Learning and the Art of Storytelling
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Learning and the Art of Storytelling

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What can we learn from the art of storytelling to enhance the learning experience?

What can we learn from the art of storytelling to enhance the learning experience?

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Learning and the Art of Storytelling Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Story-telling (Learning)Lessons from the Art of Story-telling for Enhancing a Learning Experience
  • 2. Legend goes, there was a King called Amarshakti,who ruled a kingdom in Southern India. He was ascholar and a powerful ruler.
  • 3. King Amarshakti had three sons... ush akti Bah akti Ugrash ntsh akti Ana
  • 4. The three princes were, what we would today call ’reluctant learners’ Must study.. . blah, blah, your future ... blah, blah, blahWhat’s the point... Here we go again I am bored!
  • 5. Minister Sumati advised the king that instead of using conventional ways of teaching,they should find ways to wake the intelligence of the princes... and for this hesuggested requesting the great teacher, Pandit Vishnu Sharma to tutor the princes.
  • 6. Since verbal sciences have no final end,Since life is short, and obstacles impend,Let central facts be picked and firmly fixed,As swans extract the milk with water mixed.
  • 7. Holy Sir, as a favour to me you must make my threeprinces masters of the art of practical life. In return, I will bestow upon you a hundred land-grants.
  • 8. O King, listen. I am not a man to sell learning.So keep your land-grants. But if I do not, insix month’s time, make the boys acquaintedwith the art of intelligent living, I will give up my own name.
  • 9. Vishnu Sharma knew that he could never instruct the princesthrough conventional means. He employed a less orthodox way...
  • 10. He weaved a succession of animal fables to help the princes understand the’wise conduct of life’. The collection of 5 discourses is called ’PANCHTANTRA’- meaning the five (pancha), treatises (tantra).
  • 11. Panchtantra stories are still loved by kids in India andthe fables have been translated into many languages
  • 12. Stories and narratives play a very important role in education
  • 13. According to Marsha Rossiter and Carolyn Clark Stories help in sense-making Learners connect new knowledge with lived experience and weave it into existing narratives of meaning Bruner (1986) explains that a story develops the ‘landscape of action’ and the ‘landscape of consciousness’ (human intention). As audience we engage with both levels and enter into the minds of the characters and into the deeper meaning of the story.
  • 14. Stories can be instruments of information andtransformation (Jackson 1995), taking the audience fromthe familiar to the unfamiliar.When one identifies with the character who has changedone can envision and embrace the possibility of change inoneself (Clark 2001).Stories make information rememberable because theyinvolve us in the actions and intentions of thecharacters and demand active meaning making.Stories enable us to engage with new knowledge, broaderperspective and expanded possibilities.
  • 15. Harvard psychologist, Lawrence Kohlberg, who proposed a stage theory of moralthinking, used stories like this one, to test moral reasoning: A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was just one drug that might save her.
  • 16. PHARMACYOnly one pharmacist had that drug and he was charging ten times thenormal price.The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, could arrange just half the amount.
  • 17. PHARMACYHe pleaded and argued with the pharmacist that his wife was dying and socould the pharmacist please lower the price or allow Heinz to pay later.But the pharmacist refused.
  • 18. PHARMACYHeinz got desperate and that evening he stole the drug.
  • 19. Should Heinz have stolen the drug?Should he be punished? This story is very effective for further discussions on thinking and moral reasoning
  • 20. In his book ‘Social Intelligence’, author Daniel Golemanexplains the impact of emotions on learning andperformance...
