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Language 8086

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  • 1. Language Of the Machine 8086 Simulation Using MASM
  • 2. Language Of the Machine 8086
    • 8086 is a 16bit N-Channel, HMOS Microprocessor.
    • It Consumes less power.
    • It draws 360 mA on 5 Volt.
    • It is manufactured for standard temperature range 32’f – 180’f as well as extended temperature range from 40’f – 180’f.
    • Its clock frequencies for different versions are 5, 8 and 10 MHz.
    • It is built on single semiconductor chip and packaged in 40 pin IC package. The type of package is DIP (Dual Inline Package).
    • It uses 20 address lines & 16 data lines.
    • It can directly address upto 2 20 = 1Mbit of memory.
    • 16 bit data word is divided into low order byte & high order byte.
    • 20 address lines are multiplexed lines – 16 low address lines are time multiplexed with data & 4 high address lines are time multiplexed with status signals.
  • 3. 8086 CPU is divided into independent Functional Parts:
    • Bus Interface Unit (BIU)
    • Execution Unit (EU)
    • BIU sends out addresses, fetches instructions from memory, reads data from ports & memory and write data to ports & memory.
    • It handles all transfers of data & addresses on buses or execution unit.
    • EU tells BIU where to fetch instruction or data from & decodes instructions & execute instructions.
    • EU contains control circuitry which direct internal operations, decoder in EU translates instructions fetched from memory into series of actions which EU carries out.
    • EU has 16 bit ALU which can add, subtract, AND, OR, XOR, increment, decrement, complement or shift binary numbers.
    • A 16 bit register in EU has 9 active flags where flag is a flip-flop that indicates some conditions produced by execution of instruction produced by execution of an instruction.
  • 4. Register Organization of 8086
    • 8086 has fourteen 16 bit registers classified as :
    • General purpose Register : Ax, Bx, Cx, Dx
    • Pointer & Index Register : SP, BP, SI, DI
    • Segment register : CS, DS, SS, ES
    • Instruction pointer & status register
  • 5. Language levels used to write a program for a microcomputer:
    • Machine Language
    • Assembly Language
    • High level Language
    • Statement in Assembly Language
    ; AL, 07H ADD NEXT: Comment field Operand field OP code field Label Field
  • 6. Simulation Using MASM (Microsoft Assembler)
    • Need for Assembler :
    • Learn how computer works at low level.
    • Write device drivers
    • Optimize program for speed & size.
    • Debug, hack & dissect other programs
    • Bootstrap new computer system
    • Communicate with input, output directly
    • Write utilities in HLL using features not available in those languages.
    • MASM for microprocessor can be used in 2 ways:
    • With models that are unique to a particular assembler
    • With full segment definition that allow full control over the assembly process & are universal to all assemblers.