H ow   HOMO FABERS       and   Homo ludens             LEARN
Homo	  sapiens	  	                                                       i n     s	  sapiensw	  	                         ...
Homo	  sapiens	  	                                                         i n     s	  sapiensw	  	                       ...
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience        for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	  
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                    for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gamifi...
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
Let’s start with a story…
A	  woman	  had	  just	  a	  few	  hours	  before	  she	  would	  die	  from	  a	  strange	  disease.	  	  There	  was	  j...
PHARMACY	  Only	  one	  pharmacist	  in	  the	  village	  had	  that	  drug	  and	  he	  was	  charging	  ten	  4mes	  the...
PHARMACY	  He	  pleaded	  and	  argued	  with	  the	  pharmacist	  that	  his	  wife	  was	  dying	  and	  so	  could	  he...
PHARMACY	  Heinz	  got	  desperate	  and	  that	  evening	  he	  stole	  the	  drug.	  	  
Should	  Heinz	  have	  stolen	  the	  drug?	  	  	  Should	  he	  be	  punished?	  
Harvard	  psychologist,	  Lawrence	  Kohlberg,	  who	  proposed	  a	  stage	  theory	  of	  moral	  thinking,	  used	  sto...
1.  Obedience	  and	  punishment	  orienta4on	  	       (how	  can	  I	  avoid	  punishment?)	  2.  Self-­‐interest	  orie...
Kohlberg	  in	  the	  Classroom	  hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77uRQeu_pUQ	  	  
How to teach the concept of Justice?Curatorial Learning, of course!
Prof	  Michael	  Sandel	  –	  www.Jus4ceHarvard.org	  	  
What Makes a Great Learning Experience- for Homo fabers and Homo ludens
What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g 	   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s 	                                         ...
What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g 	   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s 	                                         ...
Impar4ng	  learning	  as	  disciplined,	  formal	  educa4on	  is	  a	  fairly	  modern	  inven4on,	  only	  a	  few	  cent...
While	  it	  may	  be	  efficient,	  it	  is	  ohen:	          q  Boring	          q  Stressful	          q  Irrelevant	 ...
Most	  formal	  educa4on	  has	  degenerated	  into,	  	      •  Passive	  acquisi4on	  of	  knowledge	  	      •  Later	 ...
While	  research	  shows	  that	  deep	  learning	  happens	  when	  a	  learner	  is,	      •  Self-­‐mo4vated	  to	  lea...
When	  we	  play	  a	  game	  we	  are,	      •  Intrinsically	  mo4vated	      •  Have	  a	  high	  cogni4ve	  commitment...
Games can cultivate:•    ACen4on	               •    Trust	  •    Effort	  	             •    Empathy	  •    Persistence	  ...
But talk about games, and•  Parents	  –	  complain	  games	  are	  addic4ve	     and	  colossal	  4me	  wasters	  •  Educa...
What Makes a Great Learning Experience?	  L e a r n i n g 	   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s 	                                     ...
What Makes a Great Learning Experience?	  L e a r n i n g 	   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s 	                                     ...
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
GAMIFICATIONis	  use	  of	  game-­‐elements	  in	  non-­‐gaming	  contexts	  
Some examples of Gamification  •  Nike	  online	  fitness	  community	    •  Ci4zen	  Science	  projects	  like	  GalaxyZoo...
What Gamification is NOT:  Simply	  adding	  Points,	  Badges	  and	  Leader	    Boards	  as	  a	  layer	  on	  top	  of	 ...
What Gamification IS:Deconstruc4ng	  good	  games	  to	  find	  elements	  that	  enrich	  a	  learning	  experience,	  e.g...
Why Learning becomes Taxing in a       School Environment?Perhaps…	     •  Unlike	  a	  game,	  the	  challenges	  provide...
