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  • 10/12/11

Mac Mac Presentation Transcript

  • What are going to be discussed
    • Introduction to broadcast networks
    • Overview of LANs: frame format & placement in OSI.
    • Random access: ALOHA & CSMA-CD ( Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Detection ) i.e., Ethernet.
    • Scheduling: token-ring.
    • LAN standards (brief view)
    • LAN bridges: used to connect several LANs.
  • OSI Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Framing Error control Flow control Transmission/reception of frames MEDIA ACCESS sublayer LOGICAL LINK sublayer
  • LAN & MAC (Medium Access Control) protocols
    • Two basic types of networks:
      • Switched networks: transmission lines, multiplexers, and switches; routing.
      • Broadcast networks: a single shared medium, simpler, no routing, messages received by all stations, flat address; however, when users try to transmit messages into the medium, potential conflict, so MAC is needed to orchestrate the transmission from various users .
      • LAN is a typical broadcast network.
  • Single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network Broadcast Networks 1 2 3 4 5 computer cable Packets Short messages sent by any machine are received by all others Fields Address General Rule: Smaller, geographically localized networks Quick Review…
  • Packets 1 2 3 4 5 ALL machines receive it, but one processes it Also possible to address a packet to ALL machines (special code in the address field) Mode of operation: Broadcasting Also possible to address a packet to a SUBSET of machines (group number code in the address field) Mode of operation: Multicasting Quick Review… 3
  • BROADCAST NETWORKS AND THEIR PROTOCOLS The Medium Access Sublayer deals with
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • M
    • Shared Multiple
    • Access Medium
    • Any transmission from any station can be heard by any other stations
    • If two or more stations transmit at the same time, collision occurs
    • Multiple access communications
    • Satellite Channel
    • = f in
    • = f out
    • Satellite communication involves sharing of
    • uplink and downlink frequency bands
    • Multidrop telephone lines
    • Inbound line
    • Outbound line
    • Figure 6.4
    • Multi-drop telephone line requires access control
    • Host
    • Terminals
    • Ring networks
    • Multitapped Bus
    • Figure 6.5
    • Ring networks and multi-tapped buses require MAC
    • Figure 6.6
    • Wireless LAN: share wireless medium and require MAC
    • Medium Sharing Techniques
    • Static Channelization
    • Dynamic Medium Access Control
    • Scheduling
    • Random Access
    • Figure 6.2
    • Approaches to sharing transmission medium
    • Partitioned channels
    • are dedicated to
    • individual users, so
    • no collision at all.
    • Good for steady traffic
    • and achieve efficient
    • usage of channels
    • Good for bursty traffi c .
    • Schedule a
    • orderly access
    • of medium.
    • Good for heavier
    • traffic.
    • Try and error. if no collision,
    • that is good, otherwise wait a
    • random time, try again.
    • Good for light traffic .
  • The Channel Allocation Problem
    • How to allocate a single broadcast channel among competing users?
    • Static
      • FDM /TDM (Frequency/Time Division Multiplexing)
        • FDM : Radio/TV broadcasts
        • TDM : POTS (Plain Old Telephone System)
        • GSM uses both (Global System for Mobile Communications)
    • Dynamic
      • Pure/ Slotted ALOHA
      • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Protocols
      • Collision free protocols
  •  
  •  
  • Dynamic Channel Allocation Technologies
    • Pure ALOHA
    • Slotted ALOHA
    • CSMA
    • CSMA/CD (old ETHERNET)
    • Switching (Fast ETHERNET)
    • Token passing (Token Ring )
  • ALOHA Protocols
    • Anyone may transmit whenever they want. (Continuous time model.)
    • Each radio detects collisions by listening to its own signal. A collision is detected when a sender doesn't receive the signal that it just sent.
    • After a collision, wait a random amount of time and transmit the same frame again. This technique is known as backoff .
