How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
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How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning

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How Homo fabers (those who love to create) and Homo ludens (those who love to play) learn. This presentation made in Oct 2012 at Vasant Valley school in New Delhi, to educators from the Learn Today ...

How Homo fabers (those who love to create) and Homo ludens (those who love to play) learn. This presentation made in Oct 2012 at Vasant Valley school in New Delhi, to educators from the Learn Today group, describes how elements can be borrowed from games and how games can be used in the classroom to enrich the learning experience.

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    How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning Presentation Transcript

    • H ow HOMO FABERS and Homo ludens LEARN
    • Homo  sapiens     i n s  sapiensw      those  who  know   Homo  sapoe  that  they  kno n w  k those  whoHom o  economicus     n  the  rational  ma Homo  economicus  ma the  mature  rationa turus     l  man  
    • Homo  sapiens     i n s  sapiensw       those  who  know   Homo  sapoe  that  they  kno n w  k those  who Hom o  economicus     n   the  rational  ma Homo  economicus  ma the  mature  rationa turus     l  man    fabers     CREATE  Homo love  to  those  who   Homo  ludens     those  who  love  to  PLAY  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamificationusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning    
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamificationusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning     -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Conversa4on   -­‐  Collabora4on   -­‐  ACen4on  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Conversa4on   -­‐  Collabora4on   -­‐  ACen4on  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
    • Let’s start with a story…
    • A  woman  had  just  a  few  hours  before  she  would  die  from  a  strange  disease.    There  was  just  one  drug  that  might  save  her.  
    • PHARMACY  Only  one  pharmacist  in  the  village  had  that  drug  and  he  was  charging  ten  4mes  the  normal  price.  The  sick  woman’s  husband,  Heinz,  could  arrange  just  half  the  amount.    
    • PHARMACY  He  pleaded  and  argued  with  the  pharmacist  that  his  wife  was  dying  and  so  could  he  please  lower  the  price  or  allow  Heinz  to  pay  later.  But  the  pharmacist  refused.  
    • PHARMACY  Heinz  got  desperate  and  that  evening  he  stole  the  drug.    
    • Should  Heinz  have  stolen  the  drug?      Should  he  be  punished?  
    • Harvard  psychologist,  Lawrence  Kohlberg,  who  proposed  a  stage  theory  of  moral  thinking,  used  stories  like  this  one,  to  test  moral  reasoning.  
    • 1.  Obedience  and  punishment  orienta4on     (how  can  I  avoid  punishment?)  2.  Self-­‐interest  orienta4on   (whats  in  it  for  me?)    3.  Interpersonal  accord  and  conformity   (social  norms)  4.  Authority  and  social-­‐order  maintaining  orienta4on     (law  and  order  morality)  5.  Social  contract  orienta4on   (empathy)  6.  Universal  ethical  principles     (own  moral  code  of  conduct)  
    • Kohlberg  in  the  Classroom  hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77uRQeu_pUQ    
    • How to teach the concept of Justice?Curatorial Learning, of course!
    • Prof  Michael  Sandel  –  www.Jus4ceHarvard.org    
    • What Makes a Great Learning Experience- for Homo fabers and Homo ludens
    • What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   E n g a g e m e n t  
    • What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   Tradi4onally:   •  Stories   •  Playing   •  Tinkering   •  Experimen4ng   E n g a g e m e n t  
    • Impar4ng  learning  as  disciplined,  formal  educa4on  is  a  fairly  modern  inven4on,  only  a  few  centuries  old    
    • While  it  may  be  efficient,  it  is  ohen:   q  Boring   q  Stressful   q  Irrelevant   ü  All  of  the  above  
    • Most  formal  educa4on  has  degenerated  into,     •  Passive  acquisi4on  of  knowledge     •  Later  regurgita4on  in  tests  of  recall  
    • While  research  shows  that  deep  learning  happens  when  a  learner  is,   •  Self-­‐mo4vated  to  learn     •  Constructs  own  understanding/meaning  
    • When  we  play  a  game  we  are,   •  Intrinsically  mo4vated   •  Have  a  high  cogni4ve  commitment   •  Deeply  engaged   •  Overcome  difficult  challenges  of  our  own   voli4on  
    • Games can cultivate:•  ACen4on   •  Trust  •  Effort     •  Empathy  •  Persistence   •  Respect  •  Rule  following   •  Fairness  
    • But talk about games, and•  Parents  –  complain  games  are  addic4ve   and  colossal  4me  wasters  •  Educa4onists  –  lament  games  foster   adverse  social  behaviour  
