide associated with improving the social-eco- our interests with those of other countries, nomic standard of living for the popula- Q. Is it conceivable that, for example, including with the interests of the United tion of the North Caucasus and Chechnya,Russian forces will act in this case on States. in particular. This is associated with cul-the United States’ and NATO’s side, or I believe responses to the most mali- tural work, it is associated with religious-do you rule out such a possibility? cious, most dangerous manifestations of ideological work, because we must offer terrorism ought to be sufficiently effective the bulk of the population something other President Putin. You know our posi- and quick. The involvement of Russia in than the man-hating ideas being put for-tion, it is a principled one. The use of the such actions, I repeat, is limited to Rus- ward by religious fanatics.Armed Forces outside the Russian Federa- sia’s internal laws and our commitments As for the peaceful population, I drawtion, in the first place, calls in our country to our partners. So far we have received your attention to the fact that we used tofor a special legislative procedure and no specific proposals. And, of course, we be told eighteen months back we wouldrequires endorsement by the Federal will make our decisions, bearing in mind never find a single Chechen who wouldCouncil, that is the upper house of the the level and nature of our partnership cooperate with federal forces in the slight-Russian parliament. with the United States and with the NATO est way. Today a civil administration of Besides that, use of the Armed Forces in countries. Chechnya has been established, in eachthird countries may occur only by a deci- district the heads of administrations work,sion of the Security Council of the United Q. I would like now to turn to the Chechens by nationality, and bandits keepNations. We have up until now observed example of the struggle against terror- striking at them. As you know, many peo-these rules and intend to do so. But this ism, which exists in your own country, I ple from among the Chechen populationdoes not mean that we cannot discuss mean Chechnya. You are operating have already died at the hands of bandits,questions of this kind and together with there against armed terrorist groups including noted religious workers. All thisour partners think over a possible response and here, probably, no one will object suggests that the population of Chechnyain connection with the terrorist acts. to you now, especially in view of the understands what is happening there and I must say that members of the U.N. events now occurring. And yet, despite they are turning towards the federal center.Security Council, in any case its perma- this, I will ask you a question. We have no doubt on that score. Ofnent members, have wholly and entirely You have operated by military means, course, this requires a certain time and, ofidentified themselves with the United but these actions were directed also course, it will require certain efforts.States and support the struggle against ter- against the civilian population, among The same thing, I think, we will all haverorism. Only yesterday, as I already said, I whom there were also many casualties. to do together internationally, the sametalked with the President of the People’s Two years on, this conflict still has not thing will have to be done against otherRepublic of China, who also stressed that been resolved by military means. As it centers of terrorism. That we are intercon-his country did not accept terrorism in any seems to us. You have still not managed nected, I think, today does not need beingof its manifestations and was willing to to win the hearts of the peaceful popu- proved. It is an obvious fact for all. Sup-cooperate with the international communi- lation there. Does this method of action port comes from certain centers and wety in the struggle against this evil, which not mean that as a matter of fact, you have to work together against those cen-is becoming ever more dangerous. are engendering new terrorism while ters. you are combating the old one? I mean Of course, with just military operations Q. You said the United Nations must by acting with such means. this cannot end. It will not lead to positivedeal with this question. But won’t that results, but here the cohesion of the worldbecome a brake, that is to say, it will be President Putin. The struggle against community is needed and effective actions66 Winter 2002
  • 66. September 11, 2001on a whole number of issues, the first of ing conclusions now, but one thing is it were fully operational, the possibilitieswhich is to deprive bandit groups and ter- clear: we need to take a fresh and realistic of terrorists to organize their crimes wouldrorist organizations of financial support, to look at some fundamental problems of be reduced considerably. At the sameexert a positive economic influence on the peace and security in the 21st century. The time, it is necessary to make sure that ter-state entities and on the states in which most important thing is that we have been rorists do not feel safe anywhere in theterrorism takes place, and to cooperate confronted with all their mercilessness not world.with these states in the humanitarian by hypothetical, that can emerge ten to However, I would like to stress that weregard. This a whole large range of work. twenty years from now, but real threats to must counter the lawlessness of terrorists the security of our countries and the lives and criminals by law because history Q. Essentially, maybe this cannot be of our citizens on a scale that none of us teaches us that lawful goals can be effec-directly compared, but we encounter an has seen before. tively protected only by lawful efforts.analogous problem in Palestine. This After the end of the Cold War, the joint This is why it is so important now not tomeans that we see from the example of efforts of Russia, the U.S. and other coun- weaken but on the contrary, enhance inter-Palestine, and you from the example of tries eliminated the threat of global national law and the existing ample net-Chechnya, that matters should be led to nuclear conflict. At the same time, we work of multilateral and bilateral treatiesa political solution. Did l understand could not fully overcome the psychologi- and agreements. This is why it is so nec-you right? cal vestiges of the era of confrontation and essary to enhance the authority and opera- its main postulate: the worse my neighbor tional possibilities of international institu- President Putin. Yes, absolutely right. feels, the better do I. We appeared not to tions, primarily the United Nations Orga- be ready to effectively counter new threats nization. and challenges that may explode the Globalization processes require all of usExcerpt from Remarks by strategic situation in the world now. We to take additional efforts in order to con- often happen to be unable to resist mili- solidate the international community inRussian Foreign Minister tant extremists, separatists and other fanat- solving problems facing mankind. WeIvanov, September 19, 200168 ics. Paradoxical as it may seem, the world must do everything we can to prevent a community feels, and sometimes finds new division of the world not into theForeign Minister Igor Ivanov delivered itself, less secure under the present cir- West and the East as it was during thehis remarks at the Nixon Center. cumstances than in the era of bipolar con- Cold War but into the North and theThis meeting is taking place in the tragic frontation. South. Unfortunately, this negative ten-days when the entire civilized humankind I am convinced that the main reason for dency is gaining momentum.has joined the American people in griev- this is the lack of concerted international It is of paramount importance in this sit-ing for the victims of barbaric terrorist mechanisms enabling us to effectively uation to step up joint or concerted effortsacts in New York and Washington. respond to new threats in the era of glob- by Russia and the U.S. in building free Russia itself has experienced the horror alization. And these are, first of all, inter- and democratic, stable and safe interna-of terrorist acts and the bitter loss of inno- national terrorism, organized crime, illegal tional relations that will effectively protectcent people. Our country and other CIS trafficking in drugs and weapons. Experi- lawful interests of all countries and ensurestates have become virtually the first tar- ence shows that no country can fight this steady growth of the world economy.get for a direct strike by international ter- evil alone. We all need mutual support and Now that the very foundation of humanrorism since the end of the Cold War. This solidarity. The international community security in our countries has been threat-can be explained. During the first years must respond to the criminal actions of ened, we as never before are convinced ofafter the disintegration of the Soviet terrorists and drug barons with unity and the possibility and need to build a qualita-Union, the internal security structure determination. tively new relationship between Russiaweakened, and terrorists and militant Russia calls for creating a Global Sys- and the U.S.. This understanding was aextremists did not hesitate to use this. This tem for countering new threats and chal- starting point in the negotiations betweenis why we were, perhaps, the first to lenges. We hope that this problem will be Presidents Vladimir Putin and Georgeunderstand that this tremendous threat can discussed most seriously at the current Bush in Ljubljana and Genoa. It isbe countered only through joint efforts. session of the U.N. General Assembly in extremely important that both MoscowThis is why we are not only ready for but New York. and Washington clearly understand thatinsist on the closest interaction with the The discussion should focus, first of all, the era of confrontation is behind us andU.S. and other members of the interna- on how to enhance our capabilities for that our countries should interact withtional community in the fight against early detection and prevention of crimes. each other, proceeding from totally newinternational terrorism. As President This will require us to create new and realities of the 21st century.Vladimir Putin has said, the criminals strengthen existing international legal The time has come to take a new deci-must not remain unpunished. mechanisms in this field. We must make sive step and start building strategic rela- The tragic events of the last days appropriate anti-terrorist conventions fully tions between Russia and the U.S. in theundoubtedly represent a new starting point operational. For example, not so long ago face of the challenges of the 21st century.in the development of international rela- the U.N. adopted a convention aimed at These strategic relations may becometions. It is still difficult to make far-reach- stopping financial support to terrorists. If one of the underlying principles for the Foreign Policy Bulletin 67
  • 67. Featureemerging international coalition called We had a good discussion of potential work of appropriate working groups thatupon to counter modern threats. areas of cooperation as we go after this have already been established and that These strategic relations should help worldwide threat to civilization, and a have already been working between theenhance the multifaceted dialogue and comprehensive campaign where all ele- United States and Russia.interaction between Moscow and Wash- ments of national and international power At the same time, we believe that it’sington on key international and regional must be used: law enforcement, military high time that we established by jointproblems. Our ultimate goals coincide on activity, legal actions, financial actions, efforts a global system to counteract glob-most of these issues even though we often anything that can be used to get at these al threats and challenges. And we believedisagree on the methods of attaining them. terrorist organizations. In the first that the work on establishing such global Both Russia and the U.S. seek to instance, al-Qaida and Mr. Usama bin system must begin as early as today.strengthen international regimes of non- Laden, but ultimately terrorism wherever We also place the main focus of ourproliferation of weapons of mass destruc- it rears its ugly head. negotiations today on the preparations fortion. We also had a full discussion of regional the forthcoming summit meetings between Both Russia and the U.S. are interested issues, Iran, Iraq, Macedonia and other the Presidents of Russia and the Unitedin peace and calm everywhere, be it the areas of interest to us, and we had a good States in Shanghai during the summit ofBalkans or the Middle East. discussion as well of the conversations we APEC as well as the preparations of the Both Russia and the U.S. closely coop- have been having between our two sides first official visit of Russian Presidenterate in containing the threat emanating on a new strategic framework. And I think Putin to the United States.from Afghanistan. we are moving in the right direction. We We are satisfied with the fact that the have not solved the problem yet of how relations between Russia and the United we can find a new strategic framework to States are gaining positive dynamics. ThisRemarks by Secretary of go forward. But I think in our conversa- has become possible, first of all, thanks to tions today and the conversations that the summit meetings that our Presidents,State Colin Powell and Under Secretary Bolton and Assistant Sec- the Presidents of Russia and the UnitedRussian Foreign Minister retary Fife of the Pentagon have had with States, conducted in Ljubljana and Genoa. Russian military officials and Defense And we are convinced that the forthcom-Ivanov, September 19, 200169 Ministry officials and Foreign Affairs ing meetings between our Presidents willSecretary Colin Powell and Russian Ministry officials, we can begin to see a give a further impetus, a further impulseForeign Minister Igor Ivanov delivered way ahead that will increase stability and to our relations.their remarks after meeting in lead us in the direction of a new strategic As the Secretary of State of the UnitedWashington, DC. framework. States has just pointed out, we are con- So, once again, Igor, a great pleasure to ducting intensive consultations on theSecretary Powell. It was again a great receive you, sir. entire scope of issues relating to strategicpleasure for me to receive my colleague, security. On some of the issues, our posi-Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, here at the Foreign Minister Ivanov. [As translat- tions are becoming closer. On the otherState Department. This is our eighth meet- ed.] First of all, on behalf of the President issues, we are continuing active consulta-ing. We have met in Cairo, in Rome, of Russia and on behalf of the entire tions. We have agreed to continue theseBudapest, Brussels, Hanoi, Washington Russian people, I would like to once again consultations to be able to report the firsttwice, and I have promised him that our express sincere condolences to the people results during the forthcoming summits ofnext meeting will be in Moscow, unless of the United States over the tragedy our Presidents.we happen to meet in Crawford, Texas, or which occurred on the 11th of September We have also discussed regional con-somewhere—or in Shanghai. in the United States. There is no doubt flicts. First of all, we expressed some opti- So it’s part of a long series of discus- that this crime, unprecedented in its scale, mism in connection with a decrease ofsions and constant phone calls that have goes far beyond the borders of the United tensions, with some decrease of tension inallowed us to develop a solid relationship, States. the Middle East. Both Russia and thenot only between our two ministries, but The international terrorism has caused a United States are in favor of beginningbetween our two countries. And today was blatant challenge to all civilized humanity, direct dialogue between Peres and Arafatno exception. We spoke about terrorism at to all civilized world. This reaffirms once to begin practical implementation of theconsiderable length. I was very pleased to again the urgent necessity to join efforts Mitchell Plan.receive from the Minister expressions of of the entire international community in We have discussed also a number ofcondolence for those who lost their lives the fight against new challenges and other issues on which we are closelyat the World Trade Center and at the Pen- threats, including in the first place the cooperating. I would like to specificallytagon last week. threat of international terrorism. underscore that the negotiations were con- Deputy Secretary Armitage called me Russia and the United States have ducted in an open and constructive atmos-from Moscow this morning to also tell me agreed to closely coordinate their actions phere. And I would like to thank personal-what it was like in Moscow to have Russ- in these areas. We will be coordinating our ly for this, Mr. Secretary of State.ian citizens coming by our embassy to efforts within the framework of appropri-place flowers and candles and otherwise ate agencies as well as within the frame- Secretary Powell. Thank you veryremember those who lost their lives.68 Winter 2002
  • 68. September 11, 2001much. I just might add that earlier today, I time, we share common position that we rorism, we would certainly bring suchspoke to both Chairman Arafat and to need to strengthen international coopera- proposals to the United Nations.Prime Minister Sharon and expressed my tion in combating international terrorism.satisfaction that the first 24 hours of the All means must be used in the fight Foreign Minister Ivanov. (As translat-arrangement they made yesterday has against terrorism, beginning from political ed.) You know, the United Nations hasresulted in a significant decrease in the and legal means and including, when and already passed a large number of docu-amount of violence in the region. I if necessary, use of force. ments related to combating internationalencouraged both sides to keep moving in We maintain constant contacts through terrorism. If I’m not mistaken, there are asthis direction. our specialized services and between our many documents as 12 on this issue. We The Prime Minister advised me that he foreign ministries. We have ongoing infor- believe that the United Nations shall con-had talked to Mr. Peres earlier with the mation exchanges, and we will continue to tinue to play a leading role in joining insame message. Prime Minister Sharon maintain our constant, close contact on all concerting the efforts, in combining thenoted that, for the first time in many, these issues. efforts of the international community inmany months, he has seen quiet since the fight against international terrorism.midnight of last night. And let us all hope Q. You mentioned that the Unitedthat we can keep this process now moving States is willing to fight international Secretary Powell. We have time for justforward and it will result in an early meet- terrorism anywhere. Does that include one more before the Minister has to going between Foreign Minister Peres and Chechnya? Because Russia faced inter- see the President.Chairman Arafat. national terrorism much earlier than We have time for just a couple of ques- September the 11th. Q. Is the United States going to sendtions. And a question to the Foreign Minis- troops to Afghanistan? ter. (In Russian.) Q. Mr. Secretary, can I ask you—can Secretary Powell. When we have decid-I ask both of you—there is obviously Secretary Powell. We have discussed ed what our entire campaign plan is, toconcern, as well as support, among your this on many occasions. Russia is facing a include any military actions we mightallies about the scale of any future difficult challenge in Chechnya and we take, the world will know about it. But IAmerican military action. Can you know it’s a challenge they must respond am not prepared to discuss any potentialoffer any reassurance to your allies to, and we will do what we can to help. military operations at this time.about what you are planning? But, at the same time, we have always And Foreign Minister Ivanov, have encouraged our Russian colleagues toyou had any words of caution to add? work hard to find a political solution to Remarks by Secretary of this tragic conflict, and also to defend Secretary Powell. We are approaching their interests in a way that are consistent Defense Rumsfeld,this not as a single battle to be fought by with human rights and other standards. September 20, 200170the military but as a campaign that will But we recognize the serious challengeinvolve all of our elements of national faced by Russia in Chechnya. We’re making good progress at the site ofpower. And we will be discussing with our the damage there [at the Pentagon]. Thefriends and allies in the days ahead exact- Foreign Minister Ivanov. (As translat- rain helped and damped down some of thely how we think this campaign should ed.) I have said that, in combating interna- asbestos particles that were posing some-unfold. tional terrorism, no means can be exclud- what of a problem. We don’t have a pre- With respect to the military component ed, including the use of force. At the same cise date when the site will be cleared andof such a campaign, I would not of course time, so far, we have not discussed with the FBI’s work completed and the renova-get into any of the details. But we know the United States any specific, any con- tion beginning, but they feel very goodthat there are some of our friends who are crete actions. about it.in a position to participate in such opera- I’ve said before, and I’ll say it again:tions, and others who really will just pro- Q. Will you be requiring a U.N. reso- What we’re engaged in is something thatvide us other kinds of support, whether lution before joining in any military is very, very different from World War II,it’s diplomatic support, political support or action? Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, Kosovo,working with the international police and Bosnia, the kinds of things that peopleintelligence activities. So at this time, I am Secretary Powell. There is a U.N. reso- think of when they use the word “war” ornot prepared to describe what the nature lution that was passed last week. And as “campaign” or “conflict.” We really,of any of our military planning might be. we go forward in the development of this almost, are going to have to fashion a new campaign, if we see a need for additional vocabulary and different constructs for Foreign Minister Ivanov. (As translat- U.N. resolutions to authorize certain thinking about what it is we’re doing. It ised.) As Mr. Secretary of State has already actions, not necessarily military actions very different than embarking on a cam-said, we have not discussed concrete but other actions such as with respect to paign against a specific country within aissues related to possible reaction of the fighting international terrorism or going specific time frame for a specific purpose.United States to these events. At the same after financial support of international ter- There’s no question but that the full resources of the United States government Foreign Policy Bulletin 69