  • 21. Stories can play a major role in creating such ’inspired moments of learning’
  • 22. What can teachers and parents learn from the art of storytelling, to make learning experiences highly engaging, meaningful and effective?Let’s look at some elements, that go into making of a good story, and can be used to enhance learning experiences
  • 23. Elements of a Story that can Enhance a Learning Experience 1. Structure 2. Conflict (emotional sub-text) 3. Resolution
  • 24. 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 25. 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 26. Aristotle suggested a Three-Act Structure for Drama, in his ’Poetics’ (c. 335 BCE) 2. M idd le g nin 3. E gi n nd e 1. BStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 27. According to Aristotle, Mythos or Plot... is the sequence of events in a story events are causally related events can come as a surprise first, but the logic must be revealed later plot must arouse emotions of the audienceStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 28. Let’s look at an example...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 29. Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 30. No causation Little emotionStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 31. Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 32. C au s at io n Em o t io nStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 33. Elements of a Story 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 34. Gustav Freytag suggests a Five -Act Structure for Drama 3. Cli ma x 4. n c t io Fa l li n gA gA isi n cti on 2. R 1. Expo sitio n 5. Deno ueme ntStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 35. 3. Cli ma x 4. n c t io Fa l li n gA gA isi n cti on 2. R 1. Expo sitio n 5. Deno ueme nt Exposition of the situation, characters introduced, what kind of people they are and their relations, goals and motivation Main Character gets to know the goal and what is at stake if he or she failsStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 36. 3. Cli ma x 4. n c t io Fa l li n gA gA isi n cti Conflict is introduced 2. R on 1. Expo sitio n Small problems thwart 5. Deno ueme nt protagonist Protagonist overcomes these secondary obstacles He or she is finally in a position to go for primary goalStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 37. 3. Cli ma x Turning Point 4. n c t io Fa l li n Single big decision gA gA isi n that defines outcome cti on 2. R Protagonist and 1. Expo sitio n 5. Deno ueme nt antagonist plans get revealed and get in direct or indirect conflict Protagonist makes a decision or choice which shows his or her main qualityStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 38. 3. Cli ma x 4. n c t io Fa l li n gA gA isi n Greatest tension cti 2. R on Things go wrong for 1. Expo sitio n 5. Deno ueme nt protagonist Seems evil will triumphStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 39. 3. Cli ma x 4. n Fa c t io l li n gA gA isi n cti on 2. R 1. Expo sitio n 5. Deno ueme nt Final confrontation and decisive win for protagonist All ’whys’ are answered and long- term consequences revealedStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 40. Let’s look at an example...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 41. You must stay curious, read more, learn to learn...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 42. Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 43. Let me tell you a storyStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 44. A group of graduates from a prestigious university were asked...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 45. Why do we have seasons?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 46. 23 out of 25 students immediately gave the same answer that the earth is closer to the sun in the summer than it is in the winter due to the elliptical orbit of the earth. farther = winter closer = summerStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 47. Do you agree?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 48. Dunno!Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 49. This argument does not hold water because if it were so then at that point in time both Southern and Northern hemispheres would have the same season and we know this is not true. farther = winter closer = summerStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 50. The Earths axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees. The tilt of the Earth means the Earth will lean towards the Sun (Summer) or lean away from the Sun (Winter) 6 months later. In between these, Spring and Autumn will occur. Northern Hemisphere N. Hemisphere = Summer = Winter S. Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere = Summer = WinterStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 51. Don’t just rely on your intuitive thinking, be sure to check your cognitive bias.Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 52. Hmm....Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 53. 1. Exposition You must stay curious, read more, learn to Let me tell you a story learn... Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 54. Do you agree? 2. Rising Action Dunno!Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 55. 3. ClimaxStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 56. 4. Falling Action Northern Hemisphere N. Hemisphere = Summer = Winter Southern Hemisphere S. Hemisphere = Winter = SummerStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 57. Don’t just rely on your intuitive thinking, be sure to check your cognitive bias. 5. Denouement Hmm....Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 58. 3. Climax Do you agree? 2. Rising Action Dunno! 4. Falling Action Northern Hemisphere N. Hemisphere = Summer = Winter Southern Hemisphere S. Hemisphere = Winter = Summer Don’t just rely on your intuitive thinking, be sure to check your cognitive bias.1. Exposition You must stay curious, read more, learn to Let me tell you a story 5. Denouement learn... Hmm.... Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 59. Key Elements of a Story 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 60. According to Joseph Campbell, the journey of the archetypal hero in mythologies consists of Call to Adventure Refusal of the call Divine intervention or Epiphany Journey of Trials & Tribulations Return and Master of the two worlds ransformati on of self journey can be within - t The hero’sStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 61. Let’s look at an example...