Why Learning becomes Taxing in a       School Environment?Perhaps…	    •  No	  varying	  of	  pace	  in	  learning	    •  ...
hCp://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxBozeman-­‐Paul-­‐Andersen-­‐Class	  	  
Lee	  Sheldon’s	  book	  ‘The	  Mul4player	  Classroom	  –	  Designing	  Coursework	  as	  a	  Game’	  
Good game designers understand thatone size does not fit allIn	  a	  game,	       •  A	  ‘newbie’	  needs	  to	  be	  onbo...
What Motivates/Engages PeopleAmy	  Jo	  Kim	  –4	  reasons	  for	  Social	  Engagement	           •  Express	           • ...
Engagement Loop in a Game      Call	  to	  Action	  Express/Explore/Compete/Coop	                                        P...
According	  to	  Joseph	  Campbell,	  the	  journey	  of	  the	             archetypal	  hero	  in	  mythologies	  consist...
Game = PERMAAmy	  Jo	  Kim	  –	  good	  games	  embody	  the	  same	  5	  elements	  that	  are	  impera4ve	  for	  well-­...
Impact of emotions onlearning and performance...
A	  Class	  Divided	  hCp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/	  	  
In	  his	  book	  Social	  Intelligence,	  author	  Daniel	  Goleman	  explains	  the	  impact	  of	  emo4ons	  on	  learn...
Hans	  Selye	  divided	  Stress	  into	  two	  categories	  -­‐	  Distress	  (persistent	  stress	  that	  is	  not	  reso...
Mihaly	  Csikszentmihalyi	  on	  ‘FLOW’	                           High	  Challenge	  –	  Low	  Skill	                    ...
Personaliza4on	  of	  Learning	  –	  Role	  of	  ICT	      –  Harvard	  Professor,	         Clayton	  Christensen’s	      ...
Good Game Designers Understand  the Psychology of Motivation!
Self-Determination Theory!THE	  MOTIVATIONAL	  SPECTRUM	          External	  Regula/on	  >	  Introjec/on	  >	  Iden/fica/on...
!Effectance Motivation!	      	Organisms have a tendency to explore and         influence the environment and the master   ...
Factors thatIn his book Drive - The SurprisingTruth about What Motivates Us                                          influe...
hCp://www.ted.com/talks/brenda_brathwaite_gaming_for_understanding.html	  	  
Good Game Designers Understand     Currency of Attention!
•  How	  do	  we	  stay	  focused?	  •  To	  understand	  this	  let’s	  look	  at	        play,	  because	  while	  playi...
Ellen	  Langer,	  Harvard	  Professor	  of	  Psychology,	  conducted	  a	  study	  where	  she	  asked	  par4cipants,	  wh...
•  Langer	  calls	  this	  a	  ‘mindful’	  autude	  to	      learning	  -­‐	  the	  opposite	  autude	  is	  a	      ‘mind...
Good	  learners	  know	  how	  to	  make	  learning	  interes4ng	  by	  deliberately	  bringing	  in	  variety	  in	  what...
In	  Summary	  Game Elements that can be used toEnrich the Learning Experience are…
•  Meaning:	  contextual	  goals,	  shrink	  the	  goal	  –	  personaliza4on	  •  Intrinsic	  Mo4va4on:	  mastery,	  auton...
•  Scaffolding:	  challenge	  and	  skill	  balance	  –	  Flow	  •  Changing	  S4mulus:	  for	  intense	  engagement	  •  F...
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
The Engagement Spectrum
The Engagement Spectrum
The Engagement Spectrum
The Engagement Spectrum
Story Creators and Animation Tools for iPad
The Engagement Spectrum
Learning	  Teaching	  Scotland	  -­‐	  Game-­‐based	  Learning	        hCp://www.heppell.net/bva/bva5/elrick.htm	  	  
The Engagement Spectrum
The Engagement Spectrum
Solo	  Games:	  typically	  provide	  a	  deeper	  learning	  experience	  Collabora4ve	  Games:	  typically	  provide	  h...