  • 69. Featureacross the entire spectrum—from the or support that. are professional and aren’t talking. Andpolitical, diplomatic, the economic, finan- I would just add that the problem that the people that are talking are people whocial, as well as other areas, plus military— we’ve talked about, from the day that I’ve either aren’t professional or they don’tare all going to have to be engaged. So the arrived, of asymmetrical threats, of terror- care. And so I hope you’ll not chase tooprogress that takes place will be some- ism and ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, many wrong rabbits.thing that will be seen—most of it will be cyberattacks, and weapons of mass And with that, I’ll stop and respond toseen, some of it probably won’t be seen— destruction, are something that are front questions.but it will occur in different places at dif- and center to us because of the problem of Yes, sir.ferent times in different ways. proliferation and the problem that, with The president has made clear, very the end of the Cold War, there was a Q. Mr. Secretary, you spoke of a newclear, that this is a—considered a direct relaxation of tension, and almost anything vocabulary, so to speak, for the arsenal,attack against the United States of Ameri- that people want, they can get their hands the war manual, or whatever you wantca and our way of life. And he intends to on, if they’re determined and if they have to call it. Infinite Justice—there areprovide for our defense by taking the the money. reports that you signed a mobilizationeffort to the people who are attacking the And the weapons are of increasing order for the military yesterday toUnited States and those countries that are power and lethality, and it does call on all begin building up the military for thesupporting that, whether it’s through har- of us to recognize the importance of deal- war on terrorism. Have you talked toboring, financing, facilitating, or even tol- ing with the problem of proliferation, the leaders, the military leaders oferating. Because of those differences, given the reality of what we’ve seen here, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, who arethere’s no question but that this is going to with thousands of lives lost; how impor- quite worried about the fundamentalisttake time. It will not be swift. It is not a tant counterproliferation is and seeing that movement to the south, about coopera-marathon—it is a marathon, it’s not a the weapons of vastly greater power don’t tion with any U.S. military deploymentsprint. It is not something that is easy, it’s come into the hands and are not used by to their countries? And have theydifficult. And it will certainly require the the kinds of people that attacked the Unit- agreed to do so?patience of all of us. And it also will ed States.require a lot of international support, and Just by way of notice, the question came Secretary Rumsfeld. I’ve concluded,fortunately, that’s coming. up the last time how are we going to deal and Colin Powell and I have discussed, The attacks here in the United States with the press during this period. We the—how it’s best to handle those kinds ofwere, in a very real sense, an attack on the are—Torie and others are looking at how issues. And I’ve concluded that it’s best toworld, in the sense that there were hun- it’s been done previously. That is interest- let the international relations piece of thisdreds and hundreds of people from any ing and I’m sure will be useful and fundamentally be dealt with at the Depart-number of countries—50-plus countries— instructive, but I’m sure there were some ment of State. There’s no question but thatthat were killed in these attacks, and the pluses and minuses. Needless to say, we’d the defense establishment and the Stateworld knows that. That’s why we have prefer to do it right and will hope to do Department are talking to a lot of coun-seen such an outpouring of support from that. But I think it will be different. I sus- tries, but it’s about a lot of things—talkingso many nations. The NATO Charter has pect it will be different, because this is a about resolutions in different internationalbeen invoked. The Rio Treaty has been different set of problems. And so we’ll organizations.invoked. Our alliance with Australia has have to find ways that we are comfortable We’re talking about things like clear-been invoked. And I, needless to say, want with and that you are comfortable with, ances for people to move through coun-to say that we appreciate deeply these given the responsibilities you have. tries and do things in different countries.expressions, powerful expressions, of sup- There are a lot of rumors that run We’re talking about all kinds of variousport. around a building like this, and I under- other relationships that those countries I don’t think it can be said often enough stand that. And it is perfectly within have to countries that sponsor terrorism orthat this is not an effort that is aimed at everyone’s area of responsibility to try to to entities that sponsor terrorism.any religion or any people, particularly, or pursue those rumors. You all know, and I And it’s probably best for those coun-even the people of a country. In many want you to know that I know, that to the tries—each of which has a different per-cases, the countries that sponsor terrorism extent we respond to every one of those spective, their own political sensitivities—and facilitate it are actually holding large and knock down one, two, three, four, and to, for the most part, announce themselvesportions of their populations at risk. They not knock down number five, we’ve vali- the extent to which they are assisting orare dictators. They—there are many peo- dated number five. So we’re not going to involved with us in various aspects ofple in those countries that do not support get in the business of knocking down what we’re doing. There will be very fewthe regimes and do not favor the things rumors. And we simply—first of all, you countries who are involved in everythingthat regimes like that do. And so it’s don’t have enough time in a day to run we’re doing. There will be any number ofimportant that it be seen as an effort that around trying to chase all those rabbits. countries that will be involved in a lot ofis against people who are attacking the And, you know, 95 percent of them are things we’re doing. But I’m going to kindUnited States and our way of life, and not wrong. The people who are involved in of leave that to those countries because ofnecessarily all of the people in those what’s going on in this building, in the those sensitivities.countries, many of whom don’t believe in kinds of things you all are interested in70 Winter 2002
  • 70. September 11, 2001 **** ditional view of that word. you can do is to go after the problem to a point that you are satisfied that the Ameri-Q. Speaking of vocabulary, is Infinite **** can people are going to be able to liveJustice the name of this operation? And their lives in relative freedom and have theI ask that for a very specific reason. Q. Sir, what constitutes a victory in this kinds of linkages with the rest of the new environment. I mean, Cap Wein- world that we feel are so central to our Secretary Rumsfeld. I have heard those berger in 1987 laid down some pretty well-being.words. I do not know that they’ve been clear rules for engaging U.S. forces. One Now, it is not static, however. Becauseadopted, and I think they’re probably was clear goals that are militarily of the end of the Cold War and because ofunder review. achievable, that you can explain that the Gulf War, which told people not to there’s an endgame. What’s some of compete with armies, navies and air Q. Because in talking to several your early thinking here in terms of forces, countries do look for asymmetricalIslamic scholars, they find that name what constitutes victory? ways they can threaten the United Statesoffensive. The only person or thing that and Western countries. With proliferation,can grant infinite justice, according to Secretary Rumsfeld. I’ve laid down with the relaxation of tension, that prolif-their religion, is Allah. some guidelines for myself. The first eration enables people to get their hands month I came here, I sat down and in full on capabilities that are increasingly pow- Secretary Rumsfeld. I understand. I recognition of the importance and signifi- erful, powerful to the point that you’re notunderstand. And obviously the United cance and—of committing people’s lives talking about thousands, you’re talkingStates does not want to do or say things to risk, I sat down and set forth the kinds about multiples of thousands of people.that create an impression on the part of of things that I think ought to serve as a And that says that this is a criticalthe listener that would be a misunder- set of guidelines or a checklist to have moment for this country and for thestanding, and clearly that would be. thought through. world. That we have to be able to live in And that’s a good question, as to what this word; and to live in this world, we Q. So it would probably be changed? constitutes victory. I would characterize it have to recognize the magnitude of theWhatever the name becomes, it likely this way. I think that we’re unlikely to be threat and the extent to which people arewould not be that? Is that— successful in changing the nature of willing to give their lives, as these pilots human beings. That’s for others. What we of these airplanes did, and impose damage Secretary Rumsfeld. I—as I say, I have need to do is to recognize that we live in a on us.heard that someone somewhere in some world that’s a dangerous world, it’s an Now, what is victory? I say that victoryplace selected those words, and in some untidy world, it’s a big world. We have to is persuading the American people and thepreliminary aspect of things use them. engage in that world as free people, rest of the world that this is not a quickWhether they will persist, given what because the linkages we have across this matter that’s going to be over in a monthyou’ve said and what I was aware of, I globe are so centrally a part of our lives, or a year or even five years. It is some-just don’t know the answer, but I doubt it. as to how we live our lives, that we have thing that we need to do so that we canI just don’t know the answer, but I doubt no choice but to contribute to a more continue to live in a world with powerfulit. peaceful and stable world. weapons and with people who are willing It is not humanly possible, however, to to use those powerful weapons. And we Q. Sir, you speak of a new vocabulary, think that anyone in any country or any can do that as a country. And that woulda new approach, yet what we’re wit- group of countries can change people’s be a victory, in my view.nessing right now I think could be behavior so that people in countries acrossdescribed in modern times as the tradi- the globe may—you can’t stop them from Q. Mr. Secretary, can I follow up ontional reaction to a provocation, which doing things that are unpleasant to their that? You’ve talked so much here todaycertainly is to understate it. That is to neighbors or their neighboring countries. broadly about counterproliferation.say, a fairly open display of military So what can you try to do in this regard? Can you give us any of your assessmentpower moving to a particular region. I think what you can try to is to go after about, today, terrorist networks’ capa-Can we assume that this movement is a this worldwide problem in a way that we bilities to get a hold of terrorist-levelprecursor for combat coming sometime can continue our way of life. That it chem/bio? Are they trying to get a holdin the foreseeable future? strikes at our way of life, and while we of it? Do they have it? And I guess, to may not eliminate it completely from the be blunt, specifically the bin Laden net- Secretary Rumsfeld. Well, there’s that face of the Earth, which we surely will work.word “combat”. And the question is, what not, it’s been a part of our society since And what preparations need to beare we really talking about combat? Are the beginning of man, I suspect. We have made for U.S. troops going into thiswe talking about another Gulf War? Are been privileged, because of our geography kind of theater; what kind of threat dowe talking about Vietnam? Are we talking and because of our circumstance, to not they face? And what kind of challengeabout World War II? I think I’ve—I’ve have been burdened with this type of thing is posed to you by the fact, for example,tried to provide a sufficient level of detail previously. that the anthrax program is in so muchthat would drive a person away from a tra- Now, so what can you do? I think what trouble? Foreign Policy Bulletin 71
  • 71. Feature know there are no inspectors on the the whole of the democratic and civilized Secretary Rumsfeld. Yeah. ground. We know that there is an enor- and free world. And we have to do two mous appetite for powerful weapons and things very clearly; we have to bring to Q. What are you walking into? an aggressive attitude to their neighbors to account those responsible, and then we the South. So anyone who is not con- have to set about at every single level, in Secretary Rumsfeld. There are any cerned about that combination of attribut- every way that we can, dismantling thenumber of public publications that are es, it seems to me, would not fully under- apparatus of terror, and eradicating theopen, unclassified, that are available from stand the situation. evil of mass terrorism in our world.the Central Intelligence Agency, the And I know that America, Britain andDepartment of State, and other organiza- all our allies will stand united together intions, that discuss countries that have Remarks by President Bush that task. And I give you, on behalf of ourchemical and biological and nuclear pro- country, our solidarity, our sympathy andgrams. When you compare that list to the and British Prime Minister our support.list of countries that are on the list of Blair, September 20, 200171states that have either been involved in President Bush. Thank you, sir.terrorism or who have facilitated terror- President Bush and Prime Minister Tonyism, harbored them, one can begin to see, Blair delivered their remarks at the White Q. Mr. Prime Minister, have you dis-“Gee, isn’t it possible that there could be House. cussed what Britain’s involvement inrelationships that would be a problem?” President Bush. It’s my honor to wel- any military action might be? So you’re right, we have to be aware come my friend, and friend to America,and attentive that our forces—I mean, we Prime Minister Tony Blair to the White Prime Minister Blair. Well, of course,know that, for example, at least a couple House. I appreciate him coming to Ameri- we’ve discussed the full range of issues.of countries that have used chemical ca in our time of need. One of the first Now is not the moment to go into theweapons against each other, and in one phone calls I got after that terrible day details of whatever response we make. Butcase used them against their own people. was from the Prime Minister. He was I think that you can be in no doubt at all Yes? reassuring to me. He was—he showed to of our determination to act, to make sure, be a true friend, and I appreciate that. as I say, that those responsible for this Q. Mr. Secretary, this was originally I’m so honored you’re here. And I look event are brought to account. And in thedescribed to the American people and forward to giving a speech tonight. The talks I had in Europe before I left, Ithe world as a war on terrorism. Now Prime Minister has kindly agreed to come believe that sense of solidarity is echoedyou are introducing the idea of prolifer- and listen to it. So I’m not going to right round the world.ation and countries that are engaged in answer any questions tonight. I’m goingproliferation. Are you in fact broaden- to let my speech be exactly what I want to Q. Prime Minister, how are you pre-ing the characterization of the kind of say. pared to go on supporting a full-scaleoperation that the United States is In the meantime, the Prime Minister has war—about to undertake from terrorism to agreed to say a few comments, and thenterrorism and proliferants? take a couple of questions from you. Prime Minister Blair. I believe we And as part of that question, are you have to go on fighting terrorism as long asstill as deeply concerned as you ever Prime Minister Blair. Thank you Mr. it takes. Because what happened on thewere with Iraq and its weapons of mass President. It’s my honor to be here, and 11th of September was, of course, a brutaldestruction program and its—the dan- also to pay tribute to your leadership at and horrific attack on America, but it wasger of Iraq as a proliferant? this immensely difficult time. I was in a demonstration of what these people are New York earlier today, and it’s perhaps capable of in any part of the world. And Secretary Rumsfeld. I don’t think I’m only when you are actually there that the the important thing to realize is that therebroadening it, in the sense that the United full enormity and horror of what happened is no limit on what they would do that isStates of America, successive administra- comes home to you. moral. They have no regard for the sancti-tions, particularly since the end of the And I said then, I would like to repeat, ty of human life. They don’t share the val-Gulf War, have been very interested and that my father’s generation went through ues of democracy or freedom or justice.involved and aggressive in trying to deal the experience of the second world war, The only limits on what they do are prac-with the problem of proliferation. Regret- when Britain was under attack, during the tical or technical.tably, the success has been moderate. But days of the Blitz. And there was one And that is why it is our duty—I believeit is an important effort. It needs to be nation and one people that, above all, this—it is our duty to take action to makeemphasized. And as the weapons grow stood side by side with us at that time. sure that at every level we can—how thesemore powerful, its importance increases. And that nation was America, and those groups are financed, how they operate, With respect to Iraq, the United States people were the American people. And I how they move about, the weapons thatof America and the United Kingdom and say to you, we stand side by side with you they acquire—at every single level, wecoalition forces have airplanes that are at now, without hesitation. have to take the action necessary to put anrisk every day with respect to Iraq. We This is a struggle that concerns us all, end to it.72 Winter 2002
  • 72. September 11, 2001 express our solidarity with the United together. Q. Prime Minister, the President said States of America and with the peopletonight that countries have to choose there, we recognize the need to take action Q. Could I ask, given the last fewbetween being with you or being with against those responsible and we affirm hours of preparation, do you nowthe terrorists. How many countries do our willingness, indeed our determination, believe that it is inevitable that theyou believe are making the choice to be to take the measures necessary at an inter- response will include a militarywith terrorists? And what are the con- national and indeed national level, to response or, even at this late stage, issequences to countries still not sure ensure that the fight against this menace there time for the Taliban to avert that.which side they’re on? of terrorism is successful and one of the most important and most significant Prime Minister Blair. As I said to you Prime Minister Blair. Well, I just want- aspects of what has happened in the days a moment or two ago, obviously the pre-ed to say this to you in conclusion to that following those terrible attacks in the cise nature of our response is a matterquestion. I believe right round the world United States has been the strength, under discussion at the present time, and Ithere is support for firm action now. And I indeed I would say the growing strength, don’t think it wise or sensible to enter intobelieve the coalition of support for that of the coalition right round the world, details of it. However, those that can assistaction is growing. It is strengthening; it is against terrorism, against the threat that it in bringing to justice the people responsi-not diminishing. And that is the impres- poses to all of us, and our determination ble for these terrible acts of terrorismsion that I have had from many of the to defeat it, because that is the right and should do so. That is very, very clear. Andconversations I’ve had with world leaders the just thing to do. that we must take action against the peo-in all different parts of the world. Because Once again, Jacques, thank you so much ple responsible is also plain and certain.this struggle is something that should for seeing me today and I hope very much So all the way through we proceed calmly,unite people of all faiths, of all nations, of within the next few days that we demon- we proceed in a considered way, but withall democratic political persuasions, and I strate, as a world, our complete solidarity a total determination that the peoplebelieve it will. in this fight that is so important to us. responsible for this act of terrorism are brought to justice. Q. The Americans have started toRemarks by British Prime deploy planes for retaliation. I was won-Minister Blair and French dering whether on the French or White House Press British side, measures have started toPresident Chirac, September be taken for intelligence, for instance. Statement, September 20,20, 200172 200173 President Chirac. As things stand today, I don’t believe that the American President Bush welcomes the JapanesePresident Chirac. I think there is no need authorities have made a decision as to the Government’s September 19 announce-for me to say, ladies and gentlemen, how correct form of modalities of this unavoid- ment of concrete measures in the cam-pleased I was to have this opportunity to able retaliation, a retaliation that must be paign against international terrorism.welcome here the British Prime Minister adapted and effective, and if the decisions Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumiand to say that I was very much interested are made, and after talks in consultation announced a seven-point package ofin having this opportunity to share with with us, I cannot see how France and actions to support the U.S. and interna-him my thoughts about my recent trip to Britain wouldn’t be involved if, as I said, tional response to last week’s terroristWashington. As you know, Prime Minister it is appropriate and suited to the situation. attacks in New York and Washington.Blair is about to leave for Washington, These steps include measures involvingand I think that this just gave us another Prime Minister Blair. I agree entirely Japan’s Self-Defense Forces, expandedopportunity to say that we have a common with that. Obviously the question of the security for U.S. forces and facilities inunderstanding of the events that just precise response is a matter under discus- Japan, humanitarian assistance to affectedoccurred in the United States and that we sion at the present time. We consider all countries and displaced persons, measuresshare the view that we need to strengthen aspects of that issue very carefully indeed, to support the world economy, andour efforts to fight against terrorism, this but as we have all been saying over these strengthened international cooperation inmajor threat to all our freedoms and liber- past few days, we need a response, an sharing information and immigration con-ties. effective response, against those that are trol. We look forward to working with responsible for this terrible act of terror- Japan as it implements its program. Prime Minister Blair. I would like first ism, and then secondly we need to take, at The United States also appreciates theof all to express my profound gratitude to an international level, and national level $10 million in emergency relief fundsPresident Chirac for having this opportu- indeed, the measures necessary against donated by the Government of Japan tonity of speaking to him this morning, this menace, this threat of terrorism which assist those affected by the September 11appearing of course with his discussions concerns us all, so in respect of those two attacks. Japan’s actions demonstrate itswith President Bush and in particular to aspects again, we work very closely with commitment in the fight to eradicate inter-know once again that we share exactly the the United States, and obviously as allies national terrorism and its compassion andsame sentiments on this question, we sympathy for the victims of terrorism in Foreign Policy Bulletin 73