    • What Makes a Great Learning Experience?  L e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   Use  Games  but  with   minimum  adverse   consequences?   E n g a g e m e n t  
    • What Makes a Great Learning Experience?  L e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   Use  Games  but  with   minimum  adverse   consequences?   GAMIFICATION may  hold  the  answer   E n g a g e m e n t  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
    • GAMIFICATIONis  use  of  game-­‐elements  in  non-­‐gaming  contexts  
    • Some examples of Gamification •  Nike  online  fitness  community   •  Ci4zen  Science  projects  like  GalaxyZoo.org   •  Volkswagen’s  www.funtheory.com  in   rewarding  drivers  who  drive  within  speed   limit    
    • What Gamification is NOT: Simply  adding  Points,  Badges  and  Leader   Boards  as  a  layer  on  top  of  a  learning  ac4vity  
    • What Gamification IS:Deconstruc4ng  good  games  to  find  elements  that  enrich  a  learning  experience,  e.g.   •  Connec4ng  with  player’s  passions  and  goals   •  Perhaps,  allow  personaliza4on  of  goals   •  “With  games,  learning  is  the  drug”      (Raph  Koster,  game  designer,  author  -­‐  ‘Theory  of  Fun’)  
    • Why Learning becomes Taxing in a School Environment?Perhaps…   •  Unlike  a  game,  the  challenges  provided   are  not  novel  or  interes4ng   •  Challenges  are  not  contextual  –  not  related   with  learners’  aspira4ons  or  life  situa4on   Based  on  a  talk  by  Sebas/an  Deterding,  designer   hCp://bit.ly/PC8rjn    
    • Why Learning becomes Taxing in a School Environment?Perhaps…   •  No  varying  of  pace  in  learning   •  No  scaffolding  that  allows  gradual  learning   •  No  ‘excessive  posi4ve  feedback’  (informa4onal   and  not  judgmental    feedback)     Based  on  a  talk  by  Sebas/an  Deterding,  designer  
    • hCp://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxBozeman-­‐Paul-­‐Andersen-­‐Class    
    • Lee  Sheldon’s  book  ‘The  Mul4player  Classroom  –  Designing  Coursework  as  a  Game’  
    • Good game designers understand thatone size does not fit allIn  a  game,   •  A  ‘newbie’  needs  to  be  onboarded   •  A  ‘regular’  needs  fresh  challenges  –  new  learned   behaviours  become  a  habit   •  An  ‘enthusiast’  plays  the  game  for  mastery   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim,  game  designer   hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4YP-­‐hGZTuA    
    • What Motivates/Engages PeopleAmy  Jo  Kim  –4  reasons  for  Social  Engagement   •  Express   •  Explore   •  Compete   •  Cooperate   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim  
    • Engagement Loop in a Game Call  to  Action  Express/Explore/Compete/Coop   Player  (re)Engagement   Task/Mission/Quiz   Positive  Emotions  Fun/Delight/Trust/Pride/Curious   Visible  Progress   Statistics/Analytics/Feedback   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim  
    • According  to  Joseph  Campbell,  the  journey  of  the   archetypal  hero  in  mythologies  consists  of   "   Call  to  Adventure   "   Refusal  of  the  Call   "   Divine  intervention  or  Epiphany   "   Journey  of  Trials  &  Tribulations   "   Return  and  Master  of  both  worlds  The learner’s journey could be, knowledge acquisition, mastery, innovation or transformation of self
    • Game = PERMAAmy  Jo  Kim  –  good  games  embody  the  same  5  elements  that  are  impera4ve  for  well-­‐being  and  happiness  (Mar4n  Seligman’s  book,  ‘Flourish’)   •  P  =  Posi4ve  Emo4ons   •  E  =  Engagement   •  R  =  Rela4onships   •  M  =  Meaning   •  A  =  Accomplishment   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim  
    • Impact of emotions onlearning and performance...
    • A  Class  Divided  hCp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/    
    • In  his  book  Social  Intelligence,  author  Daniel  Goleman  explains  the  impact  of  emo4ons  on  learning  and  performance...  
    • Hans  Selye  divided  Stress  into  two  categories  -­‐  Distress  (persistent  stress  that  is  not  resolved  through  coping  or  adapta4on)  and  Eustress  (or  euphoric  stress  that  enhances  physical  and  mental  func4on)  -­‐  high  performance  requires  op4mal  stress  
    • Mihaly  Csikszentmihalyi  on  ‘FLOW’   High  Challenge  –  Low  Skill   •  Cogni4ve  Overload   •  Lack  of  Prior  Knowledge   (pre-­‐requisites)   •  Wrong  Mental  Model   Leads  to  Anxiety   -­‐  Provide  Scaffolding   (e.g.  step-­‐wise  hints)   High  Skill  –  Low  Challenge   •  Quickly  move  to  the  next  level   (Mastery  Learning  –  Khan  Academy)  
    • Personaliza4on  of  Learning  –  Role  of  ICT   –  Harvard  Professor,   Clayton  Christensen’s   book  ‘Disrup4ng  Class’  
    • Good Game Designers Understand the Psychology of Motivation!
