A Sustainable Future
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  • Introduction

Transcript

  • 1. A Sustainable Future fuel switching for rural development Atul K. Raturi Presented at Energy side event, ACP Ministerial Meeting, Port Moresby, 2 June 2006
  • 2. The Electrified Earth
  • 3. Population density PNG ~ 8 persons/km 2 Tuvalu ~ 363 persons/ km 2 No. of islands/ country PNG -400 Fiji- 300 Kiribati- 33 Population PNG – 5 Million Tuvalu- 9,600 Land Area PNG – 462,243 km 2 Nauru- 21 km 2
  • 4. Population without grid electricity
    • Fiji: ~ 33%
    • PNG:~ 85%
    • Solomon Islands: ~98%
    • Vanuatu:~ 78%
    • W.Samoa:~ 10%
    • Tonga:~5%
    Photo:BugBog                                             
  • 5. ELECTRICITY GENERATION
    • PNG 29% Hydro
    • W.Samoa 32% Hydro
    • Micronesia 11.5% Hydro
    • Others – Mainly Diesel
    • Ratio of Petroleum Imports to Total Exports
    • Marshall Islands, Palau and Tuvalu ~ 400%
  • 6. Global warming & Climate change
    • Recent research shows that the global warming in the New Guinea Island was occurring at the rate 20 times higher than previously thought
    • Temperatures have increased on average 0.3 degrees every decade (among the fastest in the world)
    • Glaciers on Mount Jaya (highest peak on the Island-Indonesian side) have retreated by 300 m in 30 years
    • The priceless flora and fauna (some yet to be discovered) will be lost forever
    Photo:www.rbgkew.org.uk Source: New scientist, March 2006)
  • 7. Carteret Atoll, Papua New Guinea The entire population of 2000 is to be moved to higher grounds. “ First Climate Change Refugees” By 2015, all the six islands will be submerged. Saltwater has already destroyed the gardens and crops Two uninhabited islands of Kiribati disappeared in 1999. Tuvalu, Marshall Islands are under threat.
      • In 2000, all the 1000 residents of Duke of York atoll were advised
    • that their island was sinking
    Global warming effects in the Pacific
  • 8. Electricity production in PNG -- 8 C-centers 1,200 280 Mining &Industry (self generation) 105 32 Hanjung-Kanudi (Private) 665 302 PNG power Generation (GWh/yr) Capacity (MW) Producer
  • 9. Distillate Use in electricity generation
    • Total electricity generated using diesel -PNG Power( Jan-Nov.2005):101,760 MWh
    • Average generator efficiency: 28% or 0.30 l/ kWh
    • Diesel consumption~ 35 Million Liters
    Fiji: 42 ML (2000) Projected (2011): 161 ML Solomon Islands: 21.4 ML (2001) Projected increase 5% annually This does not include usage by Industry and individuals
  • 10. Diesel engine “ The diesel engine can be fed with vegetable oils and would help considerably in the development of agriculture of the countries that use it.” Rudolph Diesel, World exhibition Paris, 1900
  • 11. Oil Properties 190 179 -24 29 @ 40 °C 34.6 39.7 Linseed Oil 191 130 -16 33 @ 40 °C 37.9 39.6 Soybean Oil 175 125 -10 37 @ 40 °C 38 39.7 Gross Rapeseed Oil 199 54 35 37 @ 40 42-50 39.6 Gross Palm Oil 268 10 24 20 @ 40 °C 60 42.0 Gross Coconut Oil - - -9 4 @ 40 °C 45 - 55 45.3 Gross Petroleum Diesel Saponification Value Iodine Value Solidification Point ( 0 C) Kinematic Viscosity (cS) Cetane Number Specific Energy (MJ/kg) Fuel
  • 12. Main Issues ( Coconut Oil)
    • High viscosity: Pump and injector failure
    • Iodine value: Injection system problems
    • Soap build-up: Soap in the engine sump
    • High boiling point: High engine temp.