  • 73. Featurethe United States, which included many graphically that this is a global war on ter- support, and I discussed that very brieflyJapanese nationals. rorism. It doesn’t just stop in Afghanistan. with the NAC. Thank you. So thank you very much for having me Mr. Secretary General. Q. Matt Kiminski from the WallRemarks by NATO Secretary Street Journal. What can the Euro- Q. My name is Boda from Czech Tele- peans offer beyond political support?General Robertson and vision. I wonder, following the news Can you go into any more details?Deputy Secretary of State from the German press, if you are or are not afraid that NATO might become Deputy Secretary Armitage. If I canArmitage, September 20, the next target of any further attacks talk generically—I don’t want to speak200174 by the terrorists. specifically about any nation or any orga- nization—this is going to be a sustainedSecretary General Lord Robertson. Secretary General Robertson. I don’t campaign on terrorism. And I think it isThank you. This has been a very valuable think that you would expect me to say quite clear to most, if not all, in this roommeeting with the highest level representa- anything about our security measures, but that this is not just military in nature. Itstive of the United States Administration to you can be sure that we are well prepared political, its economic, it will mean shar-come here to NATO Headquarters since to deal with any threat to this Headquar- ing of intelligence. So I think there is awe invoked Article Five last week. Mr. ters. role of some sort for every nation who isArmitage was not here to ask the Alliance disgusted by terrorism and has hadfor anything. He was here to brief, and to Q. Klaus from ZDF. Mr. Armitage, enoughgive information, and we’ve had a very how does NATO solidarity now materi-good discussion about these things. The alize? Did you ask something new fromAllies—all of NATO and the individual NATO other than Article Five? Address by President Bush,Allies—are determined to collectivelycontribute and cooperate with other mem- Deputy Secretary Armitage. No. I did- September 20, 200175bers of the International Community to n’t, as I said, come here to ask for any-this fight. It may be a long fight, but we President Bush delivered the following thing. I came here to share with good address to a Joint Session of Congresshope successful fight against terrorism. Allies the information we have. I did pointBut today, each of the Allies who con- and the American People. out that in this coalition building there is atributed to the discussion underlined yet continuum from, on the one hand, rhetori- Mr. Speaker, Mr. President Pro Tempore,again the firmness of the Alliance mem- cal or political support for activities on members of Congress, and fellow Ameri-bers’ solidarity with the United States at this global attack on terrorism. It runs the cans:this difficult time. A very important meet- gamut to sharing of intelligence, sharing In the normal course of events, Presi-ing has taken place. I’ll ask Mr. Armitage of financial information, perhaps over- dents come to this chamber to report onif he’ll speak to us briefly. flight rights etc. And at the far end of the the state of the Union. Tonight, no such continuum is the possibility of some mili- report is needed. It has already been deliv- Deputy Secretary of State Armitage. tary activity either together or unilaterally. ered by the American people.Thank you Mr. Secretary General. Thank But, no decisions have been made, and I We have seen it in the courage of pas-you very much for having me. The Presi- didn’t come here to request any particular sengers, who rushed terrorists to save oth-dent and the Secretary of State of the thing. ers on the ground—passengers like anUnited States asked me to come here for exceptional man named Todd Beamer.several purposes. The first, and I think Q. Mr. Armitage. Judy Dempsey from And would you please help me to wel-most important, is to note with great sad- the Financial Times. What did you get come his wife, Lisa Beamer, here tonight.ness that all but three of the member from Russia while you were there? We have seen the state of our Union innations lost citizens in this terrible attack What did you tell the NAC Council the endurance of rescuers, working paston the World Trade Center and the Penta- after your meeting with Russia? exhaustion. We have seen the unfurling ofgon. And in the name of the United States flags, the lighting of candles, the giving ofI wanted to express condolences to the Deputy Secretary Armitage. Well I blood, the saying of prayers—in English,nations who lost citizens in that heinous briefed the NAC Council about the gener- Hebrew, and Arabic. We have seen thecrime. Second, I wanted to express our al content of my discussions with Deputy decency of a loving and giving peopleenormous admiration and appreciation for Foreign Minister Trubnikov and his col- who have made the grief of strangers theirthe very rapid invocation of Article Five. leagues, and mentioned very briefly the own.This is something that gives the United discussions that Foreign Minister Ivanov My fellow citizens, for the last nineStates a great deal of both comfort and had with both Secretary Powell and with days, the entire world has seen for itselfconfidence Mr. Secretary General. And President Bush. The press statement that the state of our Union—and it is strong.third, I came here to share information: to was issued following our meeting in Tonight we are a country awakened totalk about the grand coalition that Presi- Moscow indicated that the Russian Gov- danger and called to defend freedom. Ourdent Bush is trying to put together and to ernment was prepared to give all possible grief has turned to anger, and anger to res-make the point very dramatically and olution. Whether we bring our enemies to74 Winter 2002
  • 74. September 11, 2001justice, or bring justice to our enemies, country? The evidence we have gathered Uzbekistan. There are thousands of thesejustice will be done. all points to a collection of loosely affiliat- terrorists in more than 60 countries. They I thank the Congress for its leadership at ed terrorist organizations known as al are recruited from their own nations andsuch an important time. All of America Qaeda. They are the same murderers neighborhoods and brought to camps inwas touched on the evening of the tragedy indicted for bombing American embassies places like Afghanistan, where they areto see Republicans and Democrats joined in Tanzania and Kenya, and responsible trained in the tactics of terror. They aretogether on the steps of this Capitol, for bombing the USS Cole. sent back to their homes or sent to hide insinging “God Bless America.” And you Al Qaeda is to terror what the mafia is countries around the world to plot evil anddid more than sing; you acted, by deliver- to crime. But its goal is not making destruction.ing $40 billion to rebuild our communities money; its goal is remaking the world— The leadership of al Qaeda has greatand meet the needs of our military. and imposing its radical beliefs on people influence in Afghanistan and supports the Speaker Hastert, Minority Leader Taliban regime in controlling most of thatGephardt, Majority Leader Daschle and country. In Afghanistan, we see al Qaeda’sSenator Lott, I thank you for your friend- [T]onight, the United States of America vision for the world.ship, for your leadership and for your ser- Afghanistan’s people have been brutal-vice to our country. makes the following demands on the ized—many are starving and many have And on behalf of the American people, I Taliban: Deliver to United States fled. Women are not allowed to attendthank the world for its outpouring of sup- authorities all the leaders of al Qaeda school. You can be jailed for owning aport. America will never forget the sounds who hide in your land. Release all foreign television. Religion can be practiced onlyof our National Anthem playing at Buck- as their leaders dictate. A man can be nationals, including American citizens, youingham Palace, on the streets of Paris, and jailed in Afghanistan if his beard is notat Berlin’s Brandenburg Gate. have unjustly imprisoned. Protect foreign long enough. We will not forget South Korean chil- journalists, diplomats and aid workers in The United States respects the people ofdren gathering to pray outside our your country. Close immediately and Afghanistan—after all, we are currentlyembassy in Seoul, or the prayers of sym- permanently every terrorist training camp its largest source of humanitarian aid—butpathy offered at a mosque in Cairo. We we condemn the Taliban regime. It is notwill not forget moments of silence and in Afghanistan, and hand over every only repressing its own people, it is threat-days of mourning in Australia and Africa terrorist, and every person in their support ening people everywhere by sponsoringand Latin America. structure, to appropriate authorities. Give and sheltering and supplying terrorists. By Nor will we forget the citizens of 80 the United States full access to terrorist aiding and abetting murder, the Talibanother nations who died with our own: regime is committing murder.dozens of Pakistanis; more than 130 training camps, so we can make sure they And tonight, the United States of Ameri-Israelis; more than 250 citizens of India; are no longer operating. ca makes the following demands on themen and women from El Salvador, Iran, These demands are not open to negotia- Taliban: Deliver to United States authori-Mexico and Japan; and hundreds of tion or discussion. The Taliban must act, ties all the leaders of al Qaeda who hideBritish citizens. America has no truer in your land. Release all foreign nationals, and act immediately. They will hand overfriend than Great Britain. Once again, we including American citizens, you haveare joined together in a great cause—so the terrorists, or they will share in their unjustly imprisoned. Protect foreign jour-honored the British Prime Minister has fate. nalists, diplomats and aid workers in yourcrossed an ocean to show his unity of pur- country. Close immediately and perma-pose with America. Thank you for com- nently every terrorist training camp ining, friend. Afghanistan, and hand over every terror- On September the 11th, enemies of free- everywhere. ist, and every person in their supportdom committed an act of war against our The terrorists practice a fringe form of structure, to appropriate authorities. Givecountry. Americans have known wars— Islamic extremism that has been rejected the United States full access to terroristbut for the past 136 years, they have been by Muslim scholars and the vast majority training camps, so we can make sure theywars on foreign soil, except for one Sun- of Muslim clerics—a fringe movement are no longer operating.day in 1941. Americans have known the that perverts the peaceful teachings of These demands are not open to negotia-casualties of war—but not at the center of Islam. The terrorists’ directive commands tion or discussion. The Taliban must act,a great city on a peaceful morning. Ameri- them to kill Christians and Jews, to kill all and act immediately. They will hand overcans have known surprise attacks—but Americans, and make no distinction the terrorists, or they will share in theirnever before on thousands of civilians. All among military and civilians, including fate.of this was brought upon us in a single women and children. I also want to speak tonight directly today—and night fell on a different world, a This group and its leader—a person Muslims throughout the world. We respectworld where freedom itself is under named Osama bin Laden—are linked to your faith. It’s practiced freely by manyattack. many other organizations in different millions of Americans, and by millions Americans have many questions tonight. countries, including the Egyptian Islamic more in countries that America counts asAmericans are asking: Who attacked our Jihad and the Islamic Movement of friends. Its teachings are good and peace- Foreign Policy Bulletin 75
  • 75. Featureful, and those who commit evil in the vo two years ago, where no ground troops and destroy it where it grows.name of Allah blaspheme the name of were used and not a single American was Many will be involved in this effort,Allah. The terrorists are traitors to their lost in combat. from FBI agents to intelligence operativesown faith, trying, in effect, to hijack Islam Our response involves far more than to the reservists we have called to activeitself. The enemy of America is not our instant retaliation and isolated strikes. duty. All deserve our thanks, and all havemany Muslim friends; it is not our many Americans should not expect one battle, our prayers. And tonight, a few miles fromArab friends. Our enemy is a radical net- but a lengthy campaign, unlike any other the damaged Pentagon, I have a messagework of terrorists, and every government we have ever seen. It may include dramat- for our military: Be ready. I’ve called thethat supports them. ic strikes, visible on TV, and covert opera- Armed Forces to alert, and there is a rea- Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, tions, secret even in success. We will son. The hour is coming when Americabut it does not end there. It will not end starve terrorists of funding, turn them one will act, and you will make us proud.until every terrorist group of global reach against another, drive them from place to This is not, however, just America’shas been found, stopped and defeated. place, until there is no refuge or no rest. fight. And what is at stake is not just Americans are asking, why do they hate And we will pursue nations that provide America’s freedom. This is the world’sus? They hate what we see right here in fight. This is civilization’s fight. This isthis chamber—a democratically elected the fight of all who believe in progressgovernment. Their leaders are self- Every nation, in every region, now has a and pluralism, tolerance and freedom.appointed. They hate our freedoms—our We ask every nation to join us. We willfreedom of religion, our freedom of decision to make. Either you are with us, ask, and we will need, the help of policespeech, our freedom to vote and assemble or you are with the terrorists. From this forces, intelligence services, and bankingand disagree with each other. day forward, any nation that continues to systems around the world. The United They want to overthrow existing govern- harbor or support terrorism will be States is grateful that many nations andments in many Muslim countries, such as many international organizations have regarded by the United States as a hostileEgypt, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. They already responded—with sympathy andwant to drive Israel out of the Middle regime. with support. Nations from Latin America,East. They want to drive Christians and to Asia, to Africa, to Europe, to the Islam-Jews out of vast regions of Asia and ic world. Perhaps the NATO CharterAfrica. aid or safe haven to terrorism. Every reflects best the attitude of the world: An These terrorists kill not merely to end nation, in every region, now has a decision attack on one is an attack on all.lives, but to disrupt and end a way of life. to make. Either you are with us, or you The civilized world is rallying to Ameri-With every atrocity, they hope that Ameri- are with the terrorists. From this day for- ca’s side. They understand that if this ter-ca grows fearful, retreating from the world ward, any nation that continues to harbor ror goes unpunished, their own cities, theirand forsaking our friends. They stand or support terrorism will be regarded by own citizens may be next. Terror, unan-against us, because we stand in their way. the United States as a hostile regime. swered, can not only bring down build- We are not deceived by their pretenses Our nation has been put on notice: We ings, it can threaten the stability of legiti-to piety. We have seen their kind before. are not immune from attack. We will take mate governments. And you know what—They are the heirs of all the murderous defensive measures against terrorism to we’re not going to allow it.ideologies of the 20th century. By sacrific- protect Americans. Today, dozens of fed- Americans are asking: What is expecteding human life to serve their radical eral departments and agencies, as well as of us? I ask you to live your lives, and hugvisions—by abandoning every value state and local governments, have respon- your children. I know many citizens haveexcept the will to power—they follow in sibilities affecting homeland security. fears tonight, and I ask you to be calm andthe path of fascism, and Nazism, and These efforts must be coordinated at the resolute, even in the face of a continuingtotalitarianism. And they will follow that highest level. So tonight I announce the threat.path all the way, to where it ends: in histo- creation of a Cabinet-level position report- I ask you to uphold the values of Ameri-ry’s unmarked grave of discarded lies. ing directly to me—the Office of Home- ca, and remember why so many have Americans are asking: How will we land Security. come here. We are in a fight for our prin-fight and win this war? We will direct And tonight I also announce a distin- ciples, and our first responsibility is to liveevery resource at our command—every guished American to lead this effort, to by them. No one should be singled out formeans of diplomacy, every tool of intelli- strengthen American security: a military unfair treatment or unkind words becausegence, every instrument of law enforce- veteran, an effective governor, a true patri- of their ethnic background or religiousment, every financial influence, and every ot, a trusted friend—Pennsylvania’s Tom faith.necessary weapon of war—to the disrup- Ridge. He will lead, oversee and coordi- I ask you to continue to support the vic-tion and to the defeat of the global terror nate a comprehensive national strategy to tims of this tragedy with your contribu-network. safeguard our country against terrorism, tions. Those who want to give can go to a This war will not be like the war against and respond to any attacks that may come. central source of information, libertyu-Iraq a decade ago, with a decisive libera- These measures are essential. But the nites.org, to find the names of groups pro-tion of territory and a swift conclusion. It only way to defeat terrorism as a threat to viding direct help in New York, Pennsyl-will not look like the air war above Koso- our way of life is to stop it, eliminate it, vania, and Virginia.76 Winter 2002
  • 76. September 11, 2001 The thousands of FBI agents who are hopes that died with them—it is natural to He watch over the United States of Ameri-now at work in this investigation may wonder if America’s future is one of fear. ca.need your cooperation, and I ask you to Some speak of an age of terror. I knowgive it. there are struggles ahead, and dangers to I ask for your patience, with the delays face. But this country will define our Remarks by Secretary ofand inconveniences that may accompany times, not be defined by them. As long astighter security; and for your patience in the United States of America is deter- State Powell and Chinesewhat will be a long struggle. mined and strong, this will not be an age Foreign Minister Tang, I ask your continued participation and of terror; this will be an age of liberty,confidence in the American economy. Ter- here and across the world. September 21, 200176rorists attacked a symbol of American Great harm has been done to us. We Secretary Colin Powell and Chineseprosperity. They did not touch its source. have suffered great loss. And in our grief Minister of Foreign Affairs TangAmerica is successful because of the hard and anger we have found our mission and Jiaxuan delivered their remarks afterwork, and creativity, and enterprise of our our moment. Freedom and fear are at war. their meeting in Washington.people. These were the true strengths of The advance of human freedom—theour economy before September 11th, and great achievement of our time, and the Secretary Powell. Good afternoon, ladiesthey are our strengths today. great hope of every time—now depends and gentlemen. I’m sorry we’re running And, finally, please continue praying for on us. Our nation—this generation—will late. We have had an excellent set of dis-the victims of terror and their families, for lift a dark threat of violence from our peo- cussions, which ran over because theythose in uniform, and for our great coun- ple and our future. We will rally the world were so comprehensive.try. Prayer has comforted us in sorrow, to this cause by our efforts, by our It’s a pleasure to once again meet withand will help strengthen us for the journey courage. We will not tire, we will not fal- my colleague from Beijing. This is one ofahead. ter, and we will not fail. several times we have met in recent Tonight I thank my fellow Americans It is my hope that in the months and months. And we covered the full range offor what you have already done and for years ahead, life will return almost to nor- issues that affect the relationship betweenwhat you will do. And ladies and gentle- mal. We’ll go back to our lives and rou- our two countries. Especially, we talkedmen of the Congress, I thank you, their tines, and that is good. Even grief recedes about, as you might expect, the Presi-representatives, for what you have already with time and grace. But our resolve must dent’s upcoming visit to Shanghai anddone and for what we will do together. not pass. Each of us will remember what Beijing. We also discussed counter-terror- Tonight, we face new and sudden happened that day, and to whom it hap- ism activity in light of the recent eventsnational challenges. We will come togeth- pened. We’ll remember the moment the here in Washington and New York.er to improve air safety, to dramatically news came—where we were and what we The Minister told me a very movingexpand the number of air marshals on were doing. Some will remember an story about a Chinese family who haddomestic flights, and take new measures image of a fire, or a story of rescue. Some come to visit their children here in thisto prevent hijacking. We will come togeth- will carry memories of a face and a voice country, and were killed in the plane thater to promote stability and keep our air- gone forever. crashed into the Pentagon. And he metlines flying, with direct assistance during And I will carry this: It is the police with those children yesterday. And it justthis emergency. shield of a man named George Howard, shows how this is an international crisis. We will come together to give law who died at the World Trade Center trying And it all has to do with the loss of inno-enforcement the additional tools it needs to save others. It was given to me by his cent humanity. And so we agreed to coop-to track down terror here at home. We will mom, Arlene, as a proud memorial to her erate in this campaign against terrorism.come together to strengthen our intelli- son. This is my reminder of lives that I won’t cover all the different issues.gence capabilities to know the plans of ended, and a task that does not end. The Minister may wish to talk about oneterrorists before they act, and find them I will not forget this wound to our coun- or two more. In the interests of time, I ambefore they strike. try or those who inflicted it. I will not anxious to get the Minister over to the We will come together to take active yield; I will not rest; I will not relent in White House for his meeting with Dr.steps that strengthen America’s economy, waging this struggle for freedom and Rice and with the President.and put our people back to work. security for the American people. Mr. Minister, it is a great pleasure again Tonight we welcome two leaders who The course of this conflict is not known, to welcome you here in the United States.embody the extraordinary spirit of all New yet its outcome is certain. Freedom andYorkers: Governor George Pataki, and fear, justice and cruelty, have always been Foreign Minister Tang. (As translated.)Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. As a symbol of at war, and we know that God is not neu- Ladies and gentlemen, today my talksAmerica’s resolve, my administration will tral between them. with Secretary Powell were useful, con-work with Congress, and these two lead- Fellow citizens, we’ll meet violence structive and successful. Our talks covereders, to show the world that we will rebuild with patient justice—assured of the right- many issues, many of which the SecretaryNew York City. ness of our cause, and confident of the has already briefly touched upon. After all that has just passed—all the victories to come. In all that lies before For my part, I would like to emphasizelives taken, and all the possibilities and us, may God grant us wisdom, and may the following two points. Firstly, both sides agree that the upcoming visit by Foreign Policy Bulletin 77
  • 77. FeaturePresident Bush to China and the important come to their senses that it is not in theirmeetings between the two presidents will Q. Secretary Powell, could I ask you interest—now that the entire internationalexert a significant and far-reaching impact about Iran? As you know, the British community is mobilized, it is not in theiron China-U.S. relations. The Chinese side Foreign Secretary Jack Straw is going interest to continue acting in this way,believes that the President’s visit and his to be in Iran, I believe today. You have because they will risk further isolation andmeeting between top leaders will make had conversations in the last days with increasing pressure if they participate incontributions to continue the long-term your British colleagues. What message such activities. And hopefully the messagedevelopment of our relations in a normal, have you asked the British to pass on or will get through and they will start toconstructive, and healthy fashion, as well what message would you like them to change past patterns of behavior.as continued improvement of our relations pass on—in the future. Secondly, both sides have already start- Secretary Powell. Well, we did talk to Statement by the Presidented our cooperation on the anti-terrorism the Prime Minister about Foreign Ministerfield, and such cooperation will continue Straw’s visit to Iran. We have also had of the United Nationsinto the future. Our attitude on the ques- other communications from Iran through Security Council, Septembertion of terrorism has always been clear-cut other channels. And as I said previously,and consistent. We firmly oppose and we are anxious to explore whatever oppor- 21, 200177strongly condemn all forms of terrorism in tunities for cooperation there might be in The article of the Secretary-General inall their evil acts, and both sides agree to the fight against all forms of terrorism, not today’s paper reflects exactly the generalcarry out even better cooperation on this just one kind of terrorism. mood and the general will not only of thequestion in the future. But I think it’s best that I let Foreign Security Council but certainly of the Thank you. Minister Straw deliver whatever message whole membership. he chooses to deliver after our conversa- We all consider that the United Nations Secretary Powell. The Minister has to tion, rather than discuss it here. can and indeed must be fully engagedleave for the White House. I’ll come back with determination, and in a unanimousfor just a moment, if you want me to. Q. Mr. Secretary, did Foreign Minis- way, in this fight against the scourge of ter Tang express China’s explicit sup- terrorism. Q. Mr. Secretary, the Chinese Foreign port on U.S. military action in that The debate in the General Assembly onMinistry spokesman earlier this week area, Afghanistan and on bin Laden? 1 October will be a golden opportunity tomade some statements that seem to show again the unanimity of the member-indicate that China was looking for a Secretary Powell. I made the point to ship of the United Nations.quid pro quo, their support for the anti- the Foreign Minister that we would be The Security Council, on the very dayterrorist activity in exchange for some looking at a complete campaign that of the attacks against the World Tradesort of agreement on Taiwan where would involve going after finances, infor- Center and against the Pentagon, issued aAmerica’s support would diminish mation, intelligence, law enforcement, and statement to the press, and on 12 Septem-somewhat. might have a military component. But we ber unanimously adopted resolution Did that come up in the talks at all? did not get into any details of a military 1368—which is quite an ambitious text. component, nor did I ask the Chinese Before going further we wanted to be Secretary Powell. No, there was no Government what their reaction might be, briefed by the Legal Counsel, Hanssuggestion of a quid pro quo. In fact, both or nor did they suggest to me any partici- Corell, on this issue of terrorism, andsides recognize that this is a threat to both pation. It just didn’t come up, military Hans Corell has reminded us of the statecountries. They have their terrorism prob- cooperation. of affairs. There are already 12 conven-lems, and there are terrorism problems tions dealing with terrorism in its differenthere in the United States. So there was Q. Mr. Secretary, what will it mean aspects. The last one was adopted duringabsolutely no discussion of a quid pro specifically for, as the President says, the last session of the General Assemblyquo. the United States will pursue those to fight against the financing of terrorism, countries that “harbor and aid terror- and is open for signature until 31 Decem- Q. Mr. Secretary, how can China be ism,” and specifically what would that ber. So I take this opportunity to encour-especially helpful to the United States, mean for those states that are already age all members of the United Nations togiven its geography? designated as sponsors of terrorism by sign this very important convention. the State Department? Beyond these 12 conventions, Hans Secretary Powell. It has influence in Corell reminded us that there are two ini-that region. It has knowledge and informa- Secretary Powell. We have designated tiatives under consideration by the Sixthtion. It has intelligence that might be of those as sponsors of terrorism, and they Committee and the General Assembly:help to us. And our counter-terrorism are subject to a variety of sanctions. So • the first one is proposed by India. It isexperts will be getting together next week that is one way of pursuing them. And you a global convention against terrorism;to explore every way in which the two notice the President said, “who continue • the second one is proposed by Russia.sides can cooperate. to do this.” Perhaps these states will now It is a specific convention to fight nuclear78 Winter 2002