    • Self-Determination Theory!THE  MOTIVATIONAL  SPECTRUM   External  Regula/on  >  Introjec/on  >  Iden/fica/on  >  Integra/on  >  Intrinsic   Amo$va$on   Extrinsic  Mo$va$on   Intrinsic  Mo$va$on  Indifferent  to   External  Regula$on:  you  don’t  want  to  do   Doing  something  for  a  task   something  but  do  it  because  someone  wants   the  love  of  it   you  to  do  to  it     Not  for  the  reward   Introjec$on:  do  it  because  it  enhances  your     status  –  I  will  do  it  because  others  will  value   E.g.  spending  4me   me   with  family,  listening   Iden$fica$on:  I  don’t  really  enjoy  doing  it  but   to  music   I  will  do  it  because  I  see  value  in  doing  it.  E.g.   study  math   Integra$on:  I  will  do  it  because  it  align  with   my  goals  (even  though  I  might  not  enjoy   doing  it).  E.g.  exercise    
    • !Effectance Motivation! Organisms have a tendency to explore and influence the environment and the master reinforcer for humans is personal competence (competence is the ability to interact effectively with the environment) -­‐  Psychologist  Robert  White  
    • Factors thatIn his book Drive - The SurprisingTruth about What Motivates Us influence Intrinsicauthor Daniel Pink suggests that Motivation!the new operating system for the21st century, or Motivation 3.0,has three components: –  Autonomy: the urge to direct our own lives –  Mastery: the desire to get better and better on something that matters –  Purpose: a yearning to do something larger than our self-interest
    • hCp://www.ted.com/talks/brenda_brathwaite_gaming_for_understanding.html    
    • Good Game Designers Understand Currency of Attention!
    • •  How  do  we  stay  focused?  •  To  understand  this  let’s  look  at   play,  because  while  playing  we   are  usually  naturally  aCen4ve  •  This  happens  because  our  mind   is  wired  such  that  it  seeks  variety   and  in  play  the  s4mulus  is   constantly  changing  Every  moment  of  a  tennis  match  is  different,  and  if  runs  are  not  being  scored  or  wickets  are  not  falling  then  even  cricket  becomes  boring  -­‐  we  stop  paying  aCen4on!  
    • Ellen  Langer,  Harvard  Professor  of  Psychology,  conducted  a  study  where  she  asked  par4cipants,  who  did  not  par4cularly  like  classical  music,  to  listen  to  classical  music  •  One  set  of  par4cipants  was  asked  to  no4ce  three  to  six  novel   aspects  about  the  ac4vity,  like  no4ce  the  musical  instruments   they  could  iden4fy  •  Another  set  was  not  given  any  instruc4ons  to  no4ce   differences  •  The  Study  revealed  that  more  the  dis4nc4ons  drawn  by   careful  no4cing,  the  more  the  subjects  liked  the  ac4vity  •  Thus,  the  more  we  deliberately  engage  with  a  task  the  more   interested  we  become  and  more  we  learn  
    • •  Langer  calls  this  a  ‘mindful’  autude  to   learning  -­‐  the  opposite  autude  is  a   ‘mindless  rote’  or  ‘autopilot’learning  •  Connect  what  you  are  learning  with   your  life  and  make  it  more  meaningful  •  Self-­‐reference  Effect  -­‐  informa4on  that   is  related  to  us  is  easier  to  learn  •  While  studying  we  should  mentally  ask   ques4ons  about  the  topic,  look  at  the   informa4on  from  various  perspec4ves   and  relate  it  to  our  personal  life  or  of   someone  we  know  •  By  making  informa4on  meaningful  we   remember  it  longer  
    • Good  learners  know  how  to  make  learning  interes4ng  by  deliberately  bringing  in  variety  in  what  they  are  studying  For  example,  while  reading  a  book,  they  mentally  ask  ques4ons  and  try  to  answer  them,  look  at  the  book  from  various  perspec4ves  or  think  about  different  endings  to  a  story  
    • In  Summary  Game Elements that can be used toEnrich the Learning Experience are…
    • •  Meaning:  contextual  goals,  shrink  the  goal  –  personaliza4on  •  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on:  mastery,  autonomy  (play  =  voluntary,  what   the  body  in  not  obliged  to  do  –  Mark  Twain)  •  Varied  Challenges:  non-­‐repe44ve,  novel  challenges;  experience   failure,  value  the  win  •  Environment   -­‐  Safe  but  not  sterile  environment,  where  consequences  are  not  dire   -­‐  Frustra4on  is  taken  in  stride   -­‐  Failure  is  less  shameful  
    • •  Scaffolding:  challenge  and  skill  balance  –  Flow  •  Changing  S4mulus:  for  intense  engagement  •  Feedback:  instant,  juicy,  informa4ve,  non-­‐judgmental  feedback   that  helps  improve  performance  •  Collabora4on:  communi4es  of  common  interest   •  Mutual  respect   •  Benevolence   •  Trust   •  Empathy  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • Story Creators and Animation Tools for iPad