    Basic idea:
  • Pure ALOHA
  • A Shared Medium  Collision Domain
  •  
  •  
  • Slotted ALOHA
    • Time is divided into slots… can only transmit at start of slot
    • Vulnerable period halved => max. eff is doubled
    • Requires sync of clocks
    • Still poor at hi-loads
  •  
  • Carrier Sense, Multiple Access (CSMA)
    • We can improve the performance of our simple network greatly if we introduce carrier sensing (CS) . With carrier sensing, each host listens to the data being transmitted over the cable.
      • A host will only transmit its own frames when it cannot hear any data being transmitted by other hosts.
      • When a frame finishes, an interframe gap of about 9.6  sec is allowed to pass before another host starts transmitting its frame.
    Communication Link
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
    • I mproves performance when higher medium utilisation
    • When a node has data to transmit, the node first listens to the cable (using a transceiver ) to see if a carrier (signal) is being transmitted by another node.
  • Persistent and Nonpersistent CSMA
    • Comparison of the channel utilization versus load for various random access protocols.
  • CSMA with Collision Detection
    • CSMA/CD can be in one of three states: contention, transmission, or idle.
  • Wireless LAN Protocols
    • Wireless LAN. (a) A transmitting.
    • (b) B transmitting.
  • Wireless LAN Protocols
    • The MACA protocol. (a)
    • A sending an RTS to B.
    • (B responding with a CTS to A.
  • IEEE 802.3: CSMA/CD Bus LAN
    • The 802.3 standard describes the operation of the MAC sub-layer in a bus LAN that uses carrier sense, multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD).
      • Beside carrier sensing, collision detection and the binary exponential back-off algorithm, the standard also describes the format of the frames and the type of encoding used for transmitting frames.
      • The minimum length of frames can be varied from network to network. This is important because, depending on the size of the network, the frames must be of a suitable minimum length.
      • The standard also makes some suggestions about the type of cabling that should be used for CSMA/CD bus LANs.
    • The CSMA/CD Bus LAN is also widely called Ethernet .
  • Ethernet MAC Sublayer Protocol
    • Frame formats. (a) DIX Ethernet,
    • (b) IEEE 802.3.
  • IEEE 802.3: MAC Addresses
    • Every network card in the world has a unique 46-bit serial number called a MAC address . The IEEE allocates these numbers to network card manufacturers who encode them into the firmware of their cards.
      • The destination and source address fields of the MAC frame have 48 bits set aside (the standard also allows for 16-bit addresses but these are rarely used).
      • The most significant bit is set to 0 to indicate an ordinary address and 1 to indicate a group address (this is for multicasting , which means that frames are sent to several hosts). If all 48 bits are set to 1 then frames are broadcast to all the hosts.
      • If the two most significant bits are both zero then the 46 least significant bits contain the MAC addresses of the source and destination hosts.
  • IEEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length
    • When a host transmits a frame, there is a small chance that a collision will occur. The first host to detect a collision transmits a 48-bit jam sequence.
    • To ensure that any hosts involved with the collision realise that the jam sequence is associate with their frame, they must still be transmitting when the jam sequence arrives. This means that the frame must be of a minimum length.
    • The worse case scenario is if the two hosts are at far ends of the cable. If host A’s frame is just reaching host B when it begins transmitting, host B will detect the collision first and send a jam signal back to host A.
  • CSMA/CD  Minimum Ethernet Frame Size
    • To ensure that no node may completely receive a frame before the transmitting node has finished sending it, Ethernet defines a minimum frame size (i.e. no frame may have less than 46 bytes of payload).
    • The minimum frame size is related to the distance which the network spans, the type of media being used and the number of repeaters which the signal may have to pass through to reach the furthest part of the LAN.
    • Together these define a value known as the Ethernet Slot Time , corresponding to 512 bit times at 10 Mbps .
  • IEEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length
    • The longest time between starting to transmit a frame and receiving the first bit of a jam sequence is twice the propagation delay from one end of the cable to the other.
      • This means that a frame must have enough bits to last twice the propagation delay.
      • The 802.3 CSMA/CD Bus LAN transmits data at the standard rate of r = 10Mbps.