Gaming	  Communi4es:	  very	  good	  for	  cul4va4ng	  skills	  essen4al	  for	  success	  in	  the	  21st	  century	     ...
hCp://youtu.be/yDPssJedOJ4	  	  
Learning	  Cycle	  in	  a	  Gaming	  Community	  
Also	  available	  as	  eBook	  John	  Seely	  Brown’s	  website	  hCp://www.johnseelybrown.com	  	  
ARG!Alternate Reality Games
Jane	  McGonigal:	  	  Gaming	  can	  make	  a	  beJer	  world	  TED	  Talk	   hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE1DuBesGYM	 ...
Games are engaging, no doubt.But, what aboutLEARNING EFFECTIVENES
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
Bloom’s	  Taxonomy	  of	  Sorts!	                                            Crea4vity	                                   ...
Challenge	                                                                                                      (beCer	  4...
Add	  Context	               Engagement	                                                                (problems	  that	 ...
Detectives at th                                     e                     British Museum                                 ...
Simple	  Games	  I	  have	  made	  for	  my	  son	  	  (this	  one,	  when	  he	  was	  10)	  
It	  is	  old	  wine	  in	  new	  boCles	  –	  a	  simple	  quiz	  converted	  into	  QR	  code	  –	  cool	  form	  factor...
-­‐	  Ac4ve	  Explora4on	                                                                              -­‐	  Discovery	  L...
ICT	  Curriculum	  –	  Beyond	  Word	  and	  Excel	  	              Learning	  by	  Tinkering	  
Arduino	  Is	  a	  tool	  for	  making	  computers	  that	  can	  sense	  and	  control	  more	  of	  the	  physical	  wor...
Crea4vity	  Bloom’s	  Taxonomy	  of	  Sorts!	                                                                Seeing	  paCe...
Crea4vity	  Bloom’s	  Taxonomy	  of	  Sorts!	                                                                New	  connec4...
Curating Good Games
You	  can	  search	  for	  educa4onal	  games	  on	  Android	  Market	  
You	  can	  search	  App	  Store	  for	  educa4onal	  games	  
Search	  Google	  for	  “Serious	  Games”	  on	  your	  topic	  of	  study...	  you	  may	  find	  a	  good	  game	  
Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience                      for	  Homo	  fabers	  and	  Homo	  ludens	        Gami...
Let the Learning Games Begin...
For	  more	  learning	  modules	  on	  skills	  relevant	  for	  flourishing	  in	  the	  21st	  century	  visit	  -­‐	  	 ...
Thank you	If	  you	  have	  ques4ons	  or	  comments	  please	                 feel	  free	  to	  email	  me	  at:	       ...
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning
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How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning

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How Homo fabers (those who love to create) and Homo ludens (those who love to play) learn. This presentation made in Oct 2012 at Vasant Valley school in New Delhi, to educators from the Learn Today group, describes how elements can be borrowed from games and how games can be used in the classroom to enrich the learning experience.

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How Homo fabers and Homo Ludens Learn - Gamifying Learning

  1. 1. H ow HOMO FABERS and Homo ludens LEARN
  2. 2. Homo  sapiens     i n s  sapiensw      those  who  know   Homo  sapoe  that  they  kno n w  k those  whoHom o  economicus     n  the  rational  ma Homo  economicus  ma the  mature  rationa turus     l  man  
  3. 3. Homo  sapiens     i n s  sapiensw       those  who  know   Homo  sapoe  that  they  kno n w  k those  who Hom o  economicus     n   the  rational  ma Homo  economicus  ma the  mature  rationa turus     l  man    fabers     CREATE  Homo love  to  those  who   Homo  ludens     those  who  love  to  PLAY  
  4. 4. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens  
  5. 5. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamificationusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning    
  6. 6. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamificationusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning     -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Conversa4on   -­‐  Collabora4on   -­‐  ACen4on  
  7. 7. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Conversa4on   -­‐  Collabora4on   -­‐  ACen4on  
  8. 8. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
  9. 9. Let’s start with a story…
  10. 10. A  woman  had  just  a  few  hours  before  she  would  die  from  a  strange  disease.    There  was  just  one  drug  that  might  save  her.  