  • 78. September 11, 2001terrorism. vania, and the Pentagon committed on determined to be subject to subsection There are also specialized agencies and September 11, 2001, acts recognized and 1(b), 1(c), or 1(d)(i) of this order;regional organizations which play a very condemned in UNSCR 1368 of September (d) except as provided in section 5 ofimportant role in the fight against terror- 12, 2001, and UNSCR 1269 of October this order and after such consultation, ifism. 19, 1999, and the continuing and immedi- any, with foreign authorities as the Secre- In this context we had a lively discus- ate threat of further attacks on United tary of State, in consultation with the Sec-sion with the Legal Counsel about the role States nationals or the United States con- retary of the Treasury and the Attorneyof the Security Council. In the past the stitute an unusual and extraordinary threat General, deems appropriate in the exerciseSecurity Council has already taken action to the national security, foreign policy, and of his discretion, persons determined byin general terms—for example we adopted economy of the United States, and in fur- the Secretary of the Treasury, in consulta-resolution 1269—or action focused therance of my proclamation of Septem- tion with the Secretary of State and theagainst this or that State—we adopted two ber 14, 2001, Declaration of National Attorney General;resolutions on Afghanistan, the latest Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist (i) to assist in, sponsor, or providebeing resolution 1333. Attacks, hereby declare a national emer- financial, material, or technological sup- Is there room for action beyond resolu- gency to deal with that threat. I also find port for, or financial or other services to ortion 1368 that we adopted unanimously a that because of the pervasiveness and in support of, such acts of terrorism orfew days ago? This will be discussed next expansiveness of the financial foundation those persons listed in the Annex to thisweek. of foreign terrorists, financial sanctions order or determined to be subject to this How and when will we decide on that? I may be appropriate for those foreign per- order; orwill simply recall paragraph 5 of resolu- sons that support or otherwise associate (ii) to be otherwise associated withtion 1368, which says that the Council with these foreign terrorists. I also find those persons listed in the Annex to thisexpresses its readiness to take all neces- that a need exists for further consultation order or those persons determined to besary steps to respond to the terrorist and cooperation with, and sharing of subject to subsection 1(b), 1(c), or 1(d)(i)attacks of 11 September 2001 and to com- information by, United States and foreign of this order.bat all forms of terrorism, in accordance financial institutions as an additional tool Sec. 2. Except to the extent required bywith its responsibilities under the Charter to enable the United States to combat the section 203(b) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C.of the United Nations. financing of terrorism. 1702(b)), or provided in regulations, That is exactly what we are determined I hereby order: orders, directives, or licenses that may beto do and what we will discuss next week. Section 1. Except to the extent required issued pursuant to this order, and notwith- by section 203(b) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C. standing any contract entered into or any 1702(b)), or provided in regulations, license or permit granted prior to theExecutive Order, September orders, directives, or licenses that may be effective date: issued pursuant to this order, and notwith- (a) any transaction or dealing by United24, 200178 standing any contract entered into or any States persons or within the United StatesBy the authority vested in me as President license or permit granted prior to the in property or interests in propertyby the Constitution and the laws of the effective date of this order, all property blocked pursuant to this order is prohibit-United States of America, including the and interests in property of the following ed, including but not limited to the mak-International Emergency Economic Pow- persons that are in the United States or ing or receiving of any contribution ofers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.)(IEEPA), that hereafter come within the United funds, goods, or services to or for the ben-the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. States, or that hereafter come within the efit of those persons listed in the Annex to1601 et seq.), section 5 of the United possession or control of United States per- this order or determined to be subject toNations Participation Act of 1945, as sons are blocked: this order;amended (22 U.S.C. 287c) (UNPA), and (a) foreign persons listed in the Annex (b) any transaction by any United Statessection 301 of title 3, United States Code, to this order; person or within the United States thatand in view of United Nations Security (b) foreign persons determined by the evades or avoids, or has the purpose ofCouncil Resolution (UNSCR) 1214 of Secretary of State, in consultation with the evading or avoiding, or attempts to vio-December 8, 1998, UNSCR 1267 of Octo- Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney late, any of the prohibitions set forth inber 15, 1999, UNSCR 1333 of December General, to have committed, or to pose a this order is prohibited; and19, 2000, and the multilateral sanctions significant risk of committing, acts of ter- (c) any conspiracy formed to violate anycontained therein, and UNSCR 1363 of rorism that threaten the security of U.S. of the prohibitions set forth in this order isJuly 30, 2001, establishing a mechanism nationals or the national security, foreign prohibited.to monitor the implementation of UNSCR policy, or economy of the United States; Sec. 3. For purposes of this order:1333, (c) persons determined by the Secretary (a) the term “person” means an individ- I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the of the Treasury, in consultation with the ual or entity;United States of America, find that grave Secretary of State and the Attorney Gener- (b) the term “entity” means a partner-acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism al, to be owned or controlled by, or to act ship, association, corporation, or othercommitted by foreign terrorists, including for or on behalf of those persons listed in organization, group, or subgroup;the terrorist attacks in New York, Pennsyl- the Annex to this order or those persons (c) the term “United States person” Foreign Policy Bulletin 79
  • 79. Featuremeans any United States citizen, perma- deems appropriate. emergency declared in this order, therenent resident alien, entity organized under Sec. 6. The Secretary of State, the Sec- need be no prior notice of a listing orthe laws of the United States (including retary of the Treasury, and other appropri- determination made pursuant to this order.foreign branches), or any person in the ate agencies shall make all relevant efforts Sec. 11. (a) This order is effective atUnited States; and to cooperate and coordinate with other 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on Sep- (d) the term “terrorism” means an activ- countries, including through technical tember 24, 2001.ity that— assistance, as well as bilateral and multi- (b) This order shall be transmitted to the (i) involves a violent act or an act dan- lateral agreements and arrangements, to Congress and published in the Federalgerous to human life, property, or infra- achieve the objectives of this order, Register.structure; and including the prevention and suppression (ii) appears to be intended— of acts of terrorism, the denial of financ- ANNEX (A) to intimidate or coerce a civilian ing and financial services to terrorists and Al Qaida/Islamic Armypopulation; terrorist organizations, and the sharing of Abu Sayyaf Group (B) to influence the policy of a govern- intelligence about funding activities in Armed Islamic Group (GIA)ment by intimidation or coercion; or support of terrorism. Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) Al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) (C) to affect the conduct of a govern- Sec. 7. The Secretary of the Treasury, in Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)ment by mass destruction, assassination, consultation with the Secretary of State Asbat al-Ansarkidnapping, or hostage-taking. and the Attorney General, is hereby autho- Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) Sec. 4. I hereby determine that the mak- rized to take such actions, including the Libyan Islamic Fighting Grouping of donations of the type specified in promulgation of rules and regulations, and Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya (AIAI)section 203(b)(2) of IEEPA (50 U.S.C. to employ all powers granted to the Presi- Islamic Army of Aden1702(b)(2)) by United States persons to dent by IEEPA and UNPA as may be nec- Usama bin Ladenpersons determined to be subject to this essary to carry out the purposes of this Muhammad Atif (aka, Subhi Abu Sitta,order would seriously impair my ability to order. The Secretary of the Treasury may Abu Hafs Al Masri)deal with the national emergency declared redelegate any of these functions to other Sayf al-Adl Shaykh Sai’id (aka, Mustafa Muhammadin this order, and would endanger Armed officers and agencies of the United States Ahmad)Forces of the United States that are in a Government. All agencies of the United Abu Hafs the Mauritanian (aka, Mahfouz Ouldsituation where imminent involvement in States Government are hereby directed to al-Walid, Khalid Al-hostilities is clearly indicated by the cir- take all appropriate measures within their Shanqiti)cumstances, and hereby prohibit such authority to carry out the provisions of Ibn Al-Shaykh al-Libidonations as provided by section 1 of this this order. Abu Zubaydah (aka, Zayn al-Abidin Muham-order. Furthermore, I hereby determine Sec. 8. Nothing in this order is intended mad Husayn, Tariq)that the Trade Sanctions Reform and to affect the continued effectiveness of Abd al-Hadi al-Iraqi (aka, Abu Abdallah)Export Enhancement Act of 2000 (title IX, any rules, regulations, orders, licenses, or Ayman al-ZawahiriPublic Law 106-387) shall not affect the other forms of administrative action Thirwat Salah Shihata Tariq Anwar al-Sayyid Ahmad (aka, Fathi, Amrimposition or the continuation of the issued, taken, or continued in effect al-Fatih)imposition of any unilateral agricultural heretofore or hereafter under 31 C.F.R. Muhammad Salah (aka, Nasr Fahmi Nasrsanction or unilateral medical sanction on chapter V, except as expressly terminated, Hasanayn)any person determined to be subject to modified, or suspended by or pursuant to Makhtab Al-Khidamat/Al Kifahthis order because imminent involvement this order. Wafa Humanitarian Organizationof the Armed Forces of the United States Sec. 9. Nothing contained in this order Al Rashid Trustin hostilities is clearly indicated by the is intended to create, nor does it create, Mamoun Darkazanli Import-Export Companycircumstances. any right, benefit, or privilege, substantive Sec. 5. With respect to those persons or procedural, enforceable at law by adesignated pursuant to subsection 1(d) of party against the United States, its agen- Statement by Russianthis order, the Secretary of the Treasury, in cies, officers, employees or any other per-the exercise of his discretion and in con- son. President Putin, Septembersultation with the Secretary of State and Sec. 10. For those persons listed in the 24, 200179the Attorney General, may take such other Annex to this order or determined to beactions than the complete blocking of subject to this order who might have a Following the barbaric terrorist acts inproperty or interests in property as the constitutional presence in the United New York and Washington on SeptemberPresident is authorized to take under States, I find that because of the ability to 11 this year, the world is still living underIEEPA and UNPA if the Secretary of the transfer funds or assets instantaneously, the impression of this tragedy.Treasury, in consultation with the Secre- prior notice to such persons of measures The Russian Federation has been fight-tary of State and the Attorney General, to be taken pursuant to this order would ing international terrorism for a long timedeems such other actions to be consistent render these measures ineffectual. I there- now, relying exclusively on its ownwith the national interests of the United fore determine that for these measures to resources, and it has repeatedly urged theStates, considering such factors as he be effective in addressing the national international community to join efforts. Russia’s position is unchanged: we, natu-80 Winter 2002
  • 80. September 11, 2001rally, are still ready to make a contribution rescue operations. posed holding an International Islamicto the struggle against terror. We believe Fifth, we will broaden cooperation with Conference in Moscow on the themethat first and foremost it is necessary to the internationally recognized government “Islam Against Terror.” I share their con-give attention to reinforcing the role of of Afghanistan led by Mr. Rabbani and cern over the situation taking shape in thethose international agencies and institu- provide additional support to his armed world. Undoubtedly, support will be giventions which were established for strength- forces in the form of arms and military to holding the conference. I believe that itening international security. These are the hardware supplies. is only with the active involvement of reli-U.N. and the U.N. Security Council. It is Other, more extensive forms of Russia’s gious communities themselves that effec-also necessary to energetically get down cooperation with the participants in the tive struggle could be mounted againstto improving the international legal frame- anti-terrorist operation are possible. The religious extremism and fanaticism, notwork so that it would make it possible to extent and character of this cooperation just Islamic but any other as well. will directly depend on the overall level and quality of our relations with thoseWe also believe that what is happening in countries and on mutual understanding in Remarks by President Bush,Chechnya cannot be viewed out of the fighting international terrorism. I have formed a team led by Defense Secretary of Treasurycontext of the fight against international Minister of the Russian Federation Sergei O’Neill, and Secretary ofterrorism. At the same time we understand Ivanov to coordinate work on all the mat-that these events have a history of their ters I have outlined above. This team will State Powell, September 24,own. I allow for there still being people in collect and analyze incoming information 200180 and collaborate with the participants in theChechnya who have taken up arms under President Bush. Good morning. At 12:01 operation in practical terms.the influence of false or warped values. We also believe that what is happening a.m. this morning, a major thrust of ourNow that the civilized world has defined in Chechnya cannot be viewed out of the war on terrorism began with the stroke of context of the fight against international a pen. Today, we have launched a strikeits position on fighting terror, everyone terrorism. At the same time we understand on the financial foundation of the globalshould define his or her position as well. terror network. that these events have a history of theirThis chance should also be offered to own. I allow for there still being people in Make no mistake about it, I’ve askedthose who have not yet laid down arms in Chechnya who have taken up arms under our military to be ready for a reason. ButChechnya. the influence of false or warped values. the American people must understand this Now that the civilized world has defined war on terrorism will be fought on a vari- its position on fighting terror, everyone ety of fronts, in different ways. The front should define his or her position as well. lines will look different from the wars ofpromptly and efficiently respond to acts of This chance should also be offered to the past.terrorism. those who have not yet laid down arms in So I told the American people we will As for the planned anti-terrorist opera- Chechnya. direct every resource at our command totion in Afghanistan, we formulate our That is why I offer all the participants in win the war against terrorists: everyposition as follows. the unlawful armed militias and those who means of diplomacy, every tool of intelli- First, vigorous international cooperation call themselves political leaders to imme- gence, every instrument of law enforce-between special services. Russia is sup- diately cease all contacts with internation- ment, every financial influence. We willplying and intends to continue to supply al terrorists and their organizations and to starve the terrorists of funding, turn themthe information available to it about the contact official representatives of the fed- against each other, rout them out of theirinfrastructure and locations of internation- eral authorities within 72 hours to discuss safe hiding places and bring them to jus-al terrorists and about the bases training the following questions: procedures for tice.militants. the disarmament of these unlawful armed I’ve signed an executive order that Second, we are prepared to make the militias and groups and procedures for immediately freezes United States finan-Russian Federation’s air space available their integration in peaceful life in Chech- cial assets of and prohibits United Statesfor the flights-through of planes carrying nya. Viktor Kazantsev, the Plenipotentiary transactions with 27 different entities.humanitarian cargo to the area of that anti- Representative of the President of the They include terrorist organizations, indi-terrorist operation. Russian Federation in the Southern Feder- vidual terrorist leaders, a corporation that Third, we have agreed the above posi- al District, of which Chechnya is part, will serves as a front for terrorism, and severaltion with our allies from among Central be authorized to make such contacts on nonprofit organizations.Asian nations. They share this position behalf of the federal authorities. Just to show you how insidious theseand do not rule out for themselves the I would also like to use this opportunity terrorists are, they oftentimes use nice-possibility of making their airfields avail- to say a few words about my meeting sounding, non-governmental organizationsable. today with the heads of the Moslem reli- as fronts for their activities. We have tar- Fourth, Russia is also ready, if need be, gious boards of Russia. That meeting took geted three such NGOs. We intend to dealto take part in international search and place on their initiative. They have pro- with them, just like we intend to deal with others who aid and abet terrorist organiza- Foreign Policy Bulletin 81
  • 81. Featuretions. This executive order means that and to freeze the money to disrupt their the financial underpinnings of terrorism.United States banks that have assets of actions. Today’s executive order gives us a newthese groups or individuals must freeze We’re also working with the friends and weapon to deny terrorists access to funds.their accounts. And United States citizens allies throughout the world to share infor- The foreign terrorist asset tracking centeror businesses are prohibited from doing mation. We’re working closely with the that we announced last week is up andbusiness with them. United Nations, the EU and through the running, coordinating information from We know that many of these individuals G-7/G-8 structure to limit the ability of among government agencies with theand groups operate primarily overseas, terrorist organizations to take advantage of express purpose of identifying and stamp-and they don’t have much money in the the international financial systems. ing out the financial network that fundsUnited States. So we’ve developed a strat- The United States has signed, but not terrorism. And we’re working with the G-egy to deal with that. We’re putting banks yet ratified, two international conventions, 7 nations, and many others, to attack alland financial institutions around the world one of which is designed to set interna- parts of a global infrastructure thaton notice, we will work with their govern- tional standards for freezing financial finances these acts of evil.ments, ask them to freeze or block terror- assets. I’ll be asking members of the U.S. Together, we will succeed in starvingist’s ability to access funds in foreign Senate to approve the U.N. Convention on the terrorists of funding and shutting downaccounts. If they fail to help us by sharing Suppression of Terrorist Financing and a the institutions that support or facilitateinformation or freezing accounts, the related convention on terrorist bombings; terrorism.Department of the Treasury now has the and to work with me on implementing theauthority to freeze their bank’s assets and legislation. Secretary Powell. Thank you, Mr. Pres-transactions in the United States. We will lead by example. We will work ident and Secretary O’Neill. As the Presi- We have developed the international with the world against terrorism. Money is dent said, the campaign has begun. We’refinancial equivalent of law enforcement’s the lifeblood of terrorist operations. going after al Qaeda. We’re going after“Most Wanted” list. And it puts the finan- Today, we’re asking the world to stop pay- terrorism. And this is an indication of howcial world on notice. If you do business ment. we’re going to use all the elements of ourwith terrorists, if you support or sponsor Now, the Secretary of Treasury would national and international power to do it.them, you will not do business with the like to say a few remarks, followed by Terrorists require a financial infrastruc-United States of America. Secretary Powell, then I’ll answer a few ture. They require safe-havens. They I want to assure the world that we will questions. require places that will get them succorexercise this power responsibly. But make and comfort. We’re going after all of themno mistake about it, we intend to, and we Secretary O’Neill. Thank you, Mr. in every way that we can.will, disrupt terrorist networks. I want to President. This order provides the authori- And we’re focusing this morning on theassure the American people that in taking ty to block funds of terrorists and anyone financial infrastructure of terrorism. We’rethis action and publishing this list, we’re associated with a terrorist or terrorism. going to take this initiative into the Unitedacting based on clear evidence, much of The order names specific individuals and Nations and try to get additional resolu-which is classified, so it will not be dis- charitable organizations that are funding tions that will serve similar purposes.closed. It’s important as this war progress- terrorist acts. Donors now will know to We’re working with the European Union.es that the American people understand avoid these charities that front for terror- We’re working with the G-7 and G-8, aswe make decisions based upon classified ists. Secretary O’Neill and the President haveinformation, and we will not jeopardize With the signing of this executive order, mentioned. We’re going to be workingthe sources; we will not make the war we have the President’s explicit directive with Congress, as the President has men-more difficult to win by publicly disclos- to block the U.S. assets of any domestic tioned, to get these two U.N. conventionsing classified information. or foreign financial institution that refuses ratified, and the implementing legislation And, by the way, this list is just a begin- to cooperate with us in blocking assets of in place.ning. We will continue to add more names terrorist organizations. This order is a I’m very, very pleased at the level ofto the list. We will freeze the assets of oth- notice to financial institutions around the cooperation that we are receiving fromers as we find that they aid and abet ter- world, if you have any involvement in the around the world. All civilized nations inrorist organizations around the world. financing of the al Qaeda organization, the world understand that the civilizedWe’ve established a foreign terrorist asset you have two choices: cooperate in this world has to go after terrorism. The Worldtracking center at the Department of the fight, or we will freeze your U.S. assets; Trade Center, America suffered a grievousTreasury to identify and investigate the we will punish you for providing the blow. But the whole world did—somefinancial infrastructure of the international resources that make these evil acts possi- almost 80 nations suffered losses at theterrorist networks. ble. World Trade Center. And that’s why the It will bring together representatives of Many of our allies around the world whole world is joining with us. Nationsthe intelligence, law enforcement and have already stepped forward to cooperate such as the United Arab Emirates, whichfinancial regulatory agencies to accom- in destroying terrorism’s financial infra- declared the Taliban no longer welcomeplish two goals: to follow the money as a structure. I will be in contact with my G-7 and broke diplomatic relations. All oftrail to the terrorists, to follow their colleagues again tomorrow to further these are part of the campaign.money so we can find out where they are; coordinate our joint effort to shut down It’s a campaign that will be fought with82 Winter 2002