      • The speed of signal propagation is about v = 2  10 8 m/s.
  • IEEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length In order to calculate the minimum frame length, we must first work out the propagation delay from one end of the cable to the other.
  • IEEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length Propagation delay time: The round-trip propagation delay is, of course, twice this. Thus the round trip delay is With a data rate of each bit has duration Example #1: Cable = 400m, transm. speed = 10 Mbit/sec, propagation speed = 2*10**8 m/sec
  • IEEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length The number of bits we can fit into a round-trip propagation delay is
      • The minimum frame length is thus 40 bits (5 bytes).
      • A margin of error is usually added to this (often to make it a power of 2) so we might use 64 bits (8 bytes).
    Example #1 – cont.
  • Two nodes are communicating using CSMA/CD protocol. Speed transmission is 100 Mbits/sec and frame size is 1500 bytes. The propagation speed is 3*10**8 m/sec. Calculate the distance between the nodes such that the time to transmit the frame = time to recognize that the collision have occurred. EEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length Example # 2
  • IEEE 802.3: Minimum Frame Length
    • The standard frame length is at least 512 bits (64 bytes) long, which is much longer than our minimum requirement of 64 bits (8 bytes).
      • We only have to start worrying when the LAN reaches lengths of more than 2.5km.
    • 802.3 CSMA/CD bus LANs longer than 500m are usually composed of multiple segments joined by in-line passive repeaters , which output on one cable the signals received on another cable.
      • When we work out the minimum frame length for these longer LANs, we also have to take the delays caused by the passive repeaters (about 2.5  sec each) into account as well.
  • Shortest Ethernet Frame
    • 64 bytes sent at 10Mbps  51.2  sec
    • 500m/segment, 4 repeaters between nodes  2500m  25  sec propagation delay
    • The frame should be longer enough for sender to detect the collision(2x25 or about 50  sec )
    Why specify a shortest frame of 64byte? Node A Node B R1 R2 R3 R4 500m  25  sec propagation delay
  • IEEE 802.3: Non-Deterministic
    • The 802.3 CSMA/CD bus LAN is said to be a non-deterministic network. This means that no host is guaranteed to be able to send its frame within a reasonable time (just a good probability of doing so).
      • When the network is busy, the number of collisions rises dramatically and it may become very difficult for any hosts to transmit their frames.
    • A real-time computing application (such as an assembly line) will demand that data is transmitted within a specified time period.
      • Since the 802.3 bus LAN cannot guarantee this, its use for real-time applications may not only be undesirable but potentially dangerous in some situations.
  • Ethernet Performance
  • Ethernet Physical Layer standards
    • 10Base5
      • 10 Mbps, Baseband transmission, 500m cable length
    • 10Base2
      • 10 Mbps, Baseband transmission, ~200m cable length
    • 10Base-T
      • 10 Mbps, Baseband transmission, UTP cable
    • 100Base-TX
      • 100 Mbps, Baseband transmission, UTP cable
  • Ethernet 10Base-T & 100Base-TX
    • Wiring
      • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
      • Category 5 wiring is best
        • Cat 3 and Cat 4 in some older installations
      • Bundle of eight wires (only uses four)
      • Terminates in RJ-45 connector
  • 10Base-T & 100Base-TX hubs
    • UTP-based networks use hubs to interconnect NICs
      • each UTP cable runs directly from a NIC to a hub
  • 10Base-T & 100Base-TX hubs
    • Hubs have many ports, each of which has one incoming network cable
    • Hubs are usually located in computer rooms, or network distribution cupboards
      • a patch panel (or patch bay) is used to connect between hubs and the wall sockets throughout a building
  • 10Base-T & 100Base-TX wiring
    • Wiring
      • 100 meters maximum distance hub-to-station
      • Can use multiple hubs (max 4) to increase the distance between any two stations
    100 m 100 m 200 m
  • 10Base-T to 100Base-TX
    • Upgrading from 10Base-T to 100Base-TX
      • Need new hub
        • May have some 10 Mbps ports to handle 10Base-T NICs
        • May have autosensing 10/100 ports that handle either
      • Need new NICs
        • Only for stations that need more speed
      • No need to rewire
        • This would be expensive
  • Multiple Hubs in 10Base-T
    • Farthest stations in 10Base-T can be five segments (500 metres apart)
      • 100 metres per segment
      • Separated by four hubs
    100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 500m, 4 hubs 10Base-T hubs
  • Multiple Hubs in 100Base-TX
    • Limit of Two Hubs in 100Base-TX
      • Must be within a few metres of each other
      • Maximum span ~200 metres
      • Shorter distance span than 10Base-T
    100m 100m 2 Co-located Hubs 100Base-TX Hubs
  • Latency and Congestion with hubs
    • Ethernet is a shared media LAN
      • Only one station can transmit at a time
      • Even in multi-hub LANs
      • Others must wait
      • This causes delay
    One Station Sends All Other Stations Must Wait
  • Fast Ethernet
    • The original fast Ethernet cabling.