  11. 11. PHARMACY  Only  one  pharmacist  in  the  village  had  that  drug  and  he  was  charging  ten  4mes  the  normal  price.  The  sick  woman’s  husband,  Heinz,  could  arrange  just  half  the  amount.    
  12. 12. PHARMACY  He  pleaded  and  argued  with  the  pharmacist  that  his  wife  was  dying  and  so  could  he  please  lower  the  price  or  allow  Heinz  to  pay  later.  But  the  pharmacist  refused.  
  13. 13. PHARMACY  Heinz  got  desperate  and  that  evening  he  stole  the  drug.    
  14. 14. Should  Heinz  have  stolen  the  drug?      Should  he  be  punished?  
  15. 15. Harvard  psychologist,  Lawrence  Kohlberg,  who  proposed  a  stage  theory  of  moral  thinking,  used  stories  like  this  one,  to  test  moral  reasoning.  
  16. 16. 1.  Obedience  and  punishment  orienta4on     (how  can  I  avoid  punishment?)  2.  Self-­‐interest  orienta4on   (whats  in  it  for  me?)    3.  Interpersonal  accord  and  conformity   (social  norms)  4.  Authority  and  social-­‐order  maintaining  orienta4on     (law  and  order  morality)  5.  Social  contract  orienta4on   (empathy)  6.  Universal  ethical  principles     (own  moral  code  of  conduct)  
  17. 17. Kohlberg  in  the  Classroom  hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77uRQeu_pUQ    
  18. 18. How to teach the concept of Justice?Curatorial Learning, of course!
  19. 19. Prof  Michael  Sandel  –  www.Jus4ceHarvard.org    
  20. 20. What Makes a Great Learning Experience- for Homo fabers and Homo ludens
  21. 21. What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   E n g a g e m e n t  
  22. 22. What Makes a Great Learning ExperienceL e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   Tradi4onally:   •  Stories   •  Playing   •  Tinkering   •  Experimen4ng   E n g a g e m e n t  
  23. 23. Impar4ng  learning  as  disciplined,  formal  educa4on  is  a  fairly  modern  inven4on,  only  a  few  centuries  old    
  24. 24. While  it  may  be  efficient,  it  is  ohen:   q  Boring   q  Stressful   q  Irrelevant   ü  All  of  the  above  
  25. 25. Most  formal  educa4on  has  degenerated  into,     •  Passive  acquisi4on  of  knowledge     •  Later  regurgita4on  in  tests  of  recall  
  26. 26. While  research  shows  that  deep  learning  happens  when  a  learner  is,   •  Self-­‐mo4vated  to  learn     •  Constructs  own  understanding/meaning  
  27. 27. When  we  play  a  game  we  are,   •  Intrinsically  mo4vated   •  Have  a  high  cogni4ve  commitment   •  Deeply  engaged   •  Overcome  difficult  challenges  of  our  own   voli4on  
  28. 28. Games can cultivate:•  ACen4on   •  Trust  •  Effort     •  Empathy  •  Persistence   •  Respect  •  Rule  following   •  Fairness  
  29. 29. But talk about games, and•  Parents  –  complain  games  are  addic4ve   and  colossal  4me  wasters  •  Educa4onists  –  lament  games  foster   adverse  social  behaviour  
  30. 30. What Makes a Great Learning Experience?  L e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   Use  Games  but  with   minimum  adverse   consequences?   E n g a g e m e n t  
  31. 31. What Makes a Great Learning Experience?  L e a r n i n g   E ff e c 4 v e n e s s   Use  Games  but  with   minimum  adverse   consequences?   GAMIFICATION may  hold  the  answer   E n g a g e m e n t  
  32. 32. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
  33. 33. GAMIFICATIONis  use  of  game-­‐elements  in  non-­‐gaming  contexts  