    • High cloud point: Solidifies at 24 0 C
    • Water content: Difficult ignition
  • 13. Solutions
    • Filter down to 10 micron
    • Degumming
    • Pre-heating
    • Blending with diesel
    • Start and stop with diesel
    • Use CNO as lubricant
    • FFA ( free fatty acid) removal
  • 14. Utilization of CNO in CI engines
    • Option 1: Modify the oil
    • Blending, Transesterification (Bio-diesel)
    • Option 2: Modify the engine
    • Dual fuel, heating systems, injector, pumps, filters modification
  • 15. Biodiesel
    • Coconut biodiesel ( Coconut Methyl Ester-CME) – Reaction of CNO with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH)
    • CNO + Methanol Coconut Methyl Ester + Glycerin (by- product)
    • The properties of CME are very close to diesel
    • The production of CME requires specialised chemical machinery
    • The economics of CME production in PICs needs careful consideration
  • 16. Blending
    • Blending CNO with diesel reduces the viscosity
    Source:Machaon et al Source: Tangsathitkulchai et al Viscosity vs. Temp (various blends) Droplet diameter vs. % CNO
  • 17. Engine Modifications
    • Dual fuel systems
    • Additional heating systems
    • Specially designed filters, pumps and injectors
    • Commercially available conversion systems
    • Deltech Ltd., Elsbett etc.
  • 18. Copra Production CNO Production Papua New Guinea
  • 19. Some examples of CNO based systems
    • Buka Metal Fabricators, PNG:
    • 50 kVA and another 30 kVA system
    • Duetz generator
    • Dual fuel: start and stop on diesel ; run on CNO
    • Running without problemm
    • Fiji demonstration systems(2)
    • Lomaloma ( implemented 2000), CIRAD,SPC,DOE
    • Modified Duetz engines: Dual fuel tanks, heating system, start and stop with diesel, 74 kW, 1500 rpm, Indirect injection ,90 kVA alternator
    • CNO: locally produced
    • Present status: Running on diesel
    • Problems faced: Inadequate supply of CNO Local mill unable to supply and outside supply is expensive
  • 20.
    • ii. Welagi Island (implemented 2001) CIRAD,SPC,DOE
    • Modified Deutz engine
    • 45 kVA generator
    • Current status: Not in operation
    • Problems faced: CNO supply, spare parts
    • Solomon Islands
    • Lata power station (Implemented 2002-03),SIEA,Ausaid,NZaid
    • 80 kVA- Perkins diesel engine based system
    • Test runs: filter problems , additional heater installed
    • Current status: Testing stopped due to lack of filters
    • SIEA believes that the concept works
    • Samoa COCOGEN project
    • CNO substitution in EPC’s power generation systems
    • Implementing agencies: UNDP,EPC,SOPAC (consultant)
  • 21. CNO Fuel in PNG & Vanuatu
  • 22. Rabaul Shipping COPM, Madang CNO in boilers CNO in ships
  • 23. Environmental effects of fuel switching
    • CNO is biodegradable, carbon neutral, contains no sulfur, lead or toxic hydrocarbons
    • GHG emission by diesel = 2.45 kg/liter
    • Using locally produced CNO for electricity generation will reduce the diesel consumption by the transport sector
    • Help reduce the methane produced by rotting coconuts and neglected coconut plantations (CH 4 has 21 times GVP of CO 2 )
  • 24. The CNO option: some scenarios
    • Finshafen, PNG (District HQ)
    • Currently uses 600 L of diesel/day
    • CNO required for 100% replacement : 676 L per day
    • Annual CNO requirement : 246.7 kL
    • Diesel replaced : 219 kL
    • GHG reduction 591 tonne CO 2 equivalent
    • Rotuma Island (Fiji)
    • 240 kW village system ( 4 hours per day)
    • CNO required 122 kL per year ~ 203MT of copra per year
    • Diesel displaced 106 kL
    • GHG reduction: 287 tonne CO 2 equivalent
    Carbon Trading Potential
  • 25. Ethanol from Cassava
    • Crop yield:
    • 14-15 tons/ha/yr
    • Potential Alcohol production:
    • 2,523 L/ha/yr
    • PNG produces 50% of all PIC cassava yield.
    • Cassava can be grown on infertile land
    Other crops Sago Palm: up to 100 ML of ethanol potential in Gulf Nipa palm: up to 250 ML from Purari basin
  • 26. Kerosene based lighting A kerosene wick lantern produces~ 1 lux (lumen/m 2 ) at 1 m distance Industrialized countries: 500 lux (normal) Used 4 hours/day a kerosene lamp emits 100kg of CO 2 annually. Annual light output of a kerosene lamp = light produced by a 100 W incandescent lamp in 10 hours : Highly inefficient About 90% of the people in PNG use kerosene for lighting .~ 35 Million Liters/ year.98 M kg of CO 2 equivalent
  • 27.