  • 82. September 11, 2001persistence and with perseverance, and And as we are able to provide informa- he’s had more recent contact with themwill be fought until, as the President has tion that is not sensitive or classified, I than I have—but they’ve been nothing butsaid, we have prevailed and we have won. think we will try to do that in every way. cooperative. Our dialogue has been oneThank you. of—as you would expect friends to be President Bush. Yes, Helen. able to discuss issues. And my discussion President Bush. Bill. with the Foreign Minister, as well as the Q. Mr. President, how much coopera- Ambassador, have been very positive. And Q. Mr. President, when will you pub- tion are you getting from Russia? And there’s been no indication, as far as I’mlish the paper which Secretary Powell is Saudi Arabia going to allow us to use concerned, that the Saudis won’t cooper-mentioned yesterday, outlining some of its air base, or aren’t you allowed to ate once they understand exactly our mis-the proof that you have of the involve- talk about it? sion.ment of bin Laden and al Qaeda andothers? President Bush. Well, first, I had an Secretary Powell. That’s exactly right, hour-long discussion—nearly an hour- Mr. President. They have not turned down President Bush. The Secretary said that long discussion with President Putin on any requests that we have presented tohe’d be glad to talk about the paper. Let Saturday. He was very forthcoming in his them.me first tell you that I gave a speech to the willingness to work closely with the Unit-nation last Thursday in which I spent a ed States in our efforts to battle terrorism. Q. Mr. President, are you asking Con-great deal of time talking about the al I was very pleased with my discussion, gress for the power to waive militaryQaeda organization as the first terrorist Helen. I found him to be a person who— restrictions on countries—on all coun-organization that we’re going to deal with. first of all, understands the vision that tries that help us, including those we’veAnd the reason I did is there is a lot of we’ve entered into a new conflict in the considered as rogue nations? And, if so,classified information that leads to one 21st century. why?person, as well as one global terrorist You need to know that when I was onorganization. Air Force One and ordered alerts— President Bush. No, you’re—I think But for those of you looking for a legal increased alert status for our troops, Presi- you’re referring to—first of all, we’vepeg, we’ve already indicted Osama bin dent Putin was the first call I got. And he waived the sanctions on Pakistan andLaden. He’s under indictment for terrorist made it clear that he would stand down India, as related to the Glenn Act. But Iactivity. Our war is against terrorism. their troops. In other words, to me it was a think you’re referring to a report that weThose who would conduct terrorist acts moment where it clearly said to me, he were going to ask for a blanket—blanketagainst the United States, those who spon- understands the Cold War is over. In the exceptions, or blanket waivers for—andsor them, those who harbor them, those past, as you well know, that had the Presi- the answer is no, we’re not. That’s anwho challenge freedom wherever it may dent put the—raised the DEF CON levels erroneous report.exist. of our troops, Russia would have respond- And, Mr. Secretary, if you’d like to ed accordingly. There would have been Q.—just case-by-case now, is thatmake a comment on that. inevitable tension. idea, like— Along those—the reason I bring that up Secretary Powell. I just might point out is that Vladimir Putin clearly understands President Bush. Well, where giventhat he has been under indictment for the that the Cold War is over, and that the the—where the law allows, I will do itbombings of our embassy. And as we United States and Russia can cooperate. case-by-case. But we don’t intend to askgather information, and as we talk to our We can cooperate with a new strategic Congress for a blanket waiver, as reportedfriends and allies around the world, and as arrangement. We can cooperate in the bat- in one of the journals.we get more cooperation, more informa- tle against terrorism. We talked about a lottion is coming in with respect to his activ- of areas of the world. We talked about the Q. Mr. President, last week you con-ities and the activities of this network. Central Asian republics. And as you know, demned the Taliban regime, and saidMost of it is classified, and as we look they have been forthcoming in their state- that if they did not comply with yourthrough it, we can find areas that are ments about their understanding of a demands, they would share the fate ofunclassified and it will allow us to share potential campaign. And I told him I the terrorists. That raises the question,this information with the public, we will appreciated his willingness to work with what is your administration and otherdo so. That would be our intent. But most us in that area. coalition members planning to do toof it is classified. And so it was a very constructive dia- maintain stability and order in Central But there’s no question that this net- logue. He also understands that terrorist Asia? Are we supporting this exiledwork, with this gentleman at the head—if activity is going to require a—to fight ter- King, the northern insurgence, someone can call a terrorist a gentleman, just rorist activity is going to require a broad U.N. administration? What are ourfor purposes of illustration—this guy at front, and that his nation, like ours, is sub- goals there, if the Taliban are to bethe head of this network—the chairman of ject to terrorist attack. removed?this holding company of terrorism, is the As far as the Saudi Arabians go—and,one who is responsible. again, the Secretary can comment on this, President Bush. Terry, I—first of all, Foreign Policy Bulletin 83
  • 83. Featurewe were mindful that every action could they want to—if we’re able to chop off And I’m concerned about the shock thishave a consequence. And as you know, we their monies. And we intend to do so. And has had on our economy, and I’m con-have spent a lot of time and effort and we’ve got a big task ahead. In Europe, for cerned about, obviously, the effect of thefocus on Pakistan. I just talked about the example, there are probably going to need airlines, for example, the weakness in thewaiving of sanctions with Pakistan and to be some laws changed in order for airline sector has had on the economy.India. We believe that will bring stability those governments to react the way we That’s why I signed the bill as soon asto that part of the world. We have talked expect them to. That’s why I said in my Congress passed it, to provide some non-to other friends about how to make sure comment, while we now—while the Sec- recourse loans to the airlines, to keepthat the Musharraf presidency is a stable retary of Treasury now has the option of them up and running right now.presence in that part of the world. providing some draconian measure, we But I want to assure the American peo- In terms of activities within will look at it in on a case-by-case basis. ple that the fundamentals for growth areAfghanistan, I’m not going to talk about We expect there to be a complete and full very strong. That which made us uniquethose. I will not jeopardize our mission in effort to join us in affecting terrorist orga- in the world existed prior to September—any way by talking about military or in- nizations in all ways, shapes and forms. that existed prior to September 11th existscountry plans. We have a responsibility as The reason why we held this statement today. We’re still a nation of entrepreneursan administration to speak as candidly as in the Rose Garden is it helps the Ameri- and small business vitality. We’re still awe can to the American people, but with- can people understand we are waging a nation of innovation. We’ve got a veryout jeopardizing life. And so, therefore, different kind of war. It is a war that is good tax structure.we will be willing to discuss that very going to take a while. It is a war that will There is no question the attacks haveimportant question at an appropriate time, have many fronts. It is a war that will affected America, but I think when theand now is not the appropriate time. require the United States to use our influ- investors sit back and take a hard look at ence in a variety of areas in order to win the fundamentals of the economy, they’ll Q. Mr. President, to put some per- it. And one area is financial. get back in the market. I think that con-spective into all of this, how much—can We know there are some banks, for sumers will realize life is going on. I thinkyou tell us a rough estimate of how example, that provide easy access money people appreciate the fact that our govern-much the al Qaeda network is worth for terrorist organizations. We will deal ment has come together to act in a verydomestically, and perhaps and/or with them. And if we can’t deal with them significant way, to provide monies whereworldwide? individually, we will call upon our friends necessary, for—whether it be to help to deal with them. rebuild New York or whether it be to pro- President Bush. Well, I think in my One of the interesting things that the vide a financial basis for airlines to stay instatement I made it clear that we don’t Secretary can tell you—both Secretaries business. We’ll come out of this, and we’llanticipate many assets to be frozen here in will tell you—is a lot of nations and their come out of it strong.the United States, and that most of the representatives have asked, how can we See, these terrorists thought they couldassets will be overseas. And one of the help; what can we do to join the effort. affect the United States. They thoughtjobs that the Secretary of Treasury is Some nations will feel comfortable pro- they could diminish our soul. They justgoing to do is to help us identify the size viding troops. Some nations will feel com- strengthened our country. And while theof the organization’s balance sheet. fortable providing intelligence. Some numbers aren’t going to look too good in I can’t give you a rough estimate right nations will only feel comfortable helping the short-run, we’ll be a stronger nation asnow. us wage the battle on the financial front. a result of this. And they’ve miscalculated. And that’s fine by us, because we under- They made a terrible mistake. They Q.—hundreds of millions? stand how important it is to stop the flow thought somehow they could affect the of funds. psyche of our country. They’re wrong. President Bush. But let’s put it this And not only that, we’ll prove themway—enough to fund terrorist activity that Q. Mr. President, one question on the wrong. They have roused the ire of a greatthreatens freedom. And there are—take, economy. How concerned are you about nation. And we’re going to smoke themfor example, the non-governmental orga- consumer confidence right now? People out of their caves, and get them running.nizations. They run a fair amount of are afraid to fly, they’re not traveling. And we’re going to use every means atmoney through their organizations, and And are you, at this point, concerned our disposal to do so. And this is going towe’re beginning, as you can tell from the that the economy has already dipped require patience and focus and disciplinelist we’ve laid out, or will be able to tell into a recession? on behalf of the—by the American peoplefrom the list, that we’re beginning to set and by my administration.priorities of those most egregious and President Bush. Well, I’m—I haven’t No, I understand six months from nowtheir serving as fronts for terrorist activi- seen—I’m not a statistician, but I’ve got we’ll be sitting around talking about someties. I don’t know the full amount of their enough anecdotal evidence to tell you statistic, or something—maybe there willcash flows, but one dime of money into a there are people hurting, and there are a be an argument in Congress about someterrorist activity is one dime too much. little too many layoffs. And any time issue or something like that. But the And we know that these organizations somebody loses a job in America, I’m American people have got to understandcannot function if we’re able to—the way concerned. that when I held up that badge, I meant it:84 Winter 2002
  • 84. September 11, 2001this war on terrorism is my primary focus. are already located. between Yasser Arafat and Shimon PeresOf course I’m concerned about people I have taken these actions pursuant to was going to go ahead.being laid off. Of course I’m concerned my constitutional authority to conduct And as the coalition builds, and as ourabout the pieces of legislation that may be U.S. foreign relations and as Commander preparations continue, the terrorists insidestalled. in Chief and Chief Executive. It is not Afghanistan, and the Taliban regime that But we are talking about a campaign now possible to predict the scope and harbors them, should not doubt the unityagainst people who hate freedom. And the duration of these deployments, and the of the alliance being built against them, orlegacy that this administration and this actions necessary to counter the terrorist our determination to do what is necessarygeneration can leave for future generations threat to the United States. It is likely that to bring those responsible to account. Ifis a legacy that is so vital for the under- the American campaign against terrorism the regime in Afghanistan refuses to dopinnings of this nation and others who will be a lengthy one. what they know they should, then ourlove freedom. I am providing this report as part of my enemy’s friend also becomes our enemy And so I—we’re a great nation, and the efforts to keep the Congress informed, too. They have chosen to help the terror-world has seen how great we are. And you consistent with the War Powers Resolu- ists; and in choosing to help the friends ofbet there are problems with our economy tion and Senate Joint Resolution 23, terror, they are choosing to be enemies ofshort-run, but not long-run. And you bet which I signed on September 18, 2001. As ours.there’s a concern about whether or not you know, officials of my Administration Our stated aim, as you know, is to bringwe’ll be able to wrap up every financial and I have been regularly communicating to justice those responsible for the attacksinstrument used to fund terrorism. with the leadership and other Members of of a fortnight ago, which killed several But make no mistake about it, we’re Congress about the actions we are taking thousand people, including many, manygoing after them all. And we’ll win, we’re to respond to the threat of terrorism and British people. The Taliban regime standsgoing to win. Terrorists are going to real- we will continue to do so. I appreciate the in the way of that. But I also want to addize they can’t face down freedom. Terror- continuing support of the Congress, this: our fight is with that regime, not withists are going to realize they made a big including its passage of Senate Joint Res- the people of Afghanistan. These peoplemistake, they miscalculated America. And olution 23, in this action to protect the have also suffered for years: their rightsI think they miscalculate a lot of our allies security of the United States of America abused, women’s rights non-existent,and friends, too. There is a determined and its citizens, civilian and military, here poverty and illness ignored, a regimewill, and we accept the challenge in this and abroad. without respect or justice for its own peo-administration. ple. A regime founded on fear, and funded largely by drugs and crime. Remarks by British Prime Our fight is not with Islam. Our fight isLetter from the President to Minister Blair, September 25, with a terrorist network and a regime that sustains them in mutual support. The vastthe Speaker of the House 200182 majority of Muslims, as I’ve said manyand the President Pro times many before, condemn the attacks I wanted to give you an update on several as unreservedly as we do. The AfghansTempore of the Senate, issues. I think two weeks on from the fleeing now are fleeing in fear of theirSeptember 24, 200181 attacks on the United States, it is clear to own regime every bit as much as in fear of me that the coalition of support for firm military conflict. But military conflictDear Mr. Speaker: (Dear Mr. President:) action against those responsible is there will be unless the Taliban change On the morning of September 11, 2001, strengthening rather than weakening. and respond to the ultimatum that hasterrorists hijacked four U.S. commercial I’ve just spoken now to the Japanese been so clearly delivered to them.airliners. These terrorists coldly murdered Prime Minister, who in common with all They care little for human life. And theythousands of innocent people on those air- G8 leaders, is determined that his country care little for their own people. But we doliners and on the ground, and deliberately should play its part in defeating this care about the humanitarian plight of peo-destroyed the towers of the World Trade scourge of international terrorism. I also ple in Afghanistan. That is why we haveCenter and surrounding buildings and a want to welcome specifically the latest been discussing in the past few days, andportion of the Pentagon. support offered by President Putin of Rus- most recently with the Prime Minister of In response to these attacks on our terri- sia—a new and better relationship is being Japan this morning, putting in place atory, our citizens, and our way of life, I forged with Russia and the rest of the proper response to the humanitarian crisisordered the deployment of various com- democratic world, which I think all of us now developing as a result of the attack ofbat-equipped and combat support forces to should welcome. I’ve also spoken today September 11. We are looking now, botha number of foreign nations in the Central with President Assad of Syria and with in our own account, with other countries,and Pacific Command areas of operations. Prime Minister Sharon of Israel, As you with the United Nations—and I spoke toIn the future, as we act to prevent and know, we have been urging both sides in the Secretary General a short time ago—deter terrorism, I may find it necessary to the Middle East Peace Process to resume to try to do what we can to get food sup-order additional forces into these and talks as soon as possible, so I was particu- plies both to refugees, and to those stayingother areas of the world, including into larly pleased that Prime Minister Sharon inside Afghanistan. This will be particu-foreign nations where U.S. Armed Forces called me today to say that the meeting Foreign Policy Bulletin 85
  • 85. Featurelarly pressing with the winter snows due change what they have been doing, behave has been so severe, and the events so trau-in a matter of weeks. In addition we are as they should do, and yield up the person matic, the terrorist outrage so atrociousworking on plans for the long-term. they know perfectly well is responsible for that what has happened is that all around We have already announced some extra this atrocity, or they will be treated as an the world, people are re-evaluating how$25 million for refugees in the region; we enemy and their regime will be treated as they must deal with this situation, how westand ready to do more if necessary. But an enemy. must come together and act, and there is athis will require a concerted effort at every real sense that I have that the internationalsingle level of international organizations Q. Prime Minister, can I just put this community is coming together. And aresponsible for these issues. We are going to you—are you suggesting that the whole series of things that you might haveto help with the resources for the forces of the West have it in their power thought of completely impossible a fewUNHCR, the Red Cross and other non- first of all to remove the Taliban regime weeks ago are possible. The fact that thegovernmental organizations; and we are if necessary, and is it also realistic to Foreign Secretary is in Iran, with Irangoing to work with experts and local and hope that you can track down bin having issued its solidarity with the peo-international groups in order to provide Laden, either capture him, or kill him? ple of the United States of America as amuch-needed food and supplies. result of this outrage. The fact that the Finally, as all countries look to their Prime Minister Blair. We certainly Middle East peace process that seemedown domestic laws, we have been looking have the power to do very considerable completely stalled now has some hope invery carefully at issues such as the financ- damage to the Taliban regime, and any it. The fact that I can talk to the Syrianing of terrorism, extradition laws, asylum action that we take will be directed president today and we can discuss theand immigration, as well as our own spe- towards the regime, not at the ordinary possibility of his coming to Britain, andcific anti-terror laws. I am in no doubt of people of Afghanistan who are the victims discussing what we can do jointly in thethe need to strengthen our laws in the of this regime, who have been treated action against terrorism. The fact thatfight against terrorism and again, within appallingly and abused appallingly by that Russia is fully behind taking actionthe next couple of weeks, we shall be regime. And, you wouldn’t expect me to against those responsible and offering itsannouncing the measures that we intend to say a great deal about what capacity we help and assistance to the United States oftake. have to track the whereabouts of bin America. The fact that, as I’ve discussed Laden and to hunt him down, but I can with the Japanese prime minister this Q. Prime Minister, could I ask about assure you we will bend every single morning, that for the first time in many,what you said about the Taliban gov- effort to that end. many years Japan has stepped forward andernment? Can you give us any sense of said this is an international crisis, we wantwhen this ultimatum runs out, how Q. One or two things concerning to play a part in it though we play no partmuch more time—if any—they have Israel for the moment, the Israeli prime as a result of our own position, in militarygot? And secondly, we said similar sorts minister’s sources close to him have action nonetheless, we will give logisticalof things about the Iraqi regime, and suggested that you actually apologized support, we will give humanitarian sup-after the Gulf War we left them there. for what Jack Straw had said about port, we will do what we can to assistIs it your intention that if the Taliban Palestine. Is that the case? And also, America. So, I think what is—what isfail to respond, we will remove the Tal- could I ask in view of the fact that there happening is that because this crisis hasiban government and put an alternative does seem to be a re-evaluation has been, as I say, so deep, and because nowgovernment into Afghanistan? been made clear both towards the there is this real sense in the international humanitarian position in Afghanistan community that it has to come together, if Prime Minister Blair. The way that I and towards Israel and the Palestinians you like, a whole lot of barriers and obsta-would put this is, is as follows: The Tal- as a result of this bombing, wouldn’t cles to people communicating with eachiban regime know exactly what they need the conclusion, however depressing, be other, trying to understand each other’sto do. It’s been spelt out very clearly by that terrorism actually works inasmuch point of view are coming down and arePresident Bush, by myself, by other world as it re-focuses international opinion? breaking up. And I, I mean, insofar as anyleaders. And they could do it perfectly good can come out of such evil, I thinkeasily. And they choose not to do it Prime Minister Blair. Well, there was that is the good that is emerging from it.because they are helping bin Laden and never any issue of an apology being askedthey have helped the terror camps set up for at all. What we did do, however, was Q. Could we for a moment turn to thein Afghanistan for the export of terror discuss both in the light of Jack Straw’s question of Israel and bringing downthroughout the world. Now, they could act visit and also because of the current situa- the barriers? You said that no questionat any point in time. They want to, and tion, how we could move forward the of an apology being asked for, but inthey should act. In respect to the regime Middle East Peace Process, and I was order to smooth things over, was thereitself, if they stand in the way of bringing very pleased that the prime minister said any expression of regret for any misun-bin Laden and those associated with him that the meeting between Simon Peres and derstanding that might have arisen?to account, then they are every bit as Yassir Arafat would go ahead. And, Imuch our enemy as bin Laden himself. think there’s a—I think this is the way Prime Minister Blair. The relationshipSo, their choice is very clear; they either that I would put this to you. This crisis between both myself and the prime minis-86 Winter 2002