  34. 34. Some examples of Gamification •  Nike  online  fitness  community   •  Ci4zen  Science  projects  like  GalaxyZoo.org   •  Volkswagen’s  www.funtheory.com  in   rewarding  drivers  who  drive  within  speed   limit    
  35. 35. What Gamification is NOT: Simply  adding  Points,  Badges  and  Leader   Boards  as  a  layer  on  top  of  a  learning  ac4vity  
  36. 36. What Gamification IS:Deconstruc4ng  good  games  to  find  elements  that  enrich  a  learning  experience,  e.g.   •  Connec4ng  with  player’s  passions  and  goals   •  Perhaps,  allow  personaliza4on  of  goals   •  “With  games,  learning  is  the  drug”      (Raph  Koster,  game  designer,  author  -­‐  ‘Theory  of  Fun’)  
  37. 37. Why Learning becomes Taxing in a School Environment?Perhaps…   •  Unlike  a  game,  the  challenges  provided   are  not  novel  or  interes4ng   •  Challenges  are  not  contextual  –  not  related   with  learners’  aspira4ons  or  life  situa4on   Based  on  a  talk  by  Sebas/an  Deterding,  designer   hCp://bit.ly/PC8rjn    
  38. 38. Why Learning becomes Taxing in a School Environment?Perhaps…   •  No  varying  of  pace  in  learning   •  No  scaffolding  that  allows  gradual  learning   •  No  ‘excessive  posi4ve  feedback’  (informa4onal   and  not  judgmental    feedback)     Based  on  a  talk  by  Sebas/an  Deterding,  designer  
  39. 39. hCp://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxBozeman-­‐Paul-­‐Andersen-­‐Class    
  40. 40. Lee  Sheldon’s  book  ‘The  Mul4player  Classroom  –  Designing  Coursework  as  a  Game’  
  41. 41. Good game designers understand thatone size does not fit allIn  a  game,   •  A  ‘newbie’  needs  to  be  onboarded   •  A  ‘regular’  needs  fresh  challenges  –  new  learned   behaviours  become  a  habit   •  An  ‘enthusiast’  plays  the  game  for  mastery   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim,  game  designer   hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4YP-­‐hGZTuA    
  42. 42. What Motivates/Engages PeopleAmy  Jo  Kim  –4  reasons  for  Social  Engagement   •  Express   •  Explore   •  Compete   •  Cooperate   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim  
  43. 43. Engagement Loop in a Game Call  to  Action  Express/Explore/Compete/Coop   Player  (re)Engagement   Task/Mission/Quiz   Positive  Emotions  Fun/Delight/Trust/Pride/Curious   Visible  Progress   Statistics/Analytics/Feedback   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim  
  44. 44. According  to  Joseph  Campbell,  the  journey  of  the   archetypal  hero  in  mythologies  consists  of   "   Call  to  Adventure   "   Refusal  of  the  Call   "   Divine  intervention  or  Epiphany   "   Journey  of  Trials  &  Tribulations   "   Return  and  Master  of  both  worlds  The learner’s journey could be, knowledge acquisition, mastery, innovation or transformation of self
  45. 45. Game = PERMAAmy  Jo  Kim  –  good  games  embody  the  same  5  elements  that  are  impera4ve  for  well-­‐being  and  happiness  (Mar4n  Seligman’s  book,  ‘Flourish’)   •  P  =  Posi4ve  Emo4ons   •  E  =  Engagement   •  R  =  Rela4onships   •  M  =  Meaning   •  A  =  Accomplishment   Based  on  a  talk  by  Amy  Jo  Kim  
  46. 46. Impact of emotions onlearning and performance...
  47. 47. A  Class  Divided  hCp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/    
  48. 48. In  his  book  Social  Intelligence,  author  Daniel  Goleman  explains  the  impact  of  emo4ons  on  learning  and  performance...  
