Science refers to that systematic body of knowledge which is acquired on the basis of observation and experiments and verification of this knowledge is possible.
“Science is a systematized body of knowledge which establishes relationship between cause and effect.”
Testing of Mgt. as a Science
Systematized Body of Knowledge
Based on collection of Facts, Analysis & Experiments
Cause and Effect Relationship
Verification of Validity and Prediction of Results Possible
Management as an Art
Art refers to the skill to put into action, a systematic body of knowledge, for the achievement of a specific task.
“Art is bringing about of a desired result through application of skill.”
Testing of Mgt. as an Art
Concrete Result-Oriented Approach
Development Through Practice
Management as a Profession
It is an occupation for which specialized knowledge, skills and training are required and the use of these skills is not meant for self satisfaction but these are used for larger interests of the society and the success of the use of these skills is not measured in terms of money alone.
Existence of knowledge
Acquisition of knowledge
Testing of Mgt. as a Profession
Body of Specialized Knowledge & Technique.
Formalized Methods of Acquiring Training & Experience
Establishment of Representative Professional Association