Intelligence<br />Intelligence - Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.<br /><ul><li>Rational thought and reasoning
The ability to act purposefully in an environment
The ability to deal with the situations, in an effective manner, within an environment </li></ul>Sternberg: Intelligence is the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, to remember important information, and to cope up with the demands of daily living.<br />Theories of Intelligence<br /><ul><li>G or G-Factor - is a statistic used in psychometrics to model the mental ability underlying results of various tests of cognitive ability. Developed in 1904 by psychologist Charles Spearman to account for imperfect correlations in IQ tests, this model is considered the first theory of intelligence.
He found a trend for all such tests to correlate positively with each other called Positive Manifold.
Spearman found that a single common factor explained the positive correlations among test.
He interpreted it as the core of human intelligence that, to a larger or smaller degree, influences success in all cognitive tasks and thereby creates the positive manifold.
Fluid and crystallized Intelligence - (abbreviated Gf and Gc, respectively) are factors of general intelligence originally identified by Raymond Cattell.
Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, especially scientific, mathematical and technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.
Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory.
Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory (CHC) - is an amalgamation of two similar theories about the content and structure of human cognitive abilities. The first of these two theories is Gf-Gc theory and the second is Carroll's Three-Stratum theory. Rather than viewing intelligence as a unitary entity, they consider it to be a multidimensional concept that includes different types of intelligence. A hierarchy of factors is used. G is at the top. Under it there are 10 broad abilities that in turn are subdivided into 70 narrow abilities.
Fluid Intelligence (Gf): Reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory.
Crystallized Intelligence (Gc): is the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem – solving situations.
Quantitative Reasoning (Gq): the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols.
Reading & Writing Ability (Grw): includes basic reading and writing skills.
Short-Term Memory (Gsm): is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds.
Long-Term Storage and Retrieval (Glr): is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking.
Visual Processing (Gv): is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations.
Auditory Processing (Ga): is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions.
Processing Speed (Gs): is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.
Decision/Reaction Time/Speed (Gt): reflect the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3 minutes).
Modern tests do not necessarily measure of all of these broad abilities. For example, Gq and Grw may be seen as measures of school achievement and not IQ. Gt may be difficult to measure without special equipment.</li></ul>g was earlier often subdivided into only Gf and Gc which were thought to correspond to the Nonverbal or Performance subtests and Verbal subtests in earlier versions of the popular Wechsler IQ test. More recent research has shown the situation to be more complex. <br /><ul><li>Theory of Multiple Intelligence - was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. This led Gardner to break intelligence down into at least eight different components:
Musical Intelligence: skills in tasks involving music
Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence: skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons
Logical-mathematical Intelligence: problem solving and scientific thinking
Linguistic Intelligence: involved in production and use of language
Spatial Intelligence: spatial configurations, such as those used by artists and architects
Interpersonal Intelligence: interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others
Intrapersonal Intelligence: knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself; access to one’s own feelings and emotions.
Naturalist Intelligence: ability to identify and classify patterns in nature
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence - was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in the research of human intelligence. The theory by itself was groundbreaking in that it was among the first to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach.
Sternberg’s definition of human intelligence is (a) mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life, which means that intelligence, is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternberg’s theory comprises three parts:
Componential/Analytic intelligence comprises the mental processes through which intelligence is expressed.
Experiential/Creative intelligence is necessary when an individual is confronted with a challenge that is nearly, but not entirely, novel or when an individual is engaged in automat zing the performance of a task.
Practical/Contextual intelligence is bound in a socio-cultural milieu and involves adaptation to, selection of, and shaping of the environment to maximize fit in the context.</li></ul>The Biological Basis of Intelligence<br /><ul><li>Using the brain-scanning methods, researchers have identified several areas of the brain that relate to intelligence.
Higher intelligence is related to the thickness of the cerebral cortex.
There is a global “workspace” in the brain that organizes and coordinates information, helping to transfer material to other parts of the brain.
Research using nonhumans has also begun to help us better understand the biological underpinnings of intelligence.
Other studies show differences in metabolism that seem to be related to intelligence.
Multiple areas of the brain, as well as multiple kinds of functioning, are related to intelligent behavior</li></ul>Practical and Emotional Intelligence<br />Practical Intelligence - is intelligence related to overall success in living.<br />Emotional Intelligence - Is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions.<br />Assessing Intelligence<br /><ul><li>Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores. </li></ul>Origin of Intelligence Testing<br /><ul><li>Sir Francis Galton - theorized that intelligence is determine by the size of the head of a person, the bigger the head, the higher it's intelligence.
Alfred Binet - French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, known at that time as the Binet test and today referred to as the IQ test. According to Binet, Intelligence could be measured by physical, age and performance.