  49. 49. Hans  Selye  divided  Stress  into  two  categories  -­‐  Distress  (persistent  stress  that  is  not  resolved  through  coping  or  adapta4on)  and  Eustress  (or  euphoric  stress  that  enhances  physical  and  mental  func4on)  -­‐  high  performance  requires  op4mal  stress  
  50. 50. Mihaly  Csikszentmihalyi  on  ‘FLOW’   High  Challenge  –  Low  Skill   •  Cogni4ve  Overload   •  Lack  of  Prior  Knowledge   (pre-­‐requisites)   •  Wrong  Mental  Model   Leads  to  Anxiety   -­‐  Provide  Scaffolding   (e.g.  step-­‐wise  hints)   High  Skill  –  Low  Challenge   •  Quickly  move  to  the  next  level   (Mastery  Learning  –  Khan  Academy)  
  51. 51. Personaliza4on  of  Learning  –  Role  of  ICT   –  Harvard  Professor,   Clayton  Christensen’s   book  ‘Disrup4ng  Class’  
  52. 52. Good Game Designers Understand the Psychology of Motivation!
  53. 53. Self-Determination Theory!THE  MOTIVATIONAL  SPECTRUM   External  Regula/on  >  Introjec/on  >  Iden/fica/on  >  Integra/on  >  Intrinsic   Amo$va$on   Extrinsic  Mo$va$on   Intrinsic  Mo$va$on  Indifferent  to   External  Regula$on:  you  don’t  want  to  do   Doing  something  for  a  task   something  but  do  it  because  someone  wants   the  love  of  it   you  to  do  to  it     Not  for  the  reward   Introjec$on:  do  it  because  it  enhances  your     status  –  I  will  do  it  because  others  will  value   E.g.  spending  4me   me   with  family,  listening   Iden$fica$on:  I  don’t  really  enjoy  doing  it  but   to  music   I  will  do  it  because  I  see  value  in  doing  it.  E.g.   study  math   Integra$on:  I  will  do  it  because  it  align  with   my  goals  (even  though  I  might  not  enjoy   doing  it).  E.g.  exercise    
  54. 54. !Effectance Motivation! Organisms have a tendency to explore and influence the environment and the master reinforcer for humans is personal competence (competence is the ability to interact effectively with the environment) -­‐  Psychologist  Robert  White  
  55. 55. Factors thatIn his book Drive - The SurprisingTruth about What Motivates Us influence Intrinsicauthor Daniel Pink suggests that Motivation!the new operating system for the21st century, or Motivation 3.0,has three components: –  Autonomy: the urge to direct our own lives –  Mastery: the desire to get better and better on something that matters –  Purpose: a yearning to do something larger than our self-interest
  56. 56. hCp://www.ted.com/talks/brenda_brathwaite_gaming_for_understanding.html    
  57. 57. Good Game Designers Understand Currency of Attention!
  58. 58. •  How  do  we  stay  focused?  •  To  understand  this  let’s  look  at   play,  because  while  playing  we   are  usually  naturally  aCen4ve  •  This  happens  because  our  mind   is  wired  such  that  it  seeks  variety   and  in  play  the  s4mulus  is   constantly  changing  Every  moment  of  a  tennis  match  is  different,  and  if  runs  are  not  being  scored  or  wickets  are  not  falling  then  even  cricket  becomes  boring  -­‐  we  stop  paying  aCen4on!  