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 62. Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 63. e Ad v e nt ur o Ca l l tStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 64. Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 65. of th e Ca l l Re f us a lStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 66. Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 67. e r ve n t io n In tStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 68. Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 69. n s u l at io ls & Tr i b Tr i aStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 70. l Ad ve n t u re l of t he Ca l o a Ca l l t Re f us n s u l at io ls & Tr i b e n t io n Tr i a In t er vStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 71. Key Elements of a Story 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 72. Conflict and its resolution moves the story forward... convincingly Conflict could be between protagonist and antagonist Or conflict could be with-in the protagonistStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 73. Let’s look at t wo examples...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 74. You must stay curious, read more, learn to learn... Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 75. You must stay curious, read more, learn to learn... Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 76. You must stay curious, read more, learn to learn... Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 77. Conflict You must stay curious, read more, learn to learn... Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 78. To put the story so far, in perspective...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 79. Stories can inform, inspire and transformStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 80. In the context of education, a story can help a learner imagine... ‘what is possible’ What is What is possibleStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 81. The learner is the ‘hero’ who has to undertake the learning journey towards ‘what is possible’Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 82. In this learning journey, the ‘learner hero’ has to resolve ‘inner conflicts’Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 83. What is possible Learner’s Inner Journey Conflicts What isStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 84. Inner conflicts of a learner could be...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 85. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Cynicism, SkepticismStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 86. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Trying is the first step towards failure - Homer Simpson Cynicism, Skepticism Fear of Failure or Ridicule (what will other’s think of me)Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 87. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Trying is the first step towards failure - Homer Simpson Cynicism, Skepticism Fear of Failure or Ridicule (what will other’s think of me) Inertia to Act or lack of energy and enthusiasmStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 88. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Trying is the first step towards failure - Homer Simpson Cynicism, Skepticism Fear of Failure or Ridicule (what will other’s think of me) Inertia to Act or lack of energy and enthusiasm Rigid Mindset (habits die hard)Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 89. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Lack of Self-Efficacy Self-belief about lack of abilities, that in-turn leads to lesser effort being put into learningStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 90. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Lack of Self-Efficacy Self-belief about lack of abilities, that in-turn leads to lesser effort being put into learning Boredom & AnxietyStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 91. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Lack of Self-Efficacy Self-belief about lack of abilities, that in-turn leads to lesser effort being put into learning Boredom & Anxiety Ambiguity or Lack of ClarityStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 92. Inner conflicts of a learner could be... Lack of Self-Efficacy Self-belief about lack of abilities, that in-turn leads to lesser effort being put into learning Boredom & Anxiety Ambiguity or Lack of Clarity Focus on Problems not SolutionsStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 93. What can we learn from the art of story-telling about how to ‘resolve’ learner’s inner conflicts ?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 94. Key Elements of a Story 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 95. Resolution could be through persuasion According to Aristotle a persuasive argument has three components 2. Path os 3. hos L og t os 1. EStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 96. 2. Path os 3. hos L Speaker’s og t os 1. E credibility, authority and characterStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 97. 2. Path os Appeal to 3. hos emotions ogL t os 1. EStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 98. 2. Path os 3. hos ogL t Appeal to logic os 1. E through facts, dataStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 99. Let’s look at an example...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 100. 1. Etho s (ethical) “See how I am still so curious, eager to learn new things and You must stay curious, make it a point to read for at read more, learn to learn... least an hour every day.“ Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 101. 2. Pathos (emotional) “Let me tell you a story...“ 1. Etho s (ethical) “See how I am still so curious, eager to learn new things and You must stay curious, make it a point to read for at read more, learn to learn... least an hour every day.“ Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 102. 2. Pathos (emotional) “Let me tell you a story...“ 1. Etho s (ethical) 3. Logos (logical) “See how I am still so curious, “According to American eager to learn new things and You must stay curious, Society of Training and make it a point to read for at read more, learn to learn... Development (ASTD), the least an hour every day.“ amount of knowledge in the world doubles every 18 months.“ Why?