Internal Combustion Engine Design


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Internal Combustion Engine Design

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Internal Combustion Engine Design

  1. 1. Tillman Hatcher – my internal combustion engine design experience is listed: • Engine Design and Operating Parameters • Engine Classifications • Engine Operating Cycles • Engine Components • Spark-Ignition Engine Operation • Compression-Ignition Engine Operation • Stratified-Charge Engines4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 1
  2. 2. • Important Engine Characteristics• Geometrical Properties of Reciprocating Engines• Brake Torque and Power• Indicated Work per Cycle• Mechanical Efficiency• Road-Load Power• Specific Fuel Consumption and Efficiency• Air/Fuel and Fuel/Air Ratios• Volumetric Efficiency• Engine Specific Weight and Specific Volume• Correction Factors for Power and Volumetric Efficiency• Specific Emissions and Emissions Index• Relationship between Performance Parameters• Engine Design and Performance Data• Thermochemistry of Fuel-Air Mixtures4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 2
  3. 3. • Characterization of Flames• Ideal Gas Model• Composition of Air and Fuels• Combustion Stoichiometry• Energy and Enthalpy Balances• Heating Values• Adiabatic Combustion Processes• Combustion Efficiency of an Internal CombustionEngine• Entropy• Maximum Work from an Internal CombustionEngine and Efficiency• Chemical Equilibrium• Chemical Reaction Rates• Properties of Working Fluids• Unburned Mixture Composition• Gas Property Relationships4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 3
  4. 4. • Unburned Mixture Charts• Burned Mixture Charts• Relationship Between Unburned and Burned MixtureCharts• Tables of Properties and Composition• Computer Routines for Property and CompositionCalculations• Unburned Mixtures• Burned Mixtures• Transport Properties• Exhaust Gas Composition• Species Concentration Data• Equivalence Ratio Determination from Exhaust GasConstituents• Effects of Fuel/Air Ratio Nonuniformity• Combustion Inefficiency• Thermodynamic Relations for Engine Processes• Cycle Analysis with Ideal Gas Working Fluid withConstant volume, and Constant pressure Constant4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 4
  5. 5. • Constant-Volume Cycle• Limited and Constant Pressure Cycles• Cycle Comparison• Fuel-Air Cycle Analysis• SI Engine Cycle Simulation• CI Engine Cycle Simulation• Results of Cycle Calculations• Overexpanded Engine Cycles• Availability Analysis of Engine Processes• Availability Relationships• Entropy changes in Ideal Cycles• Available Analysis of Ideal Cycles• Effects of Equivalence ratio• Gas Exchange Processes• Comparison of Real Engine Cycles4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 5
  6. 6. • Inlet and Exhaust Processes• Volumetric Efficiency• Quasi-Static Effects• Combined Quasi-Static and Dynamic Effects• Variation with Speed, and Valve Area, Lift, and Timing• Flow through Valves• Poppet Valve Geometry and Timing• Flow Rate and Discharge Coefficients• Residual Gas Fraction• Exhaust Gas Flow Rate and Temperature Variation• Scavenging• Flow through Ports• Supercharging and Turbocharging• Methods of Power Boosting• Basic Relationships4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 6
  7. 7. • Compressors• Turbines• Wave-Compression Devices• SI Engine Fuel Metering and ManifoldPhenomena• Spark-Ignition Engine Mixture Requirements• Carburetors• Carburetor Fundamentals• Fuel-Injection Systems• Multipoint Injection• Single-point Injection• Feedback Systems• Flow Past Throttle Plate• Flow in Intake manifolds• Design Requirements• Air-Flow Phenomena4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 7
  8. 8. • Fuel-Flow Phenomena• Charge Motion within the Cylinder• Intake jet Flow• Mean Velocity and Turbulence Characteristics• Definitions• Application to Engine Velocity Data• Swirl• Swirl Measurement• Swirl Generation during Induction• Swirl Modification within the Cylinder• Squish• Prechamber Engine Flows• Crevice Flows and Blowby• Flows Generated by Piston-Cylinder WallInteraction• Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 8
  9. 9. • Essential Features of Process• Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Combustion• Burned and Unburned Mixture States• Analysis of Cylinder Pressure Data• Combustion Process Characterization• Flame Structure and Speed• Experimental Observations• Flame Structure• Laminar Burning Speeds• Flame Propagation Relations• Cyclic Variations in Combustion, Partial Burning andMisfire• Observations and Definitions• Causes of Cycle by Cycle and Cylinder to CylinderVariations• Partial Burning, Misfire, and Engine Stability• Spark ignition4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 9
  10. 10. • Ignition Fundamentals• Conventional Ignition Systems• Alternative Ignition Approaches• Abnormal Combustion: Knock and Surface Ignition• Description of Phenomena• Knock Fundamentals• Fuel Factors• Combustion in Compression-Ignition Engines• Types of Diesel Combustion Systems• Direct-Injection Systems• Indirect-Injection Systems• Comparison of Different combustion Systems• Phenomenological Model of Compression-IgnitionEngine Combustion• Photographic studies of engine combustion• Combustion of Direct-Injection, Multispray Systems4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 10