  59. 59. Ellen  Langer,  Harvard  Professor  of  Psychology,  conducted  a  study  where  she  asked  par4cipants,  who  did  not  par4cularly  like  classical  music,  to  listen  to  classical  music  •  One  set  of  par4cipants  was  asked  to  no4ce  three  to  six  novel   aspects  about  the  ac4vity,  like  no4ce  the  musical  instruments   they  could  iden4fy  •  Another  set  was  not  given  any  instruc4ons  to  no4ce   differences  •  The  Study  revealed  that  more  the  dis4nc4ons  drawn  by   careful  no4cing,  the  more  the  subjects  liked  the  ac4vity  •  Thus,  the  more  we  deliberately  engage  with  a  task  the  more   interested  we  become  and  more  we  learn  
  60. 60. •  Langer  calls  this  a  ‘mindful’  autude  to   learning  -­‐  the  opposite  autude  is  a   ‘mindless  rote’  or  ‘autopilot’learning  •  Connect  what  you  are  learning  with   your  life  and  make  it  more  meaningful  •  Self-­‐reference  Effect  -­‐  informa4on  that   is  related  to  us  is  easier  to  learn  •  While  studying  we  should  mentally  ask   ques4ons  about  the  topic,  look  at  the   informa4on  from  various  perspec4ves   and  relate  it  to  our  personal  life  or  of   someone  we  know  •  By  making  informa4on  meaningful  we   remember  it  longer  
  61. 61. Good  learners  know  how  to  make  learning  interes4ng  by  deliberately  bringing  in  variety  in  what  they  are  studying  For  example,  while  reading  a  book,  they  mentally  ask  ques4ons  and  try  to  answer  them,  look  at  the  book  from  various  perspec4ves  or  think  about  different  endings  to  a  story  
  62. 62. In  Summary  Game Elements that can be used toEnrich the Learning Experience are…
  63. 63. •  Meaning:  contextual  goals,  shrink  the  goal  –  personaliza4on  •  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on:  mastery,  autonomy  (play  =  voluntary,  what   the  body  in  not  obliged  to  do  –  Mark  Twain)  •  Varied  Challenges:  non-­‐repe44ve,  novel  challenges;  experience   failure,  value  the  win  •  Environment   -­‐  Safe  but  not  sterile  environment,  where  consequences  are  not  dire   -­‐  Frustra4on  is  taken  in  stride   -­‐  Failure  is  less  shameful  
  64. 64. •  Scaffolding:  challenge  and  skill  balance  –  Flow  •  Changing  S4mulus:  for  intense  engagement  •  Feedback:  instant,  juicy,  informa4ve,  non-­‐judgmental  feedback   that  helps  improve  performance  •  Collabora4on:  communi4es  of  common  interest   •  Mutual  respect   •  Benevolence   •  Trust   •  Empathy  
  65. 65. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
  66. 66. The Engagement Spectrum
  67. 67. The Engagement Spectrum
  68. 68. The Engagement Spectrum
  69. 69. The Engagement Spectrum
  70. 70. Story Creators and Animation Tools for iPad
  71. 71. The Engagement Spectrum
  72. 72. Learning  Teaching  Scotland  -­‐  Game-­‐based  Learning   hCp://www.heppell.net/bva/bva5/elrick.htm    
  73. 73. The Engagement Spectrum
  74. 74. The Engagement Spectrum
  75. 75. Solo  Games:  typically  provide  a  deeper  learning  experience  Collabora4ve  Games:  typically  provide  higher  learner  mo4va4on  Gaming  Communi4es:  several  learning  theories  at  work,  e.g.  Vygotsky’s  Zone  of  Proximal  Development,  More  Knowledgeable  Other  and  Lave  &  Wenger’s  Legi4mate  Peripheral  Par4cipa4on  and  Situated  Learning  
  76. 76. Gaming  Communi4es:  very  good  for  cul4va4ng  skills  essen4al  for  success  in  the  21st  century   -­‐  Collabora4ve  problem  solving   -­‐  Co-­‐construc4ng  meaning   -­‐  Consensual  decision  making   -­‐  Responsibility  and  self-­‐directed  learning  
  77. 77. hCp://youtu.be/yDPssJedOJ4    
  78. 78. Learning  Cycle  in  a  Gaming  Community  
  79. 79. Also  available  as  eBook  John  Seely  Brown’s  website  hCp://www.johnseelybrown.com    
  80. 80. ARG!Alternate Reality Games
  81. 81. Jane  McGonigal:    Gaming  can  make  a  beJer  world  TED  Talk   hCp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dE1DuBesGYM    
  82. 82. Games are engaging, no doubt.But, what aboutLEARNING EFFECTIVENES
  83. 83. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play   -­‐  Conversa4on     -­‐  Collabora4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
  84. 84. Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   Memorisa4on  
  85. 85. Challenge   (beCer  4me  or   Add  Context   beCer  score)   (vocabulary     Novelty  of  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   around  a  theme,     Radio  Show  type   Form  Factor   game)   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   -­‐  Recall  of  facts   Memorisa4on   -­‐  Tradi4onally  learned  by  rote  
  86. 86. Add  Context   Engagement   (problems  that   (mul4media   learner  can  relate   storytelling)   with)  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   Knowledge  of  a  domain   Memorisa4on  
  87. 87. Detectives at th e British Museum Thousands of year s ago I used to be a king but you can still meet me at th e British Museum. Although I am a little tied-up today ! Who am I?   Clue: Go to room (9 X 7) = ?Simple  Games  I  have  made  for  my  son  (this  one,  when  he  was  9)  
  88. 88. Simple  Games  I  have  made  for  my  son    (this  one,  when  he  was  10)  
  89. 89. It  is  old  wine  in  new  boCles  –  a  simple  quiz  converted  into  QR  code  –  cool  form  factor!  