  • Gigabit Ethernet
    • Gigabit Ethernet cabling.
  • IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control
    • (a) Position of LLC. (b) Protocol formats.
  • Repeaters
      • Regenerate the signal
      • P rovide more flexibility in network design
      • E xtend the distance over which a signal may travel down a cable
      • Example  Ethernet HUB
  • Ethernet Repeaters and Hubs
      • C onnect together one or more Ethernet cable segments of any media type
      • If an Ethernet segment were allowed to exceed the maximum length or the maximum number of attached systems to the segment, the signal quality would deteriorate.
  • Ethernet Repeaters and Hubs
    • U sed between a pair of segments
    • P rovide signal amplification and regeneration to restore a good signal level before sending it from one cable segment to another
  • Ethernet Bridge
      • J oin two LAN segments (A,B), constructing a larger LAN
      • F ilter traffic passing between the two LANs and may enforce a security policy separating different work groups located on each of the LANs.
  • Local Internetworking
    • A configuration with four LANs and two bridges.
  • Ethernet Bridges
    • S implest and most frequently used  Transparent Bridge (meaning that the nodes using a bridge are unaware of its presence).
    • B ridge could forward all frames, but then it would behave rather like a repeater
    • Bridges are smarter than repeaters!
  • Ethernet Bridges A bridge stores the hardware addresses observed from frames received by each interface and uses this information to learn which frames need to be forwarded by the bridge.
  • Ethernet Switch  Modern LANs
      • F undamentally similar to a bridge
      • S upports a larger number of connected LAN segments
      • R icher management capability.
      • L ogically partition the traffic to travel only over the network segments on the path between the source and the destination ( reduces the wastage of bandwidth )
  • Ethernet Switch  Benefits
      • I mproved security
        • users are less able to tap-in into other user's data
      • B etter management
        • control who receives what information (i.e. Virtual LANs)
        • limit the impact of network problems
      • F ull duplex
        • rather than half duplex required for shared access
  • Switched LAN
    • Hub and Switched LAN
      • hub simulates a single shared medium
      • switch simulates a bridged LAN with one computer per segment
  • Ethernet Switches
    • Highly Scalable
    • 10Base-T switches
      • Competitive with 100Base-TX hubs in both cost and throughput
      • Increasingly used to desktops
    • 100Base-TX switches
      • Higher performance (and price)
    • Gigabit Ethernet switches
      • Very expensive
  • Ethernet Switches
    • No limit on number of Ethernet switches between farthest stations
      • So no distance limit on size of switched networks
  • Ethernet Switches
    • Ethernet Switches must be Arranged in a Hierarchy (or daisy chain)
      • Only one possible path between any two stations, switches
    4 5 6 2 3 1 Path=4,5,2,1,3
  • Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers and Gateways
    • (a) Which device is in which layer.
    • (b) Frames, packets, and headers.
  • Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers and Gateways
    • (a) A hub. (b) A bridge. (c) a switch.