Lewis Terman - Was an American psychologist, noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the Stanford University School of Education. He adapted Binet's
William Stern - Was a German psychologist and philosopher noted as a pioneer in the field of the psychology of personality and intelligence. He was the inventor of the concept of the intelligence quotient, or IQ, later used by Lewis Terman and other researchers in the development of the first IQ tests, based on the work of Alfred Binet.</li></ul>Intelligence Quotient formula:<br /><ul><li>David Wechsler - He develop the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers.</li></ul>Aptitude and Achievement Test<br />Aptitude test - a test designed to determine a person's ability in a particular skill or field of knowledge.<br />Achievement test - Measures skills and knowledge learned in a given grade level, usually through planned instruction, such as training or classroom instruction.<br />Principles of Test Construction<br />For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill three criteria:<br />Standardization - Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison.<br />Reliability - A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures:<br />1. Split‐half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are.<br />2. Reliability using different tests: Using different forms of the test to measure consistency between them.<br />3. Test‐Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency. <br />Validity - Reliability of a test does not insure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict.<br />1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait.<br />2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.<br />Achievement and Aptitude Tests<br />ACHIEVEMENT TEST- Measure the extent to which a person has "achieved" something, acquired certain information, or mastered certain skills - usually as a result of planned instruction or training. It is designed to efficiently measure the amount of knowledge and/or skill a person has acquired, usually as a result of classroom instruction.<br />APTITUDE TEST- Is the ability to learn or to develop proficiency in an area (if provided with appropriate education or training). It is like talent. Examples are various types of reasoning, artistic ability, motor coordination, musical talent. There are aptitude tests that measure mechanical and linguistic ability, as well as more specific skills, such as military flight and computer programming.<br />VALIDITY AND RLIABILTY<br /><ul><li>VALIDITY TEST - Refers to the degree in which our test or other measuring device is truly measuring what we intended it to measure. The test question “1 + 1 = _____” is certainly a valid basic addition question because it is truly measuring a student’s ability to perform basic addition. It becomes less valid as a measurement of advanced addition because as it addresses some required knowledge for addition, it does not represent all of knowledge required for an advanced understanding of addition. On a test designed to measure knowledge of American History, this question becomes completely invalid. The ability to add two single digits has nothing do with history. For many constructs, or variables that are artificial or difficult to measure, the concept of validity becomes more complex. Most of us agree that “1 + 1 = _____” would represent basic addition, but does this question also represent the construct of intelligence? Other constructs include motivation, depression, anger, and practically any human emotion or trait. If we have a difficult time defining the construct, we are going to have an even more difficult time measuring it.
RELIABILITY TEST - is synonymous with the consistency of a test, survey, observation, or other measuring device.</li></ul>NORMS - Standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score on a test with the scores of other individuals who have taken the same test.<br />Variations in Intellectual Ability<br /><ul><li>Mental Retardation - is a developmental disability that is marked by lower-than-normal intelligence and limited daily living skills. Normally present at birth or develops early in life.</li></ul>Classification:<br />MILD - able to hold jobs and have families of their own <br />MODERATE - can hold simple jobs <br />118110022225SEVERE unable to function<br /> independently<br />PROFOUND<br />Mild retardation<br />IQ scores from 55-69. Constitute about 90% of the mentally retarded population. They can function quite independently by adulthood and are able to hold jobs and have families of their own.<br />*only acquire academic skills up to approximately 6th grade level<br />Moderate Retardation<br /><ul><li>IQ scores of 40-54. Deficits are early w/ language and motor skills. Such individuals often live in group home with other mentally retarded people.
*needs to be supervised</li></ul>Severe & Profound retardation<br /><ul><li>SEVERE
IQ scores of 25-39. Includes about 3-4% of people with mental retardation.
Little or no communicative speech, needs constant supervision
IQ is below 25. Unable to function independently and typically require care for their entire lives.</li></ul>Causes<br />FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME- mother’s use of alcohol while pregnant. Most common biological cause<br />DOWN SYNDROME- occurs because of the presence of an extra chromosome<br />FAMILIAL RETARDATION- history of retardation in the family<br />Other Causes:<br />Exposure to certain types of disease or toxins, exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability.<br />Problems at birth such as not getting enough oxygen may have developmental disability due to brain damage.<br />The Intellectually Gifted<br />2-4% of the population<br />have IQ scores greater than 130<br />most often outgoing, well adjusted, healthy, popular<br />*A person with high overall IQ is not necessarily gifted in every academic subject, but may excel in just one or two<br />Group Differences in Intelligence: Genetic and Environmental Determinants<br />Language that was so unfamiliar.<br />Previous experience of test-takers would affect their ability to answer correctly.<br />Background and experiences of test-takers do have the potential to affect results.<br />Members of certain racial and cultural groups consistently score lower on traditional intelligence tests than do members of other groups.<br />That some standardized IQ tests contain elements that discriminate against minority-group members whose experiences differ from those of the white majority.<br />Assessments of cognitive ability developed in the United States may favor responses that implicitly reflect North American or European values, customs, or traditions.<br />Culture-fair IQ test – A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group.<br /> Past experiences, attitudes, and values almost always have an impact on respondents’ answers.<br /> Psychologists have had to confront the broader issue of determining the relative contribution to intelligence of genetic factors heredity and experience.<br />Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray (1994) <br />“The Bell Curve”<br /> Socioeconomic Status (SES)<br />Heritability – A measure of the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.<br />Sandra Scarr and Richard Weinberg (1976)<br /> Other research shows that the racial gap in IQ narrows considerably after a college education, and cross cultural data demonstrates when racial gap exist in other culture, it is economically disadvantaged groups that typically have lower score.<br /> Drawing comparisons between different races on any dimension, including IQ score is an imprecise, potentially misleading, and often fruitless venture.<br />Whether there is anything we can do to maximize the intellectual development of each individual.<br /> People who have greater educational opportunities and who suffer fewer economic constraints are able to maximize their intelligence.<br />