    • White Light Emitting Diode (WLED)
    • Solid state (semiconductor based) lighting
    • Indestructible, lifetime-100,000 hours,30-40 years
    • Efficiency~ 100 lumens/watt
    • (0.1lumen/watt for kerosene)
    • Very low power requirement: 1 watt wled requires 80% less power than a CFL
    • Connected to a rechargeable battery can be used anywhere
    • Recharging: solar, manual (pedal power), commercial
    A wled lantern WLED (5W)
  • 28.
    • WLED based lighting systems in PNG
    Light with rechargeable 12 Volt battery Cost ~ 200 Kina ( USD 70) Light Up The World Foundation (LUTW) Pioneer of LED lighting 14,000 homes in 26 countries www.lutw.org
  • 29. PHOTOVOLTAICS: Electricity from the Sun Very high potential in the PICs Sunshine hours (POM)=2,478
  • 30. Teachers Solar Lighting Project (PNG)
    • Department of education & the World Bank (GEF)
    • Teachers are given interest-free loans (through Teachers’ Savings and Loan society) To buy Solar Lighting Kits. Repayable in 5 years
    • Initially 2,500 teachers in rural areas to benefit
    • A revolving fund to be set-up
    • Grant: USD 992,000
    • Implementing agency: PNG SEL
    PV projects in PNG
  • 31.
    • Department of education and Govt. of Japan
    320 Solar Lighting Kits (SLK) in schools in remote villages The system consists of-320 Watts & 480 Watts PV array 12 volt battery (600Ah) Provision for 10 off 20 watt 12dc fluorescent lights Potential to benefit 75,000 primary school children and 5000 teachers 1997-98, Cost: 15 Million Kina Current Status: Only a few still in operation. Problems: Poor quality installation, lack of maintenance and spare parts, Thefts SCHOOL PV Lighting Project
  • 32. PV projects (TE PNG)
    • More than 1200 solar powered (BP Solar) HF radio systems
    • Vaccine fridges ( Ministry of energy, Ausaid, Provincial Govt., Red Cross)
    • Water pumping systems (8): WHO, EU projects
    • Lighting systems (Depts. Of forestry, Health, education
    • Solar power supplies for TV transmitters, repeater stations
    PNG Telecom 173 sites : 5000 solar panels : 200 peak kW
  • 33. Geothermal Power Lihir Gold Mines 36MW plant in operation 20MW under construction First CDM project in PNG Many other potential sites
  • 34. OTHER RETs
    • Wind: Potential in some regions
    • Hydropower ( micro & pico): Very high potential in PNG >200 systems
    • Biomass: Half of the energy consumed in PICs
    • Tidal
    • OTEC
  • 35. Research & Training in RETs at PNGUT Department of Applied Physics Renewable Energy Systems Design and Analysis Tools   PV-DesignPro v4.0 Photovoltaic Energy System Design and Analysis Tool                                                                                            
  • 36. Conclusions/Recommendations
    • Almost 80% of the electricity generation costs are due to diesel import and transportation to remote areas
    • The diesel demand is going to increase in the coming years
    • Technically it is possible to run CI engines on coconut oil
    • The 3 countries can produce more than 80 ML of CNO every year which can displace about 71 ML of diesel. This would save over USD 70 Million on the fuel bill.
    • This money will be ploughed back into the communities that produce coconuts
    • GHG emission will be reduced by ~180 Gg per year with a 100% fuel switch for electricity generation
    • It is suggested that initially 20%CNO/80% diesel blends should be introduced
    • A supply chain analysis should be performed for each country
  • 37. Conclusions/Recommendations
    • Almost 80% of the electricity generation costs are due to diesel import and transportation to remote areas
    • The diesel demand is going to increase in the coming years
    • Technically it is possible to run CI engines on coconut oil
    • The 3 countries can produce more than 80 ML of CNO every year which can displace about 71 ML of diesel. This would save over USD 70 Million on the fuel bill.
    • This money will be ploughed back into the communities that produce coconuts
    • GHG emission will be reduced by ~180 Gg per year with a 100% fuel switch for electricity generation
    • It is suggested that initially 20%CNO/80% diesel blends should be introduced
    • A supply chain analysis should be performed for each country
  • 38. Thank you for your attention
    • Atul K. Raturi
    • Department of Applied Physics
    • PNG University of Technology
    • Lae, PNG
    • email: [email_address]
    • Phone: 675-4734905,675-6864587(mob)
    • Web: www.energyforall.blgspot.com