  11. 11. • Application of Model to Other combustionSystems• Analysis of Cylinder Pressure Data• Combustion Efficiency• Direct-Injection Engines• Indirect-Injection Engines• Fuel Spray Behavior• Fuel Injection• Overall Spray Structure• Atomization• Spray Penetration• Droplet Size Distribution• Spray Evaporation• Ignition Delay• Definition and Discussion• Fuel Ignition Quality4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 11
  12. 12. • Autoignition Fundamentals• Physical Factors Affecting Delay• Effect of Fuel Properties• Correlations for Ignition Delay in Engines• Mixing-controlled Combustion• Background• Spray and Flame Structure• Fuel-Air Mixing and Burning Rates• Pollutant Formation and Control• Nature and Extent of Problem• Nitrogen Oxides• Kinetics of NO Formation• Formation of NO²• NO Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines• NOx Formation in Compression-IgnitionEngines4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 12
  13. 13. • Carbon Monoxide• Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions• Background• Flame Quenching and Oxidation Fundamentals• HC Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines• Hydrocarbons Emissions Mechanisms in DieselEngines• Particulate emissions• Spark-Ignition Engine Particulates• Characteristics of Diesel Particulates• Particulate Distribution within the Cylinder• Soot Formation Fundamentals• Soot Oxidation• Adsorption and Condensation• Exhaust Gas Treatment• Available Options4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 13
  14. 14. • Catalytic Converters• Thermal Reactors• Particulate Traps• Engine Heat Transfer• Modes of Heat Transfer• Conduction• Convection• Radiation• Overall Heat-Transfer Process• Heat Transfer and Engine Energy Balance• Convective Heat Transfer• Dimensional Analysis• Correlations for Time-Average Heat Flux• Correlations for Instantaneous Spatial AverageCoefficients• Correlations for Instantaneous Local Coefficients4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 14
  15. 15. • Intake and Exhaust System Heat Transfer• Radiative Heat Transfer• Radiation from Gases• Flame Radiation• Prediction Formulas• Measurements and Instantaneous Heat-TransferRates• Measurement methods• Spark-Ignition Engine Measurements• Diesel Engine Measurements• Evaluation of Heat-Transfer Correlations• Boundary-Layer Behavior• Thermal Loading and Component Temperatures• Component Temperature Distributions• Effect of Engine Variables• Engine Friction and Lubrication4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 15
  16. 16. • Background• Definitions• Friction Fundamentals• Lubricated Friction• Turbulent Dissipation• Total Friction• Measurement methods• Engine Friction Data• SI Engines• Diesel Engines• Engine Friction Components• Motored Engine Breakdown Tests• Pumping Friction• Piston Friction• Piston Assembly Friction4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 16
  17. 17. • Crankshaft Bearing Friction• Valve Train Friction• Accessory Power Requirements• Lubrication• Lubrication Systems• Lubrication Requirements• Modeling Real Engine Flow and CombustionProcesses• Purpose and Classification of Models• Governing Equations for Open ThermodynamicSystem• Conservation of Mass• Conservation of Energy• Intake and Exhaust Flow Models• Background• Quasi-Steady Flow Models• Filling and Emptying Methods4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 17
  18. 18. • Gas Dynamics Models• Thermodynamic-Based In-Cylinder Models• Background and Overall Model Structure• SI Engine Models• Direct-Injection Engine Models• Prechamber Engine Models• Multicylinder and Complex Engine SystemModels• Second Law Analysis of Engine Systems Models• Fluid-Mechanic-Based Multidimensional Models• Basic Approach and Governing Equations• Turbulence Models• Numerical Methodology• Flow Field Predictions• Fuel Spray Modeling• Combustion Modeling4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 18
  19. 19. • Engine Operating Characteristics• Engine Performance Parameters• Indicated and Brake Power and MEP• Variables that Affect CI Engine Performance,Efficiency, and Emissions• Spark timing• Mixture composition• Load and Speed• Compression Ratio• Design Objectives and Options• Factors that Control Combustion• Factors that Control Performance• Chamber Octane Requirement• Chamber Optimization Strategy• Fuel-Injection Parameters• Air-Swirl and Bowl-in-Piston Design4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 19
  20. 20. • Supercharged and Turbocharged EnginePerformance• Engine Performance Summary Data Collection• Transmission Angle• Limiting Positions of an Offset Slider CrankLinkages• Displacement Analysis and Computer Graphics• Quick Return Mechanisms• Linkage Interference• Mechanisms for Specific Applications• Computer-Controlled Units• Real time data capture and pursing into agraphical Excel File• Engine ECU programming• Exhaust After Treatment ECU programming• Cab ECU programming interface• Diagnostic software programming• Moving Coordinate Systems4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 20
  21. 21. • Relative Velocity• Application of Analytical Vector Methods toLinkages• Graphical Analysis of Linkage Motion UtilizingRelative Velocity• Velocity Imaging• Velocity-Time Studies• Graphical Analysis of Sliding Contact Linkages• Cams and Cam Followers• Disk Cam Design for Basic Followers Typesand Motions• Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, and JerkAnalysis of Cam Follower Motion• Analytical Cam Design• Positive-Motion Cams• Cylinder Cams4/3/2012 Tillman Hatcher 21