  • 86. September 11, 2001ter of Israel and between Israel and tion, but until we’ve made our delibera- a successful meeting between MinisterBritain are very, very strong and, frankly, tions, I think it’s as well not to speculate Shimon Peres and Chairman Arafat. Andthe most important thing is that we dis- on them. we will both be working closely togethercuss how we get the peace process mov- to assist the Palestinians and the Israelis toing forward, and that’s what we did. **** move forward from this new beginning. And we have also had a good discussion Q. Prime Minister, you say that if the Q. Can we talk about humanitarian aid, of the events of September 11th, and whatTaliban gave up bin Laden that is their because obviously that’s something you we have been doing together since then. Ichoice, but would it be enough for the see as very important? Are you—we expressed my appreciation to the MinisterTaliban to give up bin Laden to obviate talking about getting food supplies to and, through him, to President Mubarakthe need for some form of military them within camps just over the border for the strong words of support and for thestrikes or, given what the Americans into Pakistan? Are we talking about condolences we have received from theparticularly have said about other putting aid actually dropping food sup- Egyptian people and I, in turn, extendedstates who harbor terrorists, wouldn’t plies within Afghanistan? What are we my regrets to the families of the Egyptiansthere still be the danger that we would trying to do? who were lost in the World Trade Center.have to take military action against And I also expressed my appreciationother states, or is it—is that the simple Prime Minister Blair. I think we’ve got for the commitment that Egypt has madeprice of stopping the war, that we get to do both. We’ve got to look, obviously, to working with us as we move forward tobin Laden to justice? at how we help those people in camps out- deal with the scourge of terrorism. Egypt, side of Afghanistan, people particularly as all of us know, is really ahead of us on Prime Minister Blair. No, I think it’s who are fleeing over the borders and to this issue. They have had to deal with actsvery important that I say to you that bin the countries surrounding Pak— of terrorism in recent years in the courseLaden is, is one of the leading organizers Afghanistan such as Pakistan. But, in a of their history. And we have much toand sponsors of terrorism in the world, but sense, that is an easier thing to do. I mean, learn from them and there is much we canhe’s not the only one, and he’s not the that requires us to put a lot of effort and do together.only one operating out of Afghanistan. money into it, but at least we can reach So I welcome my colleague and I lookThere are scores of these terrorist camps the people relatively easily. What we’re forward to continued cooperation within Afghanistan, and they have been helped also looking at, however, is what help we him, his associates, and with the Egyptianand supported and given succor by the can get to those people actually inside Government as we move forward on thisTaliban regime. So, it’s not simply a ques- Afghanistan itself. Now, even in normal campaign.tion of them yielding up bin Laden, it is a circumstances, and there aren’t many nor- Mr. Minister.question of them making sure that all mal circumstances in Afghanistan, butthose responsible for terrorism are yielded even normally, they are living in abject Foreign Minister Maher. Thank you,up and that those camps are closed down, poverty a lot of them and dependent on Mr. Secretary. It is always a pleasure toand then verifiably closed down because, aid. And what we’ve got to make sure is meet with you, even in difficult circum-you know, these people have been export- that we try and get whatever help that we stances. Because the message I broughting this terror right around the world. Of can to those people who have been dis- was a message of reiterating our condo-course what has happened on the 11th of placed in Afghanistan at the present time, lences and reiterating our solidarity—theSeptember is an atrocity so great that it and we will do that. solidarity of the Egyptian people, Presi-has had naturally the impact it has, but if dent and Government with the Unitedyou look back in the last ten years, there States—and our determination to workis a whole long list of terrorist acts that Remarks by Secretary of together in the fight against terrorism.these people have carried out, funded As the Secretary said, we have sufferedfrom and organized from Afghanistan. State Powell and Egyptian from terrorism, and it is only normal that Foreign Minister Maher, we should join any attempt to get rid of Q. On the measures that you say this scourge from which the world hasyou’re going to be introducing in a cou- September 26, 200183 suffered and continues to suffer.ple of weeks, are you yourself convinced Secretary Colin Powell and Egyptian We are cooperating with the Unitedfor the need for identity cards? Minister of Foreign Affairs Ahmed States in many ways and we have dis- Maher delivered their remarks after cussed this matter. We have discussed our Prime Minister Blair. In respect of all meeting in Washington, DC. opinions and we exchange ideas about thethese measures, both in respect of the laws best way to do that. We believe that theof extradition and how we make sure that Secretary Powell. Good afternoon, ladies United States, as the government of awe are tackling the issue properly of how and gentlemen. It has been my pleasure to country that believes in law and justice,we prosecute people for terrorist crimes, host my dear friend and good colleague, will act on the basis of a case—a goodthese are all questions—and questions like the Foreign Minister of Egypt, Minister case—and I am sure they have a goodis, are identity cards a good idea or not— Maher. We have had a good conversation, case—against the culprits who committedthey’re questions that are under considera- reviewing the situation in the Middle East, this horrible crime of September 11th. in light of the developments of today, with Foreign Policy Bulletin 87
  • 87. Feature We also talked about the necessity of tention such as this are available to be put said in his speech and as we have saidestablishing an international consensus on the table as these meetings go forward. repeatedly, those who provide a haven oraround this fight, which is manifold and And we will be following that progress harbor this kind of terrorist organizationwill take a long time. I explained our and taking a more active role as the meet- must be prepared to pay consequences forideas about the international conference, ings begin to one follow the other. their actions.which is not a substitute for the necessityto punish the culprits. Q. Mr. Secretary, the President went We also discussed the Middle East ques- to the CIA today and forcefully defend- Remarks by President Bush,tion and the role that the Secretary, per- ed the job that George Tenet has beensonally, and the United States Government doing. Do you feel that you are getting September 26, 200184have played in bringing together the meet- the information that you need from him President Bush delivered his remarks ating that took place this morning between to do your job? the CIA headquarters in Langley,Chairman Yasser Arafat and Shimon And, Mr. Minister, could you com- Virginia.Peres, which was a promising meeting and ment on how Mr. Tenet is viewed indevelopment. And we both are determined Egypt and the Middle East? We are on a mission to make sure thatto continue to help both parties to reach freedom is enduring. We’re on a missionthe stage where they can resume, after the Secretary Powell. From my standpoint, to say to the rest of the world, come withimplementation of the Tenet and Mitchell George Tenet is doing an absolutely out- us—come with us, stand by our side torecommendations, they can resume nego- standing job. I consider him not only a defeat the evil-doers who would like to ridtiations on the final status negotiations. trusted friend, but a great working col- the world of freedom as we know it. There I come out of this meeting reassured, league. He is providing to the State is no better institute to be working withand our friendship, as I can report to you, Department all that I would expect from than the Central Intelligence Agency,is as strong today as it has always been. the CIA. We have excellent relations which serves as our ears and our eyes allThank you very much. between the CIA and the INR Bureau that around the world. does intelligence here in the State Depart- This is a war that is unlike any other Q. Mr. Secretary, there are many peo- ment. And I certainly share the President’s war that our nation is used to. It’s a war ofple who are arguing now, in the Penta- judgment that Director Tenet is doing a a series of battles that sometimes we’ll seegon or even on the Capitol, to have terrific job. the fruits of our labors, and sometimes wemore targets, and specifically for a new won’t. It’s a war that’s going to requiremilitary campaign in the Middle East Foreign Minister Maher. The only cooperation with our friends. It is a warand other countries in the world. What comment I would make about your ques- that requires the best of intelligence. Youdo you think about this? tion is to tell you that George Tenet has see, the enemy is sometimes hard to find; many friends in my country. they like to hide. They think they can Secretary Powell. Well, I don’t know hide—but we know better.about those reports. But what we are Q. Mr. Secretary, we have heard this This is a war that not only says to thosefocusing on is terrorism and going after administration say time and again it is who believe they can disrupt Americanterrorists, not only those who are responsi- not into nation building in Afghanistan. lives—or, for that matter, any society thatble for this event on the 11th of Septem- But, clearly, if the Taliban continues to believes in freedom, lives—it’s also a warber, but who are responsible for other ter- stand in the way of bin Laden and the that declares a new declaration, that saysrorist activities of a global reach. terrorist network, is the U.S. Govern- if you harbor a terrorist you’re just as We are not using this as a way to punish ment going to remove the Taliban or guilty as the terrorist; if you provide safenations indiscriminately. I can assure you encourage other groups within haven to a terrorist, you’re just as guilty asthat President Bush sees this as a long- Afghanistan to go after the Taliban? If the terrorist; if you fund a terrorist, you’reterm campaign that he will pursue with so, who fills the void? just as guilty as a terrorist.patience and perseverance, in close con- And in order to make sure that we’resultation with our friends and allies. Secretary Powell. As our campaign able to conduct a winning victory, we’ve unfolds, you will see we are going after got to have the best intelligence we can Q. Mr. Secretary, with the new devel- the al-Qaida network, we are going after possibly have. And my report to the nationopment in Gaza, would you like to com- Usama bin Laden. We are going to do it in is, we’ve got the best intelligence we canment on this new security zone in the a way that is mindful of the suffering that possibly have thanks to the men andWest Bank? is currently being inflicted upon the women of the CIA. Afghan people. And, hopefully, a better The cooperation with Capitol Hill is Secretary Powell. We are in discussions day is ahead for the Afghan people. unique and, I hope, lasting. I can’t tell youwith our Israeli colleagues about their But, right now, I am not prepared to say, how much I appreciate the work of Sena-ideas for security. And I think with the nor is the United States Government pre- tor Daschle and Senator Lott, Speakerprogress that we have seen in today’s pared to say, how they might be governed Hastert and Leader Gephardt. There’smeeting and knowing that other meetings in the future or what might be the fate of deep concern amongst Republicans andare coming up, that all issues in con- the Taliban regime. As the President has Democrats on Capitol Hill to do what’s right for America—is to come together to88 Winter 2002
  • 88. September 11, 2001provide the necessary support for an effec- best shot, long hours, all your brain enough to defeat us. We are confident thattive war. power, to win a war that we’re going to no one can harm us if God is with us. And that includes making sure that the win. And I can’t thank you enough onCIA is well-funded, well-staffed, has got behalf of the American people. Q. You are telling me you are not con-the latest in technology. I believe we can Keep doing it. America relies upon your cerned, but Afghans all over the worldwork together to make sure that that’s the intelligence and your judgment. America are concerned.case. After all, as America is learning, the relies upon our capacity to work togetherCIA is on the front line of making sure as a nation to do what the American peo- Mullah Omar. We are also concerned.our victory will be secure. ple expect. They expect a 100 percent Great issues lie ahead. But we depend on I intend to continue to work with Con- effort, a full-time, no-stop effort on not God’s mercy. Consider our point of view:gress to make sure that our law enforce- only securing our homeland, but to bring- if we give Osama away today, Muslimsment officials at home have got the tools ing to justice terrorists, no matter where who are now pleading to give him upnecessary—obviously, within the confines they live, no matter where they hide. And would then be reviling us for giving himof our Constitution—to make sure the that’s exactly what we’re going to do. up... Everyone is afraid of America andhomeland is secure; to make sure America wants to please it. But Americans will notcan live as peacefully as possible; to make be able to prevent such acts like the onesure that we run down every threat, take Interview of Taliban Leader that has just occurred because Americaserious every incident. And we’ve got to has taken Islam hostage. If you look atmake sure, as well, that those who work Omar, September 21, 200185 Islamic countries, the people are infor the nation overseas have got the best Mullah Omar Mohammad, the Taliban despair. They are complaining that Islamavailable technologies and the best tools leader, was interviewed in Pashtu for the is gone. But people remain firm in theirand the best funding possible. publicly-funded radio channel Voice of Islamic beliefs. In their pain and frustra- There is a good spirit in Capitol Hill America. Following reported objections tion, some of them commit suicide acts.because Americans want to win. They from the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State They feel they have nothing to lose.want to win the first war of the 21st centu- and senior officials of the Nationalry. And win we must—we have no choice, Security Council, the interview was not Q. What do you mean by sayingwe can’t relent. Now, there’s going to be a broadcast. America has taken the Islamic worldtime, hopefully in the near future, where hostage?people say, gosh, my life is almost nor- Q. Why don’t you expel Osama binmal; September 11th is a sad memory, but Laden? Mullah Omar. America controls theit’s a memory. governments of the Islamic countries. The But those of us on the front lines of this Mullah Omar. This is not an issue of people ask to follow Islam, but the gov-war must never forget September 11th. Osama bin Laden. It is an issue of Islam. ernments do not listen because they are inAnd that includes the men and women of Islam’s prestige is at stake. So is the grip of the United States. If someonethe CIA. We must never forget that this is Afghanistan’s tradition. follows the path of Islam, the governmenta long struggle, that there are evil people arrests him, tortures him or kills him. Thisin the world who hate America. And we Q. Do you know that the U.S. has is the doing of America. If it stops sup-won’t relent. The folks who conducted to announced a war on terrorism? porting those governments and lets theact on our country on September 11th people deal with them, then such thingsmade a big mistake. They underestimated Mullah Omar. I am considering two won’t happen. America has created theAmerica. They underestimated our promises. One is the promise of God, the evil that is attacking it. The evil will notresolve, our determination, our love for other is that of Bush. The promise of God disappear even if I die and Osama diesfreedom. They misunderestimated the fact is that my land is vast. If you start a jour- and others die. The U.S. should step backthat we love a neighbor in need. They ney on God’s path, you can reside any- and review its policy. It should stop tryingmisunderestimated the compassion of our where on this earth and will be protected... to impose its empire on the rest of thecountry. I think they misunderestimated The promise of Bush is that there is no world, especially on Islamic countries.the will and determination of the Com- place on earth where you can hide that Imander-in-Chief, too. cannot find you. We will see which one of Q. So you won’t give Osama bin So, anyway, I was sitting around having these two promises is fulfilled. Laden up?coffee with George and Michael—I said, Ithink I’d like to come out to thank people Q. But aren’t you afraid for the peo- Mullah Omar. No. We cannot do that.once again; I’d like to come out to the ple, yourself, the Taliban, your country? If we did, it means we are not Muslims...CIA, the center of great Americans, to that Islam is finished. If we were afraid ofthank you for your work. Mullah Omar. Almighty God... is help- attack, we could have surrendered him the I know how hard you’re working. And I ing the believers and the Muslims. God last time we were threatened and attacked.hope all the Americans who are listening says he will never be satisfied with the So America can hit us again, and this timeto this TV broadcast understand how hard infidels. In terms of worldly affairs, Amer- we don’t even have a friend.you’re working, too. You’re giving your ica is very strong. Even if it were twice as strong or twice that, it could not be strong Foreign Policy Bulletin 89
  • 89. Feature Q. If you fight America with all your bedrock—has always been Article 5, the We must recognize that new threats, ofmight—can the Taliban do that? Won’t commitment to collective defense. Of very different kinds, have already crossedAmerica beat you and won’t your peo- course, this commitment was first entered a threshold that should make them theple suffer even more? into in 1949, in very different circum- focus of serious concern. For example, stances. But it remains as valid and essen- terrorists are able to communicate with Mullah Omar. I’m very confident that tial today, in the face of this new threat. each other with unprecedented communi-it won’t turn out this way. Please note this: With the decision to invoke Article 5, cations security—both because of thethere is nothing more we can do except NATO’s members demonstrated, once availability of sophisticated encryptiondepend on almighty God. If a person does, again, that the Alliance is no simple talk- technology and the fact that their mes-then he is assured that the Almighty will ing shop—it is a community of nations, sages are buried in the overwhelming vol-help him, have mercy on him and he will united by its values and interests, and ume of electronic communication in thesucceed. utterly determined to act together to world today. defend them. Today, the United States’ We can also see that attacks with mili- NATO allies stand ready to provide the tary-style effectiveness can be made by aExcerpt from Remarks by assistance that may be required as a con- different kind of assailant. The attacks on sequence of these acts of barbarism. the USS Cole in Yemen, the U.S.NATO Secretary General Now, I know you are wondering what Embassies in Nairobi and Dar Es Salaam,Robertson, September 28, exactly that means, in terms of concrete and now the coordinated hijack attacks in action. The answer is, it is still too soon to the U.S. itself were direct hits against a200185 tell. Traditional critics of U.S. policy pre- nation’s interests—conducted by a newSecretary General Robertson delivered dicted a knee-jerk reaction, military force kind of enemy. In the past, we might havehis remarks at the NATO Defense used prematurely, incoherently and with- expected attacks of this intensity fromCollege. out effect. They were wrong. Washing- other States. Yet with the spread of tech- ton’s response has been measured, and nology, it is painfully clear that we areBefore the 11th of September, 2001, who military capabilities have been placed facing major threats not just from so-could have foreseen such a catastrophic securely in the wider context of a multi- called rogue states, but from non-stateterrorist attack? Not even Tom Clancy. But faceted campaign against terrorism. actors as well.the best intelligence the world can buy— Our first collective priority is helping to To add to these complications, the Inter-not only U.S. intelligence, but every- deal with the immediate crisis. At the net provides all the information one needsone’s—failed to predict that it would hap- same time, our intelligence services are to build nuclear, biological and chemicalpen; or indeed, even that it could happen. working together to help provide the Unit- weapons. Missile technology, too, is Our initial response to this attack is ed States with the information it needs to becoming ever more widespread—and asclear. First and foremost, we stand with determine culpability and to find the cul- a result, ballistic missiles are posing anour American friends in total solidarity. prits. Then we will consider our collective ever-increasing danger to our societies.Throughout the past century, the United response, what form that response should The list goes on. Globalization offersStates has supported Europe in its times of take, and who will participate in what our societies the opportunity to becomeneed. Now the United States has been way. But through Article 5, NATO’s mem- more creative and prosperous; but it alsodealt a brutal blow. Today, America’s bers have made a commitment that they makes them more vulnerable. RegionalAllies are with her, in her time of need. will be part of that response—and that conflicts will confront us with a cruelThe U.S. can count on its 18 NATO Allies solidarity alone is a powerful symbol choice between costly indifference andfor assistance and support, to deal with the indeed that this Atlantic community is as costly engagement. The scarcity of naturalimmediate effects of this crisis. NATO solid as it has every been. resources may have major economic,members have already offered emergency We must all stand together in the face of political, and perhaps even military ramifi-assistance to U.S. authorities, wherever this scourge, to defeat it. NATO’s mem- cations. And an economic downswing, anthey can help. bers are unanimous: in this struggle too, environmental disaster, or a regional con- Even as we express our profound sym- we are united with the United States— flict could give migration an entirely newpathy, and try to help the many, many vic- along, I am sure, with Russia and a grow- dimension.tims of this tragedy, we must also assist ing coalition of countries around thethe United States in finding and punishing world. And I am confident that we will ****the culprits. That is why NATO’s mem- win this battle.bers agreed that, if it is determined that But we must also look beyond this Despite the terrible attacks in the Unitedthis attack was directed from abroad immediate crisis. Our jobs, as government States, we must not forget how much suc-against the United States, it shall be officials and military personnel, is not cess we have had, over the past decade, inregarded as an action covered by Article 5 only to deal with the challenges of today, building peace and security in the post-of the Washington Treaty, which states but also to prepare for the challenges of Cold War world. We have been successfulthat an attack against one or more Allies tomorrow. And if the attacks in New York, because we had the foresight to see chal-shall be considered an attack against them Washington and Pennsylvania make any- lenges coming, the capabilities to respond,all. thing clear, it is that tomorrow is unclear. and the determination to act together NATO’s essential foundation—its90 Winter 2002