  90. 90. -­‐  Ac4ve  Explora4on   -­‐  Discovery  Learning   -­‐  Feedback        (Hints  =  Scaffolding)  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Crea4vity   Synthesis   Understanding   -­‐  Making  connec4ons  with  prior  knowledge   -­‐  Applying  knowledge  in  novel  contexts   Knowing   Memorisa4on  
  91. 91. ICT  Curriculum  –  Beyond  Word  and  Excel     Learning  by  Tinkering  
  92. 92. Arduino  Is  a  tool  for  making  computers  that  can  sense  and  control  more  of  the  physical  world  than  your  desktop  computer.    Its  an  open-­‐source  physical  compu4ng  plazorm  based  on  a  simple  microcontroller  board,  and  a  development  environment  for  wri4ng  sohware  for  the  board.  
  93. 93. Crea4vity  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   Seeing  paCerns  and  rela4onships  between   Synthesis   discrete  knowledge  nuggets,  across  domains   Understanding   Knowing   Memorisa4on   -­‐  Require  cross-­‐domain  knowledge   -­‐  Decision  Making  skills   -­‐  Problem  Solving  skills  
  94. 94. Crea4vity  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Sorts!   New  connec4ons,  innova4ve  solu4ons   Synthesis   Understanding   Knowing   Memorisa4on   Using  underlying  Physics  engine,   create  own  games,  own  stories  
  95. 95. Curating Good Games
  96. 96. You  can  search  for  educa4onal  games  on  Android  Market  
  97. 97. You  can  search  App  Store  for  educa4onal  games  
  98. 98. Search  Google  for  “Serious  Games”  on  your  topic  of  study...  you  may  find  a  good  game  
  99. 99. Elements for Enriching the Learning Experience for  Homo  fabers  and  Homo  ludens   Gamification Game-based Learningusing  game-­‐elements  in  learning   using  games  in  the  classroom       -­‐  Novel  Challenges   -­‐  Listen  to  a  Story   -­‐  Intrinsic  Mo4va4on   -­‐  Make  a  Story   -­‐  Contextual   -­‐  Play  a  Game   -­‐  Emo4ons/Experien4al   -­‐  Build  a  Game   -­‐  Scaffolding,  Feedback   -­‐  Collabora4ve  Game-­‐Play     -­‐  Conversa4on   Learning  Effec4veness:   -­‐  Collabora4on   Memorize,  Know,  Understand,   -­‐  ACen4on   Synthesize,  Create    
  100. 100. Let the Learning Games Begin...
  101. 101. For  more  learning  modules  on  skills  relevant  for  flourishing  in  the  21st  century  visit  -­‐    www.TimelessLifeskills.co.uk   Or  join  the  Learning   Conversa4ons     on  Facebook  -­‐   www.facebook.com/lifeskills  
  102. 102. Thank you If  you  have  ques4ons  or  comments  please   feel  free  to  email  me  at:   Atul.Pant@gmail.com  
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