  • Repeater HUBs
  • Switches
  • Switches Repeater HUBs
  •  
  • Ethernet Switches and Multicast Traffic Multicast Traffic from F is delivered to all output interfaces (ports) which asks for it
  • Virtual LANs (VLANs) Cisco Systems
  • Cisco Systems
  • Virtual LANs (VLANs) Cisco Systems
  • Virtual LANs (VLANs) Cisco Systems
  • Switches Versus Routers
    • Switches
    • Fast
    • Inexpensive
    • No benefits of alternative routing
    • No hierarchical addressing
    • Routers
    • Slow
    • Expensive
    • Benefits of alternative routing
    • Hierarchical addressing
    “ Switch where you can; route where you must”
  • Where Does Wireless RF Live? ISM Band: Industrial, Scientific, Medical 902-928 MHz 2400-2483.5 MHz 5725-5850 MHz 802.11/802.11b 802.11a Bluetooth Cordless Phones Home RF Baby Monitors Microwave Ovens Old Wireless
  • IEEE 802.11 – Wireless Ethernet
    • Two configurations:
      • Ad-hoc. No central control, no
      • connection to the outside world
      • Infrastructure. Uses fixed network
      • Access Point to connect to the
      • outside world
    • IEEE 802.11 – Wireless Ethernet
    Uses CSMA/CA protocol. CSMA part is the same as in 802.3 Ethernet CA stands for Collision Avoidance and works as follows: If the carrier is present for a specific time period, transmitter sends a frame If no collision receiver send ack Transmitter can also reserve the channel by sending Request to Send (RTS)
    • IEEE 802.11 – Wireless Ethernet
    IEEE 802.11 does not implement Collision Detection because it cannot detect collisions at the receiver end (hidden terminal problem) To avoid collisions the frame contains field indicating the length of transmission Other stations defer transmission
  • The 802.11 Protocol Stack
  • Where does 802.11 live in the OSI? Telnet, FTP, Email, Web, etc. IP, ICMP, IPX TCP, UDP Logical Link Control - 802.2 (Interface to the upper layer protocols) MAC 802.3, 802.5, 802.11 LAN: 10BaseT, 10Base2, 10BaseFL WLAN: FHSS, DSSS, IR Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Wireless lives at Layers 1 & 2 only!
  • The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol
    • (a) The hidden station problem.
    • (b) The exposed station problem.
  • CSMA-CA + Acknowledgement Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
    • Device wanting to transmit senses the medium (Air)
    • If medium is busy - defers
    • If medium is free for certain period (DIFS) - transmits frame
    How CSMA-CA works: Latency can increase if “air” is very busy! Device has hard time finding “open air” to send frame!
    • DIFS - Distributed Inter-Frame Space
    • (approx 128 µs)
  • The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol
    • The use of virtual channel sensing using CSMA/CA.
  • The 802.11 Frame Structure
    • The 802.11 data frame.
  • Summary
    • IEEE 802.11b (WiFi) is a wireless LAN technology that is rapidly growing in popularity
    • Convenient, inexpensive, easy to use
    • Growing number of “hot spots” everywhere
      • airports, hotels, bookstores, Starbucks, etc
    • Estimates: 70% of WLANs are insecure!
  • IEEE 802.5 and Token Ring
  • FDDI  Fiber Distributed Data Interface
      • data rate 100Mbps, use as a backbone
      • With multi-mode fiber any given ring segment can be up to 200 km in length. A total of 500 stations can be connected with a maximum separation of 2 km.
      • two complete rings to overcome failures
  • High Speed LANs
    • FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface
    • 100Mbps, distance up to 200km, 100 hosts mainly used as a backbone
  • Bandwidth Scaling 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Mbps FE Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet (Switched) ATM OC-12 (Switched) ATM OC-3 (Switched) Fast Ethernet (Switched) FDDI (Switched) Token Ring (Switched) Ethernet (Switched) Switched LAN Type Cisco Systems