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 103. Key Elements of a Story 1. Structure Aristotle Gustav Freytag Joseph Campbell 2. Conflict 3. Resolution Persuasion - Ethos, Pathos, Logos The Rider, the Elephant, the PathStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 104. In their book ‘Switch - how to change things when change is hard’ authors Chip and Dan Heath take a deeper look at inner conflicts...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 105. They look at the inner conflict as a dilemma bet ween ‘HEART and MIND’ and use the analogy given by psychologist, Jonathan Haidt...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 106. Your Mind or rational side is THE RIDERStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 107. Your Heart or emotional side is THE ELEPHANTStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 108. THE RIDER (mind or rationality) (+) - is a visionary (thinks long-term) - good at planning and direction - accepts delayed gratification (-) - Over analyzes (analysis-paralysis) - Limited strength (self-supervision is exhausting)Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 109. THE ELEPHANT (heart or emotions) (+) - can provide energy and enthusiasm - responds well to positive emotions - love, compassion, empathy, loyalty (-) - lazy and unpredictable - desires instant gratification - negative emotions (loss of energy or focus)Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 110. “What looks like Laziness is often Exhaustion“ What is What is possible se? Iu ? k ake rea uld t Im b icul sho will diff ould ools ne t sh sto too tt The Wha Wha It’s THE RIDER Changing habits is tiring (self-control is exhausting) Prefer to maintain status quo Sees only problems on the path of change Too many choices (analysis paralysis)Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 111. “What looks like Resistance is often Lack of Clarity“ What is What is possible ? y art it abil ? n st ble o it he ossi eve et Id imp hav uld do I s is sho on’t How Thi Why THE ELEPHANT Id Why change? No emotional connect with change The challenge is too big I don’t have the ability (lack of self-efficacy) How should I go about it - what steps?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 112. To Resolve the Inner Conflict, and bring about change (from ’what is’ to ’what is possible’), you need to appeal to both the rider and the elephantStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 113. What role can Stories play in ‘Directing the Rider’ and ‘Motivating the Elephant’ ?Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 114. Direct the Rider Role of Stories Stories that demonstrate change is possible Focus on solutions (and not the problems) i.e. don’t focus on what is broken and how to fix it instead focus on what is working and how to do more of it Stories that explain the critical stepsStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 115. Let’s look at an example...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 116. Once upon a time there was a boy who was heart-broken because he got ‘F’ grade in Math and Science. He thought to himself he was no good at studies...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 117. The story should go on to explain how he changed his mindset... Instead of looking at the bad grades he considered his ’A’ grade in English How did I get an ’A’ in English? Good study habits? Hard work? Multiple performance opportunities (writing, debating)? Deep interest and confidence? He then applied the same learning approach to other subjects He got a ’C’ in Math and Science and a ’B’ in History!Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 118. Motivate the Elephant Role of Stories Stories that provide an emotional connect That inspire hope That help achieve some ’quick wins’ That ’grow the person’ - help them gain self-efficacyStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 119. Let’s look at some examples...Structure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 120. Stories inspired by Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Tele-novellas and Radio-dramas narrating stories of model behaviour have been very successful in bringing about social change like, - radio drama, ’Taru’, in India, about female reproductive health - radio drama, "Twende na Wakati," or "Lets Go with the Times," in parts of Tanzania, about HIV and AIDS - "Ven Conmigo," or "Come with Me," in Mexico, on adult literacyStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 121. http://www.population.org/old/programs_india_taru.shtml http://www.population.org/
  • 122. Principles on which these stories are based (according to Bandura) Contrasting Role Models - positive, transitional and negative Characters demonstrate how to manage set-backs or enlist support Personal Relevance - from audience perspective Aspirational Linkage (i.e. based on audience’s aspirations) Vicarious Motivators Environmental Support - tell the audience what support is available for making the change and where to look for itStructure > Conflict > Resolution
  • 123. To conclude...
  • 124. Stories help a ‘learner hero’ What is possibleembark on a journey towardsself-confidence andunderstanding... Learner’s Inner Journey Resolution Conflicts What is
  • 125. Stories help a ‘learner hero’ What is possibleembark on a journey towardsself-confidence andunderstanding... Learner’s Inner Journey Resolution Conflicts What is ...by creating inspired moments of learning that combine - full attention, enthusiastic interest and positive emotional intensity.
  • 126. Do you remember stories that made history come alive for you, orbiographies that got you back on your feet when you were down? We can all learn from ‘hearing’ stories - parables, moral tales, stories of adventure... We can also learn by ‘telling’ stories - sharing our own ‘hard knocks of life’ tales, that helps us make sense of our life situation (blogging for catharsis!) And, best of all, stories can make the learning experience a lot of fun
  • 127. References ‘Narrative Perspectives on Adult Education’ - Rossiter & Clark ‘Social Intelligence’ - Daniel Goleman ‘A Private Universe’ - projects about misconceptions in Science ‘A Hero with a Thousand Faces’ - Joseph Campbell Wikipedia - Panchtantra, Kohlberg, Aristotle and Freytag ‘Switch’ - Chip & Dan Heath Lecture by Albert Bandura - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjIbKaSXM3A
  • 128. Author & Illustrator Atul Pant