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • Learning  Teaching  Scotland  -­‐  Game-­‐based  Learning   hCp://www.heppell.net/bva/bva5/elrick.htm    
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • The Engagement Spectrum
    • Solo  Games:  typically  provide  a  deeper  learning  experience  Collabora4ve  Games:  typically  provide  higher  learner  mo4va4on  Gaming  Communi4es:  several  learning  theories  at  work,  e.g.  Vygotsky’s  Zone  of  Proximal  Development,  More  Knowledgeable  Other  and  Lave  &  Wenger’s  Legi4mate  Peripheral  Par4cipa4on  and  Situated  Learning  
    • Gaming  Communi4es:  very  good  for  cul4va4ng  skills  essen4al  for  success  in  the  21st  century   -­‐  Collabora4ve  problem  solving   -­‐  Co-­‐construc4ng  meaning   -­‐  Consensual  decision  making   -­‐  Responsibility  and  self-­‐directed  learning  
    • hCp://youtu.be/yDPssJedOJ4    
    • Learning  Cycle  in  a  Gaming  Community  
    • Also  available  as  eBook  John  Seely  Brown’s  website  hCp://www.johnseelybrown.com    
    • ARG!Alternate Reality Games
    • Jane  McGonigal:    Gaming  can  make  a  beJer  world  TED  Talk   hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE1DuBesGYM    
    • Games are engaging, no doubt.But, what aboutLEARNING EFFECTIVENES
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
    • Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   Memorisa4on  
    • Challenge   (beCer  4me  or   Add  Context   beCer  score)   (vocabulary     Novelty  of  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   around  a  theme,     Radio  Show  type   Form  Factor   game)   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   -­‐  Recall  of  facts   Memorisa4on   -­‐  Tradi4onally  learned  by  rote  
    • Add  Context   Engagement   (problems  that   (mul4media   learner  can  relate   storytelling)   with)  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   Knowledge  of  a  domain   Memorisa4on  
    • Detectives at th e British Museum Thousands of year s ago I used to be a king but you can still meet me at th e British Museum. Although I am a little tied-up today ! Who am I?   Clue: Go to room (9 X 7) = ?Simple  Games  I  have  made  for  my  son  (this  one,  when  he  was  9)  
    • Simple  Games  I  have  made  for  my  son    (this  one,  when  he  was  10)  
    • It  is  old  wine  in  new  boCles  –  a  simple  quiz  converted  into  QR  code  –  cool  form  factor!  
    • -­‐  Ac4ve  Explora4on   -­‐  Discovery  Learning   -­‐  Feedback        (Hints  =  Scaffolding)  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   Synthesis   Understanding   -­‐  Making  connec4ons  with  prior  knowledge   -­‐  Applying  knowledge  in  novel  contexts   Knowing   Memorisa4on  
    • ICT  Curriculum  –  Beyond  Word  and  Excel     Learning  by  Tinkering  
    • Arduino  Is  a  tool  for  making  computers  that  can  sense  and  control  more  of  the  physical  world  than  your  desktop  computer.    Its  an  open-­‐source  physical  compu4ng  plazorm  based  on  a  simple  microcontroller  board,  and  a  development  environment  for  wri4ng  sohware  for  the  board.  
    • Crea4vity  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Seeing  paCerns  and  rela4onships  between   Synthesis   discrete  knowledge  nuggets,  across  domains   Understanding   Knowing   Memorisa4on   -­‐  Require  cross-­‐domain  knowledge   -­‐  Decision  Making  skills   -­‐  Problem  Solving  skills  
    • Crea4vity  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   New  connec4ons,  innova4ve  solu4ons   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   Memorisa4on   Using  underlying  Physics  engine,   create  own  games,  own  stories  
    • Curating Good Games
    • You  can  search  for  educa4onal  games  on  Android  Market  
    • You  can  search  App  Store  for  educa4onal  games  
    • Search  Google  for  “Serious  Games”  on  your  topic  of  study...  you  may  find  a  good  game  
    • Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play     -­‐  Conversa4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   -­‐  Collabora4on   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
    • Let the Learning Games Begin...
    • For  more  learning  modules  on  skills  relevant  for  flourishing  in  the  21st  century  visit  -­‐    www.TimelessLifeskills.co.uk   Or  join  the  Learning   Conversa4ons     on  Facebook  -­‐   www.facebook.com/lifeskills  
    • Thank you If  you  have  ques4ons  or  comments  please   feel  free  to  email  me  at:   Atul.Pant@gmail.com