  • 90. September 11, 2001when necessary. Those are the essential in another State or acquiescing in orga- zens;ingredients for success—and as long as nized activities within its territory directed (e) Ensure that any person who partici-we maintain our vision, our capabilities towards the commission of such acts, pates in the financing, planning, prepara-and our solidarity, the Alliance will con- Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter tion or perpetration of terrorist acts or intinue to preserve the safety of future gen- of the United Nations, supporting terrorist acts is brought to jus-erations, in an uncertain future. 1. Decides that all States shall: tice and ensure that, in addition to any (a) Prevent and suppress the financing other measures against them, such terrorist of terrorist acts; acts are established as serious criminalUnited Nations Security (b) Criminalize the wilful provision or offenses in domestic laws and regulations collection, by any means, directly or indi- and that the punishment duly reflects theCouncil Resolution 1373, rectly, of funds by their nationals or in seriousness of such terrorist acts;September 28, 200186 their territories with the intention that the (f) Afford one another the greatest mea- funds should be used, or in the knowledge sure of assistance in connection withThe Security Council, that they are to be used, in order to carry criminal investigations or criminal pro- Reaffirming its resolutions 1269 (1999) out terrorist acts; ceedings relating to the financing or sup-of 19 October 1999 and 1368 (2001) of 12 (c) Freeze without delay funds and other port of terrorist acts, including assistanceSeptember 2001, financial assets or economic resources of in obtaining evidence in their possession Reaffirming also its unequivocal con- persons who commit, or attempt to com- necessary for the proceedings;demnation of the terrorist attacks which mit, terrorist acts or participate in or facil- (g) Prevent the movement of terroriststook place in New York, Washington, itate the commission of terrorist acts; of or terrorist groups by effective border con-D.C., and Pennsylvania on 11 September entities owned or controlled directly or trols and controls on issuance of identity2001, and expressing its determination to indirectly by such persons; and of persons papers and travel documents, and throughprevent all such acts, and entities acting on behalf of, or at the measures for preventing counterfeiting, Reaffirming further that such acts, like direction of such persons and entities, forgery or fraudulent use of identityany act of international terrorism, consti- including funds derived or generated from papers and travel documents;tute a threat to international peace and property owned or controlled directly or 3. Calls upon all States to:security, indirectly by such persons and associated (a) Find ways of intensifying and accel- Reaffirming the inherent right of indi- persons and entities; erating the exchange of operational infor-vidual or collective self- defense as recog- (d) Prohibit their nationals or any per- mation, especially regarding actions ornized by the Charter of the United Nations sons and entities within their territories movements of terrorist persons or net-as reiterated in resolution 1368 (2001), from making any funds, financial assets or works; forged or falsified travel docu- Reaffirming the need to combat by all economic resources or financial or other ments; traffic in arms, explosives or sensi-means, in accordance with the Charter of related services available, directly or indi- tive materials; use of communicationsthe United Nations, threats to international rectly, for the benefit of persons who com- technologies by terrorist groups; and thepeace and security caused by terrorist acts, mit or attempt to commit or facilitate or threat posed by the possession of weapons Deeply concerned by the increase, in participate in the commission of terrorist of mass destruction by terrorist groups;various regions of the world, of acts of acts, of entities owned or controlled, (b) Exchange information in accordanceterrorism motivated by intolerance or directly or indirectly, by such persons and with international and domestic law andextremism, of persons and entities acting on behalf of cooperate on administrative and judicial Calling on States to work together or at the direction of such persons; matters to prevent the commission of ter-urgently to prevent and suppress terrorist 2. Decides also that all States shall: rorist acts;acts, including through increased coopera- (a) Refrain from providing any form of (c) Cooperate, particularly through bilat-tion and full implementation of the rele- support, active or passive, to entities or eral and multilateral arrangements andvant international conventions relating to persons involved in terrorist acts, includ- agreements, to prevent and suppress ter-terrorism, ing by suppressing recruitment of mem- rorist attacks and take action against per- Recognizing the need for States to com- bers of terrorist groups and eliminating petrators of such acts;plement international cooperation by tak- the supply of weapons to terrorists; (d) Become parties as soon as possibleing additional measures to prevent and (b) Take the necessary steps to prevent to the relevant international conventionssuppress, in their territories through all the commission of terrorist acts, including and protocols relating to terrorism, includ-lawful means, the financing and prepara- by provision of early warning to other ing the International Convention for thetion of any acts of terrorism, States by exchange of information; Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Reaffirming the principle established by (c) Deny safe haven to those who of 9 December 1999;the General Assembly in its declaration of finance, plan, support, or commit terrorist (e) Increase cooperation and fullyOctober 1970 (resolution 2625 (XXV)) acts, or provide safe havens; implement the relevant international con-and reiterated by the Security Council in (d) Prevent those who finance, plan, ventions and protocols relating to terror-its resolution 1189 (1998) of 13 August facilitate or commit terrorist acts from ism and Security Council resolutions 12691998, namely that every State has the duty using their respective territories for those (1999) and 1368 (2001);to refrain from organizing, instigating, purposes against other States or their citi- (f) Take appropriate measures in confor-assisting or participating in terrorist acts Foreign Policy Bulletin 91
  • 91. Featuremity with the relevant provisions of ter. 6,000 people from 80 countries—werenational and international law, including acts of terrible evil which shocked theinternational standards of human rights, conscience of the entire world.before granting refugee status, for the pur- Remarks by World Leaders But out of evil can come good. Paradox-pose of ensuring that the asylum seeker ically, these vicious assaults on our com-has not planned, facilitated or participated at the United Nations mon humanity have had the effect of reaf-in the commission of terrorist acts; General Assembly Session firming our common humanity. The very (g) Ensure, in conformity with interna- heartlessness and callous indifference totional law, that refugee status is not on Terrorism, October 1-4, the suffering and grief caused to thou-abused by the perpetrators, organizers or 200187 sands of innocent families has brought afacilitators of terrorist acts, and that heartfelt response from millions of ordi-claims of political motivation are not rec- OCTOBER 1 nary people all around the world, in manyognized as grounds for refusing requests UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY- different societies.for the extradition of alleged terrorists; GENERAL KOFI ANNAN The task now is to build on that wave of 4. Notes with concern the close connec- human solidarity—to ensure that thetion between international terrorism and Mr. President, [Mayor Giuliani,] Distin- momentum is not lost, to develop a broad,transnational organized crime, illicit guished delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, comprehensive and above all sustaineddrugs, money-laundering, illegal arms- On Friday night, the Security Council strategy to combat terrorism and eradicatetrafficking, and illegal movement of adopted unanimously a broad resolution it from our world.nuclear, chemical, biological and other aimed at targeting terrorists and those who This important meeting of the Generalpotentially deadly materials, and in this harbor, aid or support them. That resolu- Assembly has a critical role to play inregard emphasizes the need to enhance tion requires Member States to cooperate this. It must not be merely symbolic. Itcoordination of efforts on national, subre- in a wide range of areas—from suppress- must signal the beginning of immediate,gional, regional and international levels in ing the financing of terrorism to providing practical and far-reaching changes in theorder to strengthen a global response to early warning, cooperating in criminal way this Organization and its Memberthis serious challenge and threat to inter- investigations, and exchanging informa- States act: against terrorism.national security; tion on possible terrorist acts. I applaud Today, the shock of this crime has unit- 5. Declares that acts, methods, and prac- the Council for acting so swiftly to ed the world. But, Excellencies, if we aretices of terrorism are contrary to the pur- enshrine in law the first steps needed to to prevent such crimes from being com-poses and principles of the United Nations carry this fight forward with new vigor mitted again, we must stay united as weand that knowingly financing, planning and determination. seek to eliminate terrorism. In this strug-and inciting terrorist acts are also contrary Now all Member States must make gle, there is simply no alternative to inter-to the purposes and principles of the Unit- greater efforts to exchange information national cooperation. Terrorism will beed Nations; about practices that have proved effective, defeated if the international community 6. Decides to establish, in accordance and lessons that have been learned, in the summons the will to unite in a broadwith rule 28 of its provisional rules of fight against terrorism—so that a global coalition, or it will not, be defeated at all.procedure, a Committee of the Security standard of excellence can be set. The The United Nations is uniquely positionedCouncil, consisting of all the members of implementation of this resolution will to serve as the forum for this coalition,the Council, to monitor implementation of require technical expertise at the national and for the development of those stepsthis resolution, with the assistance of level. I encourage states that can offer Governments must now take—separatelyappropriate expertise, and calls upon all assistance in this regard to do so gener- and together—to fight terrorism on aStates to report to the Committee, no later ously and without delay. global- scale.than 90 days from the date of adoption of Thus far, the international community The global reaction to the attacks shouldthis resolution and thereafter according to has been able to act with unprecedented give us courage and hope that we can suc-a timetable to be proposed by the Com- speed and unity: On the 12th of Septem- ceed-in this fight. The sight of peoplemittee, on the steps they have taken to ber, both the General Assembly and the gathering in cities in every part of theimplement this resolution; Security Council adopted strong resolu- world from every religion to mourn—and 7. Directs the Committee to delineate its tions condemning the attacks and calling to express solidarity with the people of thetasks, submit a work program within 30 on all states to cooperate .in bringing the United States—proves more eloquentlydays of the adoption of this resolution, perpetrators to justice. Now, a second and than any words that terrorism is not anand to consider the support it requires, in more detailed resolution has been adopted issue that divides humanity, but one thatconsultation with the Secretary-General; by the Security Council, building swiftly unites it. We are in a moral struggle to 8. Expresses its determination to take all on the first. Today, this august Assembly fight an evil that is anathema to all faiths.necessary steps in order to ensure the full meets to deliberate its own response to the Every state and every people has a part toimplementation of this resolution, in events of 11 September. play. This was an attack on humanity, andaccordance with its responsibilities under The reason for this response and humanity must respond to it as one.the Charter; unprecedented unity is clear enough. The The urgent business of the United 9. Decides to remain seized of this mat- terrorist attacks against the United Nations must now be to develop a long- States—resulting in the deaths of some92 Winter 2002
  • 92. September 11, 2001term strategy, in order to ensure global this. In addition, we need to strengthen con-legitimacy for the struggle ahead. The Even in situations of armed conflict, the trols over other types of weapons thatlegitimacy ‘that the United Nations con- targeting of innocent civilians is illegal, as pose grave dangers through terrorist use.veys can ensure that the greatest number well as morally unacceptable. And yet, as This means doing more to ensure a ban onof states are able and willing to take the I have stated in my two reports on the pro- the sale of small arms to non-state groups;necessary and difficult steps—diplomatic, tection of civilians in armed conflict, civil- making progress in eliminating landmines;legal and political.- that are needed to ian populations are more and more often improving the physical protection of sen-defeat terrorism. deliberately targeted. Indeed, civilians sitive industrial facilities, including Excellencies, have become the principal victims of con- nuclear and chemical plants; and The Member States that you represent flict, accounting for an estimated 75 per- increased vigilance against cyberterroristhave a clear agenda before them. It begins cent of all casualties. threats.with ensuring that the 12 conventions and This demands from all of us an Mr. President,protocols on international terrorism increased attention to the civilian costs of As we summon the will and thealready drafted and adopted under United conflict. It requires Member States to live resources to succeed in the struggleNations auspices, are signed, ratified and up to their responsibilities under interna- against terrorism, we must also care for allimplemented without delay by all states. tional law. They must deal firmly with the the victims of terrorism, whether they are Two of these conventions, in particular, reality of armed groups and other non- the direct targets or other populations whocan strengthen the fight against terrorism.- state actors who refuse to respect common will be affected by our common effort.First, the International Convention for the principles of human dignity. That is why I have launched an alert toSuppression of Terrorist Bombings, which Mr. President, donors about the potential need for muchentered into force on 23 May this year; It is hard to imagine how the tragedy of more generous humanitarian assistance toand second, the 1999 Convention for the 11 September could have been worse. Yet the people of Afghanistan.Suppression of the Financing of Terror- the truth is that a single attack involving a This appeal is only the most urgent partism, which so far has 44 signatories and nuclear or biological weapon could have of our determination to continue to carefour ratifications. It requires eighteen killed millions. While the world was for those suffering from poverty, diseaseadditional ratifications to enter into force, unable to prevent the 11 September and conflict around the world. The workand I hope it will now be seen as a point attacks, there is much we can do to help of the United Nations in promoting devel-of honor for Member States to sign and prevent future terrorist acts carried out opment, resolving long-standing disputes,ratify this vital convention as soon possi- with weapons of mass destruction. The and fighting ignorance and prejudice areble. .,.: greatest immediate danger arises from. a even more important today than they were While no one imagines that these con- non-state group—or even an individual— before 11 September.ventions—even when implemented—will acquiring and using a nuclear, biological, The victims of the attacks on 11 Sep-end terrorism on their own, they are part or chemical weapon. Such a weapon could tember were, first and foremost, the inno-of the legal framework needed for this be delivered without the need for any mis- cent civilians who lost their lives, and theeffort. I wish to propose to all Member sile or any other sophisticated delivery families who now grieve for them. ButStates that they make it their first order of system. peace, tolerance, mutual respect, humanbusiness during the General Debate to In addition to measures taken by indi- rights, the rule of-law-and the globalsign all the conventions on terrorism, and vidual Member States, we must now economy are all among the casualties ofpledge to work for their ratification and strengthen the global norm against the use the terrorists’ acts.implementation without delay. or proliferation of weapons of mass Repairing the damage done to the fabric It will also be important to obtain agree- destruction. This means, among other of the international community—restoringment on a comprehensive convention on actions, trust among peoples and cultures—willinternational terrorism. In the post-11 Sep- • redoubling efforts to ensure the univer- not be easy. But just as a concerted inter-tember era, no one can dispute the nature sality, verification and full implementation national response can make the work ofof the terrorist threat, nor the need to meet of key treaties relating to weapons of mass terrorists much harder to accomplish, soit with a global response. I understand that destruction, including those outlawing should the unity born of this tragedy bringthere are outstanding issues, which until chemical and biological weapons and the all nations together in defense of the mostnow have prevented agreement on this nuclear non-proliferation treaty; basic right—the right of all peoples to liveconvention. Some of the most difficult • promoting closer cooperation among in peace and security. This is the chal-issues relate to the definition of terrorism. international organizations dealing with- lenge before us as we seek to eliminateI understand and accept the need for legal these-weapons; the evil of terrorism.precision. But let me say frankly that there • tightening national legislation overis also a need for moral clarity. There can exports of goods and technologies needed NEW YORK CITY MAYOR RUDOLPHbe no acceptance of those who would seek to manufacture weapons of mass destruc- GIULIANIto justify the deliberate taking of innocent tion and their means of delivery;civilian life, regardless of cause or griev- • and developing new efforts to crimi- Thank you very much for the opportunityance. If there is one universal principle nalize the acquisition or use of weapons to speak, and for the consideration you’vethat all peoples can agree on, surely it is of mass destruction by non-state groups. shown the City in putting off your General Foreign Policy Bulletin 93
  • 93. FeatureSession. As I explained to the Secretary claimed more lives than Pearl Harbor or please understand, flows from the princi-General and the President of the General D-Day. ples upon which we stand.Assembly, our City is now open, and any This was not just an attack on the City Americans are not a single ethnic group.time we can arrange it, we look forward to of New York or on the United States of Americans are not of one race or onehaving your heads of state and your for- America. It was an attack on the very idea religion.eign ministers here for that session. of a free, inclusive, and civil society. Americans emerge from all your On September 11th 2001, New York It was a direct assault on the founding nations. principles of the United Nations itself. We are defined as Americans by our The Preamble to the U.N. Charter states beliefs—not by our ethnic origins, our that this organization exists “to reaffirm race or our religion. Our beliefs in reli-On September 11th 2001, New York faith in fundamental human rights, in the gious freedom, political freedom, and eco-City—the most diverse City in the dignity and worth of the human person...to nomic freedom—that’s what makes anworld—was viciously attacked in an practice tolerance and live together in American. Our belief in democracy, theunprovoked act of war. More than five peace as good neighbors [and] to unite our rule of law, and respect for human life— strength to maintain international peace that’s how you become an American. It isthousand innocent men, women, and and security.” these very principles—and the opportuni-children of every race, religion, and Indeed, this vicious attack places in ties these principles give to so many toethnicity are lost. Among these were jeopardy the whole purpose of the United create a better life for themselves and theirpeople from 80 different nations. To their Nations. families—that make America, and Newrepresentatives here today, I offer my Terrorism is based on the persistent and York, a “shining city on a hill.” deliberate violation of fundamental human There is no nation, and no City, in thecondolences to you as well on behalf of rights. With bullets and bombs—and now history of the world that has seen moreall New Yorkers who share this loss with with hijacked airplanes—terrorists deny immigrants, in less time, than America.you. This was the deadliest terrorist the dignity of human life. Terrorism preys People continue to come here in largeattack in history. It claimed more lives particularly on cultures and communities numbers to seek freedom, opportunity, that practice openness and tolerance. Their decency, and civility.than Pearl Harbor or D-Day. targeting of innocent civilians mocks the Each of your nations—I am certain— This was not just an attack on the City efforts of those who seek to live together has contributed citizens to the Unitedof New York or on the United States of in peace as neighbors. It defies the very States and to New York. I believe I canAmerica. It was an attack on the very idea notion of being a neighbor. take every one of you someplace in Newof a free, inclusive, and civil society. This massive attack was intended to York City, where you can find someone break our spirit. It has not done that. It has from your country, someone from your It was a direct assault on the founding made us stronger, more determined and village or town, that speaks your languageprinciples of the United Nations itself. The more resolved. and practices your religion. In each ofPreamble to the U.N. Charter states that The bravery of our firefighters, our your lands there are many who are Ameri-this organization exists “to reaffirm faith police officers, our emergency workers, cans in spirit, by virtue of their commit- and civilians we may never learn of, in ment to our shared principles.in fundamental human rights, in the digni- saving over 25,000 lives that day—carry- It is tragic and perverse that it isty and worth of the human person...to ing out the most effective rescue operation because of these very principles—particu-practice tolerance and live together in in our history—inspires all of us. I am larly our religious, political and economicpeace as good neighbors [and] to unite very honored to have with me, as their freedoms—that we find ourselves under representative, the Fire Commissioner of attack by terrorists.our strength to maintain international New York City, Tom Von Essen, and the Our freedom threatens them, becausepeace and security.” Police Commissioner of New York City, they know that if our ideas of freedom Bernard Kerik. [Applause] gain a foothold among their people it will The determination, resolve, and leader- destroy their power. So they strike out ship of President George W. Bush has uni- against us to keep those ideas from reach-City—the most diverse City in the fied America and all decent men and ing their people.world—was viciously attacked in an women around the world. The best long-term deterrent to terror-unprovoked act of war. More than five The response of many of your nations— ism—obviously—is the spread of ourthousand innocent men, women, and chil- your leaders and people—spontaneously principles of freedom, democracy, the ruledren of every race, religion, and ethnicity demonstrating in the days after the attack of law, and respect for human life. Theare lost. Among these were people from your support for New York and America, more that spreads around the globe, the80 different nations. To their representa- and your understanding of what needs to safer we will all be. These are very power-tives here today, I offer my condolences to be done to remove the threat of terrorism, ful ideas and once they gain a foothold,you as well on behalf of all New Yorkers gives us great, great hope that we will pre- they cannot be stopped.who share this loss with you. This was the vail. In fact, the rise that we have seen in ter-deadliest terrorist attack in history. It The strength of America’s response, rorism and terrorist groups, I believe, is in94 Winter 2002
