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Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
Planning (6) 2
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Planning (6) 2

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  • 1. PLANNING FUNCTION
  • 2. Meaning :- <ul><li>Planning refers to thinking before hand. Planning forms that part of management which lays down the objectives and various activities to be done for the attainment of those objectives. </li></ul>
  • 3. Definition : <ul><li>“ Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who is to do it.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Koontz & O’Donnell </li></ul><ul><li>“ Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Haimann </li></ul>
  • 4. Characteristics <ul><li>Focuses on achieving objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function of management </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Futuristic </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Exercise </li></ul>
  • 5. Steps in Planning <ul><li>Setting Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Premises </li></ul><ul><li>i) Internal Premises </li></ul><ul><li>ii) External Premises </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying alternative course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate alternative courses </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting an alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up action </li></ul>
  • 6. PLANNING PREMISES
  • 7. Planning Premises <ul><li>The basis of planning are those premises/ assumptions which influence the possible results of different alternatives. </li></ul>
  • 8. Classification of Planning Premises <ul><li>Internal & External </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible & Intangible </li></ul><ul><li>Controllable, semi controllable and uncontrollable </li></ul><ul><li>Constant & Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Forseeable & Unforseeable </li></ul>
  • 9. E.g.- Cement Industry <ul><li>Internal Premises- Capital Investment, Scope for expansion in future, sales forecast </li></ul><ul><li>External Premises- Product Market, location, Availability of raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible premises- production capacity, scope for expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Semi controllable premises- Labour policy, pricing policy, share of the firm in the market </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable premises- Government policy- tax strucuture and plant location </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Are the </li></ul><ul><li>Premises important? </li></ul>
  • 11. PLANNING POLICY & STRATEGY
  • 12. Types of Plans <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes </li></ul>
  • 13. Strategy <ul><li>It refers to those plans which are prepared in view of the move of the competitors and whose objective is to make possible the optimum utilization of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>External Internal </li></ul>
  • 14. Characteristics of Strategy <ul><li>Formulated by Top Level Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Flexile Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Needed in special circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on proper utilization of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Proper implementation is necessary </li></ul>
  • 15. Formulation of Strategy <ul><li>Knowledge of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of External Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Internal Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Particular Strategy </li></ul>
  • 16. Factors Governing Strategy : <ul><li>Internal Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>External Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with available resources </li></ul><ul><li>Bearable degree of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Time </li></ul><ul><li>Enough degree of Workability </li></ul>
  • 17. Policies <ul><li>Policies are those general statements which are decided for the guidance of employees while taking decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Price Determining Policy </li></ul>
  • 18. Characteristics of Policies <ul><li>Determination of Discretion Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent solution to the same type of problems </li></ul><ul><li>General guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful in getting objectives </li></ul><ul><li>In written form </li></ul>
  • 19. Types of policies <ul><li>On the basis of Broadness </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Functional & </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental Policies </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Appealed Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed Policies </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>General Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Polices </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of clarity- </li></ul><ul><li>Written Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Polices </li></ul><ul><li>Implied Polices </li></ul>
  • 20. Merits of Policies:- <ul><li>Saving of Time & Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance to Subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of Decision Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience in Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in confidence in Subordinates. </li></ul>
  • 21. Demerits:- <ul><li>Policies are no solution of all the problems </li></ul><ul><li>Policies are only Guidance not final Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Freedom </li></ul>
  • 22. Features of Sound Policy : <ul><li>Relationship with organizational Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Simple & Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Employees participation </li></ul>
  • 23. Strategy Vs. policy Guide for ideas and decision making Directs the use of human & physical resources 4. Guide Not necessary to be based on competitors move. Formulated in view of the activities of the competitors 3. Role of Competitors Standing plan, used time and again Adhoc plan and is formulated new every time 2. Type of Plan To tackle repeatedly appearing problems of the same nature Formulated for unforseen problems 1. Need Policy Strategy Basis of Differentiation

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