Skeletal System
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Skeletal System

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Simple explaination regarding human skeletal system with bones and joints

Simple explaination regarding human skeletal system with bones and joints

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    Skeletal System Skeletal System Presentation Transcript

    • WELCOME TO HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
    • PRESENTED BY
      • MR.ATUL MANKAR
      • P.G.T. (BIOLOGY)
      • Kendriya Vidyalaya DIPHU
    • OBJECTIVES
      • To impart knowledge about human skeletal system
      • To make the viewers realize their body framework
    • CONTENTS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • DIVISIONS OF SKELETON
      • FUNCTIONS
      • The human skeletal system consists of frame work of
      • Cartilages Bones
      • (206) (few)
      INTRODUCTION
      • Bones & Cartilages are specialized connective tissues
      • BONES CARTILAGE
      • Has hard matrix Has slightly pliable
      • matrix
      • Presence of Ca salts Presence of chondroitin
      • salts
    •  
      • Human Skeleton
      • Grouped into 2 main divisions
      • Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton
      HUMAN SKELETON
    • AXIAL SKELETON
      • Comprises of 80 bones distributed along the main axis of the body Comprises of –
      • Skull
      • Vertebral column
      • Sternum
      • Ribs
    •  
    • SKULL
      • Cranial bones (8)
      • Skull
      • Facial (14)
      • Cranial bones form the hard protective outer covering of the brain
      • Facial bones form front part of the skull
      • Hyoid
      • It is a single U shaped bone present at the base of buccal cavity
      • Also included in the skull
      • Our each middle ear contain 3 tiny bones-
      • Mallaeus ,Incus & Stapes
      • Called ear ossicles
      • Human skull is dicondylic as it articulates with the superior region of vertebral column with the help of 2 occipital condyles.
    • VERTEBRAL COLUMN
      • Formed of 26 serially arranged units called vertebrae
      • It is dorsally placed
      • Extends from base of the skull
      • Constitutes main framework of the trunk
      • The spinal cord passes through the central hollow neural canal of the vertebrae
    •  
    •  
      • 1 st vertebra - Atlas
      • It articulates with the occipital condyles
      • 7 cervical vertebrae - make up the neck part
      • 12 thoracic vertebrae
      • 5 lumbar vertebrae
      • 1 fused sacral vertebrae
      • 1 fused coccygeal vertebrae
    • Function of Vertebral Column
      • Protects the spinal cord
      • Supports the head
      • Serves as point of attachment for the ribs & musculature of the back
    • STERNUM
      • It is a flat bone on the ventral midline of the thorax
    •  
    • RIBS
      • 12 pairs of ribs
      • Each rib is a thin flat bone connected dorsally to the vertebral column & ventrally to the sternum
      • Has 2 articulation surface on it’s dorsal end (dicephalic)
      • 1 st 7pairs of ribs -true ribs. attached dorsally to the vertebral column & ventrally to the sternum with the help of hyaline cartilage
      • 8 th ,9 th & 10 th pairs of ribs called false ribs. Do not articulate directly with the sternum but join the 7 th rib with the help of hyaline cartilage (vertebrochondral rib)
      • 11 th & 12 th pairs of ribs called floating ribs. They are not connected ventrally
      • RIB CAGE --- THORACIC VERTEBRAE + RIBS+ STERNUM
    •  
    • APPENDICULAR SKELETON
      • Limb bones + Girdles
      • LIMB - Each limb made of 30 bones
      • Forelimb - Bones are humerus , radius + ulna
      • carpals (wrist- 8) metacarpals (palm -8),
      • phalanges (fingers- 14)
      • Hind limb - Bones are femur (thigh bone - longest)
      • tibia + fibula
      • tarsals (ankle-7), metatarsals (sole -5), phalanges(toes - 14)
      • Knee - covered by a cup shaped bone called
      • patella
    •  
    •  
      • Pectoral
      • GIRDLES Pelvic
      • Girdle bones helps in the articulation of the
      • upper & lower limbs with the axial skeleton
      • Each half of pectoral girdle consists of a CLAVICLE & a SCAPULA
      • Scapula-large triangular flat bone
      • Situated in the dorsal part of the thorax between the 2 nd & 7 th ribs
      • Dorsal side has a slightly elevated ridge called spine which extends as a flat expanded acromian process
      • It articulates with the clavicle
      • Below acromian a depression called glenoid cavity which atriculates with head of humerus to form shoulder joint (ball & socket joint)
      • Clavicle - called collar bone
      • - Long slender bone with 2 curvatures
      • Pelvic girdle consists of 2 coxal bones:
      • = Each coxal bone formed by fusion of 3 bones
      • = Ilium ,Ischium & Pubis
      • = At the point of fusion of the 3 bones is a
      • cavity , acetabulum to which femur
      • articulates (ball& socket joint)
      • = The 2 halves of the pelvic girdle meet
      • ventrally to form pubic symphysis containing
      • fibrous cartilage