  • 94. September 11, 2001no small measure a response to the spread having in New York City and explain financial base away from the terrorists.of these ideas of freedom and democracy those insane, maniacal reasons to the chil- Take away their money, take away theirto many nations, particularly over the past dren who will grow up without fathers and access to money, and you reduce their15 years. mothers, to the parents who have had their ability to carry out complex missions. The terrorists have no ideas or ideals children ripped from them for no reason at Each of you is sitting in this roomwith which to combat freedom and all. because of your country’s commitment todemocracy. So their only defense is to Instead, I ask each of you to allow me being part of the family of nations. Westrike out against innocent civilians, to say at those funerals that your nation need to unite as a family as neverdestroying human life in massive numbers stands with America in making a solemn before—across all our differences, inand hoping to deter all of us from our pur- promise and pledge that we will achieve recognition of the fact that the Unitedsuit and expansion of freedom. unconditional victory over terrorism and Nations stands for the proposition that But the long-term deterrent of spreading terrorists. human beings we have more in commonour ideals throughout the world is just not There is no excuse for mass murder, just than divides us.enough, and may never be realized, if we as there is no excuse for genocide. Those If you need to be reminded of this, youdo not act—and act together—to remove who practice terrorism—murdering or vic-the clear and present danger posed by ter- timizing innocent civilians—lose any rightrorism and terrorists. to have their cause understood by decent The era of moral relativism between those The United Nations must hold account- people and lawful nations. who practice or condone terrorism, andable any country that supports or con- On this issue—terrorism—the Uniteddones terrorism, otherwise you will fail in Nations must draw a line. The era of those nations who stand up against it,your primary mission as peacekeeper. moral relativism between those who prac- must end. Moral relativism does not have It must ostracize any nation that sup- tice or condone terrorism, and those a place in this discussion and debate.ports terrorism. nations who stand up against it, must end. It must isolate any nation that remains Moral relativism does not have a place inneutral in the fight against terrorism. this discussion and debate. Now is the time, in the words of the There is no moral way to sympathize don’t need to look very far. Just go out-U.N. Charter, “to unite our strength to with grossly immoral actions. And by try- side for a walk in the streets and parks ofmaintain international peace and security.” ing to do that, unfortunately, a fertile field New York City. You can’t walk a block inThis is not a time for further study or has been created in which terrorism has New York City without seeing somebodyvague directives. The evidence of terror- grown. that looks different than you, acts differentism’s brutality and inhumanity—of its The best and most practical way to pro- than you, talks different than you, believescontempt for life and the concept of mote peace is to stand up to terror and different than you. If you grow up in Newpeace—is lying beneath the rubble of the intimidation. The Security Council’s unan- York City, you learn that. And if you’re anWorld Trade Center less than two miles imous passage of Resolution 1373, adopt- intelligent or decent person, you learn thatfrom where we meet today. ing wide ranging anti-terrorism measures all those differences are nothing in com- Look at that destruction, that massive, in the international community is a very parison to the things that unite us.senseless, cruel loss of human life—and good first step. It’s necessary to establish We are a City of immigrants—unlikethen I ask you to look in your hearts and accountability for the subsidizing of ter- any other City—within a nation of immi-recognize that there is no room for neu- rorism. grants. Like the victims of the Worldtrality on the issue of terrorism. You’re As a former United States Attorney, I Trade Center attack, we are of every race,either with civilization or with terrorists. am particularly encouraged that the U.N. religion, and ethnicity. Our diversity has On one side is democracy, the rule of has answered President Bush’s call to cut always been our greatest source oflaw, and respect for human life; on the terrorists off from their money and their strength. It’s the thing that renews us andother is tyranny, arbitrary executions, and funding. It’s enormously important. We’ve revives us in every generation—our open-mass murder. done that successfully with organized ness to new people from all over the We’re right and they’re wrong. It’s as crime groups in America. By taking away world.simple as that. their ability to mass large amounts of So from the first day of this attack, an And by that I mean that America and its money, you take away their ability to have attack on New York and America, and Iallies are right about democracy, about others carry on their functioning for them, believe an attack on the basic principlesreligious, political, and economic free- even if they are removed, arrested, prose- that underlie this organization, I have tolddom. cuted, or eliminated through war or the people of New York that we should The terrorists are wrong, and in fact through law enforcement. It cuts off the not allow this to divide us, because thenevil, in their mass destruction of human life-blood of the organization. So I believe we would really lose what this City is alllife in the name of addressing alleged this is a very good first step. about. We have very strong and vibrantinjustices. But now it’s up to the member states to Arab and Muslim communities in New Let those who say that we must under- enforce this and other aspects of the reso- York City. They are an equally importantstand the reasons for terrorism come with lution, and for the United Nations to part of the life of our City. We respectme to the thousands of funerals we are enforce these new mechanisms to take the their religious beliefs. We respect every- Foreign Policy Bulletin 95
  • 95. Featurebody’s religious beliefs—that’s what In some ways, the resilience of life in RUSSIAN DEPUTY MINISTER OFAmerica’s about, that’s what New York New York City is the ultimate sign of defi- FOREIGN AFFAIRS SERGEYCity is about. I have urged New Yorkers ance to terrorism. We call ourselves the ORDZHONIKIDZEnot to engage in any form of group blame Capital of the World in large part becauseor group hatred. This is exactly the evil we are the most diverse City in the world, Mr. President,that we are confronting with these terror- home to the United Nations. The spirit of The current session of the Generalists. And if we are going to prevail over unity amid all our diversity has never been Assembly is taking place right in theterror, our ideals, principles, and values stronger. aftermath of the tragedy which broke outmust transcend all forms of prejudice. On Saturday Night I walked through in the United States on September 11. TheThis is a very important part of the strug- Times Square, it was crowded, it was entire civilized world is mourning togethergle against terrorism. bright, it was lively. Thousands of people with the American people. The hearts of This is not a dispute between religions were visiting from all parts of the United Russians who know first-hand what terror-or ethnic groups. All religions, all decent States and all parts of the world. And ism is like are also filled with grief for allpeople, are united in their desire to many of them came up to me and shook those who fell victim to terrorism in otherachieve peace, and understand that we my hand and patted me on the back and parts of the planet.have to eliminate terrorism. We’re not said, “We’re here because we want to President of the Russian Federationdivided about this. show our support for the City of New Vladimir V. Putin, in his statement made There have been many days in New York.” And that’s why there has never on the very day of the tragedy, expressedYork when I was running for Mayor, and been a better time to come to New York sincere deep condolences to all who werethen since I’ve been Mayor, when I would City. injured and to the families of those whohave a weekend in which I would go to a I say to people across the country and were killed, and stressed that the unprece-mosque on Friday, and a synagogue on around the world: if you were planning to dented terrorist aggression against theSaturday, and a church—sometimes two come to New York sometime in the future, U.S. was “a brazen challenge to allchurches—on a Sunday. And by the time I come here now. Come to enjoy our thou- humanity.” The tragedy underscored thefinished, I would say to myself, ‘I know sands of restaurants, museums, theaters, fact that the international community doesthat we’re through to God.’ We’re talking sporting events, and shopping...but also not have a single day to lose. Mankind hasto him in every language that He under- come to take a stand against terrorism. found itself facing a real, not abstract,stands, we’re using every liturgy that We need to heed the words of a hymn threat to the life of people, to the securityexists, and I know that we getting through that I, and the Police Commissioner, and of States and to the stability of politicalto the same God, even though we may be the Fire Commissioner, have heard at the and economic systems of entire nationsdoing it in slightly different ways. God is many funerals and memorial services that posed by the forces of Terrorist Interna-known by many different names and many we’ve gone to in the last two weeks. The tional. And that threat has acquireddifferent traditions, but identified by one hymn begins, “Be Not Afraid.” unprecedented proportions: innocent peo-consistent feeling, love. Love for humani- Freedom from Fear is a basic human ple from more than 60 States perished in aty, particularly love for our children. Love right. We need to reassert our right to live matter of minutes and huge economicdoes eventually conquer hate, but it needs free from fear with greater confidence and damage was caused, with its consequencesour help. Good intentions alone are not determination than ever before—here in to be manifested yet.enough to conquer evil. New York City, across America, and All sensible people, even those who do Remember British Prime Minister around the World. With one clear voice, not deal professionally with law enforce-Neville Chamberlain, who—armed only unanimously, we need to say that we will ment issues, understand that it is onlywith good intentions—negotiated with the not give in to terrorism. through common efforts that we can putNazis and emerged hopeful that he had Surrounded by our friends of every an end to terrorism on the planet. Ministerachieved peace in his time. Hitler’s wave faith, we know that this is not a clash of of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federa-of terror was only encouraged by these civilizations; it is a conflict between mur- tion Igor S. Ivanov noted in his statementattempts at appeasement. At the cost of derers and humanity. at the 56th session of the General Assem-millions of lives, we learned that words— This is not a question of retaliation or bly that “the international community isthough important—are not enough to revenge. It is a matter of justice leading to facing the grand task of giving an ade-guarantee peace. It is action alone that peace. The only acceptable result is the quate and, what is most important, a col-counts. complete and total eradication of terror- lective response to the challenges of our For the U.N., and individual nations, ism. time”. Terrorism is not only a dangerousdecisive action is needed to stop terrorism New Yorkers are strong and resilient. but also an insidious enemy; it takesfrom ever orphaning another child. We are unified. And we will not yield to advantage of any weak link in the chain of That’s for nations. For individuals, the terror. We do not let fear make our deci- States which fight against it. Of specialmost effective course of action they can sions for us. concern are the expanding ties betweentake to aid our recovery is to be deter- We choose to live in freedom. international terrorism and transnationalmined to go ahead with their lives. We Thank you, and God bless you. organized crime, illegal drug business,can’t let terrorists change the way we money laundering and illegal trafficking inlive—otherwise they will have succeeded. nuclear, chemical, biological and other96 Winter 2002
  • 96. September 11, 2001hazardous materials. That is why we, on major milestone on the way towards eradi- countries to rebuff international terrorismour part, are not only ready for but also cating terrorism was set last week when are reflected in the joint statement by theinsist on the closest possible interaction the Security Council adopted Resolution heads of member states made on Septem-among members of the international com- 1373. For the first time ever, this resolu- ber 28. The statement stresses, in particu-munity in fighting against this scourge of tion initiated a mechanism of international lar, the need to take concrete steps tothe 21” century. The priority task is to control, carried out by the Security Coun- ensure the efficiency of antiterrorist mea-establish a global system to counteract cil, over the compliance by all States with sures.new threats and challenges, which would U.N. decisions in the area of combating We expect a lot from the antiterroristensure, among other things, the inevitable terrorism. We see it as a serious step structure which is being actively formedpunishment of all those responsible for towards an effective response to terrorist within the Shanghai Organization fororganizing and perpetrating terrorist acts. threat — especially so in what concerns Cooperation. We would also like to No doubt, the key role of the universal shutting down its financing channels and express our high appreciation of interac-coordinator of the efforts of States to cre- banning the operations of organizations tion in fighting international terrorismate such a system is to be played by the that essentially act as terrorists’ accom- pursued within the framework of theUnited Nations. plices. It is important for this mechanism Group of Eight. Of particular importance in the present to start working efficiently as soon as pos- Mr. President,circumstances is the creation of an inter- sible. The full and unconditional imple- The elimination of international terror-national legal framework allowing to mentation of measures provided for in this ism is a goal that will take a long time toeffectively and promptly respond to and document is a must if we are to deal a achieve. However, this only means that weprevent acts of terrorism. A reliable basis powerful blow to the forces of internation- should start moving towards this goalfor antiterrorist cooperation among States al terrorism and deprive them of their without delay!is provided by twelve universal conven- roots and refuge across the globe. In Thank you.tions on the subject many of which were accordance with its mandate determinedadopted under the aegis of the U.N.. But by the United Nations Charter, the Securi- BELGIAN PERMANENT REPRESEN-in our rapidly changing world this basis ty Council should keep playing an active TATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONSrequires constant improvement. In this part in preventing the threats to interna- JEAN DE RUYT (ON BEHALF OFconnection, we expect the General Assem- tional peace and security posed by terror- THE EUROPEAN UNION)bly to adopt as soon as possible the two ism.new instruments which are now under its With respect to enhancing U.N. antiter- Mr President,consideration—the Convention for the rorist capacity, we may not overlook the The terrorist attacks perpetrated in NewSuppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism need to strengthen relevant structures of York, Washington D.C. and Pennsylvaniaand the Comprehensive Convention on the Organization’s Secretariat. In this con- on September 11 are an assault not onlyInternational Terrorism. We should not text, we could discuss the prospects of on the United States, but on all our open,forget that every minute separating us reinforcing the Terrorism Prevention democratic, tolerant and multiculturalfrom the moment of the adoption of the Branch of the U.N. Office for Drug Con- societies. They are a challenge to the con-above vital documents is used by terrorists trol and Crime Prevention in Vienna with science of every human being. The Unionto build up their potential. additional staff and financial resources. condemns with the utmost forcefulness Russia, on its part, is doing its best to Mr. President, the perpetrators and sponsors of these bar-ensure a sound international legal regime We are confident that the future global barous acts. The European Union is totallyin fighting terrorism. This year our coun- antiterrorist system should be built on the supportive of the American Governmenttry has ratified the International Conven- foundation of regional and sub-regional and people in the face of these attacks.tion for the Suppression of Terrorist structures and institutions active in this This condemnation is furthermore unani-Bombings, the Convention for the Sup- field. In this context, we attach great mous. This has been demonstrated by thepression of Unlawful Acts against the importance to relevant work carried out resolution 56/01 of the General AssemblySafety of Maritime Navigation and the within the framework of the Common- and by the resolution 1358 of the SecurityProtocol for the Suppression of Unlawful wealth of Independent States. In 1999 the Council adopted the day after theseActs against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Heads of Governments of the CIS coun- attacks. The Union and its Member StatesLocated on the Continental Shelf, thus tries signed the Treaty on Cooperation will be unstinting in their efforts to helpbecoming party to an absolute majority of Among CIS States in Fighting Terrorism identify, bring to justice and punish theuniversal antiterrorist conventions. which forms the legal framework for perpetrators, sponsors and accomplices of It is especially important for the Securi- interaction among competent authorities these barbarous acts. The Union willty Council to embark upon a substantive in preventing, disclosing, suppressing and cooperate closely with the United Statesdiscussion of international terrorism. The investigating terrorist attacks. The Anti- and the entire International Community toCouncil gave a clear and timely exposition Terrorist Center established last year by combat international terrorism.of its fundamental approaches and its the decision of the CIS heads of states is Terrorism, Mr President, is a real chal-action program in this field in Resolution now in operation. The position of the CIS lenge to the whole world. To combat it1269, adopted on the initiative of Russia, with regard to the September 11 tragedy means also to ensure the respect ofand in Resolution 1368. No doubt, another and the resolute desire of the CIS member democracy. The European Council, which Foreign Policy Bulletin 97
  • 97. Featuremet in extraordinary session on 21 Sep- spirit of the dispositions taken in this action against terrorism, at national andtember 2001, decided that the fight against regard by the Security Council in its reso- international levels. We support the adop-terrorism will, more than ever, be a priori- lution 1373 (2001). The European Council tion of these Plans by the General Assem-ty objective of the European Union. The called on the Member States of the Euro- bly.Union will step up its action against ter- pean Union to sign and ratify, as a matter Clearly, Mr President, the implementa-rorism through a coordinated and interdis- of urgency, the International Convention tion of these conventions is just as impor-ciplinary approach embracing all Union for the Suppression of the Financing of tant as their ratification. The Europeanpolicies. It will ensure that that approach Terrorism. Measures will be taken against Union calls on all countries to take theis reconciled with respect for the funda- non-cooperative countries and territories measures necessary to implement thesemental freedoms which form the basis of identified by the financial Action Group. instruments as a matter of urgency. It alsoour civilization. Moreover, this fight Mr President, asks the Member States of the Unitedagainst terrorism should be coupled with The international legal framework of Nations to consider possible ways ofthe search for sustainable solutions for anti-terrorist conventions is solid, but it introducing a mechanism for monitoringhuman and political dramas that consti- does contain loopholes which must be their implementation into the Unitedtutes factors of instability feeding terror- closed. To that end, the special Sixth Nations framework. We attach greatists groups. Committee Working Group and the Ad importance to this kind of monitoring Mr President, Hoc Committee established by Resolution mechanism and we take note with interest The fight against terrorism will require 51/210 were requested by the General of the fact that such an instrument hasthe broadest possible global coalition. Assembly to elaborate a global convention been integrated in resolution 1373 (2001)That coalition should be formed under the on international terrorism. The European of 28 September 2001 of the Securityaegis of the U.N., which remains the most Union wishes to thanks India for having Council in order to ensure its full imple-appropriate forum for revitalizing and taken the initiative to present a proposal to mentation.strengthening our coordinated efforts to that end and calls upon all member States In the meantime, the European Unioneliminate international terrorism. to work together to arrive at a satisfactory considers it would be useful to give a The United Nations and its specialized outcome on the unresolved questions. It higher profile to the Secretariat’s annualagencies have, in the past, successfully underlines, once again, that such a com- report on the status and implementation ofelaborated a series of sectoral anti terrorist prehensive convention should bring an multilateral, regional and bilateral agree-conventions which, taken together, consti- added value to the existing sectorial con- ments on international terrorism. Thetute the international legal framework for ventions, in particular by filling the gaps European Union intends to ask the Secre-combating terrorism. In particular, there while preserving their achievements The tariat to publish that report on the Unitedare 12 conventions which cover specific European Union also calls on the Member Nations web site.categories of terrorist acts. The most States to conclude the negotiations for the Mr President,recent instruments are the International draft Convention on the Suppression of In addition to such efforts, the UnitedConvention for the Suppression of Terror- Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Nations must continue to explore otherist Bombings and the International Con- Mr President, ways of combating terrorism. Until now,vention for the Suppression of the Financ- The United Nations Convention against the emphasis has been, and quite rightlying of Terrorism, adopted respectively in Transnational Organized Crime, conclud- so, on judicial cooperation in prosecuting1997 and 1998. ed in 2000, as well as its additional Proto- and extraditing those guilty of terrorist Eradicating international terrorism will cols, are an important addition to the fight acts in all their aspects. Other forms ofbe possible only if all countries are fully against terrorism. Although the Conven- cooperation could be envisaged orcommitted to the fight. Universal acces- tion does not specifically concentrate on strengthened, for instance in the field ofsion to anti terrorist conventions is essen- terrorism, it deals with financial crime, preventive measures and exchange oftial. It is therefore essential for all coun- money laundering and corruption. These information. Furthermore, we are con-tries to become States