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  • In residential houses the rooms are fixed, but in commercial buildings need to be flexible
  • Everyone is going to buy a house later in their life right? It is important to do architectural research before spending a lot of money on a house.
  • The art and science of designing and erecting buildings.
  • 1. As an architect, you are the artist. The building you make is to express your ideas as the creator.2. The building must be able to be successfully built regardless of how creative it is. The idea is to make money off of it.3.An architect would not make a building or room with out a purpose. This holds true on a small scale and large scale.4. An architect may make 20 to 30 sketches of his ideas. All of these sketches would be saved. The 5 sketch might have a solution to a problem in the 10 sketch.
  • 1. The shape of a building. The form of a structure should be determined by its function.2. Space surrounds form. It should not create the impression that every form is surrounded by other forms. Meaning there needs to be open space.3. Gives a sense of depth to a building.4. Materials like concrete, stone and brick are very rough and dull compared to materials like glass aluminum, and plastics which are smooth. There must be a balance between the two. Also similar textures should not be mixed. For example you most likely don’t see brick and stone together.5. Gives a sense of movement6. Usually there is an emphasize on one color and contrasting colors are added for variety. A materials natural color should be used. Too many colors is as bad as too few colors.
  • Shows how a designer uses the elements of design in creating a buildingA sense of wholeness to a design making the building look complete.2. Unity is achieved through repetition.3. When lines, planes, and surface treatments are repeated in a regular sequence. 4. Too much unity, repetition, and rhythm ruin a sense of variety. Light, shadow and color are used to achieve variety.5. Draws attention to a given area. Color form, texture, and line achieve emphasis6. Symmetry in design
  • Architecture that is restricted to personal use.Examples- houses, apartment buildings, etc.
  • Now we’re going to look at the purposes of specific elements in residential architecture
  • 1. Function is to have many functions. Depending on the function needed, the room will be designed accordingly.
  • 2. The entrance should not lead to the living room. In small houses, the entrance might be in the living room, but it should be avoided.3. There should not be any traffic through the living room to get to those areas.4. They both have similar functions.5. Size varies a lot. 12’ x 18’ would be considered small. 16’ x 20’ would be considered big.6. One of the most difficult things to plan. This is because of the placement of furniture. Musical equipment, bookcases, chairs, and couches all need to be planed for.
  • Fireplaces, doors, and openings need to be planed to conserve as much wall space as possible.
  • In general, rectangular rooms are easier to fit furniture in than square rooms. However, if it is too rectangular it may create two conversational areas. This should be avoided.
  • To provide a place to eat and gather for meals for both casual and formal use. There should be enough room to seat 8-12 people.The dining room MUST be located adjacent to the kitchenThe dining room should be located next to the living room if not in it. family and guests normally use the two rooms jointly. This is determined by the family, furniture, and traffic. 10’ x 12’ would be for minimal furniture. 14’ x 18’ would be considered large.
  • 1. Food preparation and possibly a dinning area and laundry area. 2. Locating appliances in an efficient pattern creates less wasted motion. If a triangle is drawn from the refrigerator to the sink to the stove, the perimeter of that triangle should equal 12’ to 22’. Traffic should stay away from the triangle.3. Should be located near the service entrance and waste-disposal area. Must be next to dining room. Should have a visible view of where children play.
  • Sleeping and even possibly writing, reading, sewing, etc.3 is the best number of bedrooms because there could be a master bedroom, the boys could share a room and the girls could share a room. This can’t be done with 2 bedrooms.Storage should be easy to reach, easy to maintain, and large. Walk-in closets or wardrobe closets should be built in for hanging clothes. If a house does not have air-conditioning, the windows and doors must provide the ventilation. There should be a cross-ventilation, however it should not go over the bed.Wall space is extremely important in bedrooms. One method of conserving wall space is to have high windows. This allows furniture to be placed under the window. Another method is to group the windows and doors (including closets) together.
  • The size of the furniture and what furniture is needed has a direct influence on the size of the room. The furniture of a bedroom should be chosen before the size of the bedroom is established.
  • Noise contributes to fatigue. That is why is is vital to have as quite a bedroom as possible.
  • dressing, exercising, sunning, and launderingIdeally every bedroom should have its own bathroom. In most cases this is not possible. A bathroom in a master bedroom and a central bathroom is the best compromise. Every bathroom either needs natural ventilation (window) or forced ventilation (exhaust fan). There should not be a draft over the tub nor should a window be positioned where it invades privacy.There should be shadowless light in a bathroom. This can be achieved by fluorescent lights in the ceiling or even a skylight.Heating is important mostly to prevent chills. It also prevents drafts. Heaters should be ventilated.Plumbing lines should be minimized as much as possible. When to bathrooms are next to each other, fixtures should be placed on opposite sides of the wall.
  • Each area should not be split up. in photo1, two bathrooms are needed and there is not much room for closetsEating area includes laundry as well as a kitchen. Living area includes front entrance, stairs, and closets as well as the living room. Sleeping area includes bathrooms and closets as well as bedrooms.
  • Opposed to residential architecture which is very similar, commercial architecture is very broad. Commercial architecture could be of offices, restaurants, movie theatres, retail stores, etc. for comparison purposes I will focus on restaurants.
  • To feed large amounts of people at one time. This is massively different from a residential kitchen which feeds 1 to 5 people at a time.15 square feet per person is the general rule for a kitchen. For example, if you were serving 100 people at a time, the kitchen should be 1500 square feet. In that space, all of those 6 areas need to be addressed.
  • Supply an eating area for a large group of people.
  • 34 inches tall36x 60 inchesThere must be a stall 95x 60 inches for wheelchair accessibility, as well as 5 feet between the counter and the stall.
  • 36 in. everywhere a wheelchair must fit through must be that width60 in. 60 in. length of a counter exceeding 34 in. must have a height of 34 in.5 percent of the dinning area must be devoted to being wheelchair accessible. If there is a smoking and non-smoking section, then that 5 % should be split up evenly.
  • The ratio of wheelchair locations per number of seats
  • This is a similar ratio of parking lot spaces per handicapped spaces
  • Layout is one of the most important things. It could make or break a business. It effects the amount of customers that can be served at once and the quality of service.Just like in a bedroom, furniture should be chosen before the size of the room is established, furniture should be chosen first in a restaurant as well.3. There shouldn’t be any congestion where people are walking. Everything should flow smoothly.
  • According to Upper Merion zoning lawsThe frond yard must be at least 50 feet in depthBoth side yards when added together must equal 50 feet wide. No one side yard can be less than 20 feet wide.Rear yard must be at least 40 feet in depthA building cannot occupy more than 15% of the lot1. No less than 35 feet in depth2. Both side yards added together must be no less that 35 feet wide. No one side yard can be less than 15 feet wide. Also the building can be no less than 35 feet from a street.3. Rear yard can be no less than 25 feet in depth4. 35 feet or 3 stories. A building can be up to 65 feet in height, but for every foot more than 35 feet, one foot will be added to the yard requirements.5. No more than 25% of the yard can be covered by the building
  • Name, address of property owner, address of propertyLegal description of propertySource and date of land surveyDescription of site boundaries, contract or property limitsNorth arrow, scaleLocation and description of bench marksLocation and dimensions of public rights-of-waydimensions of setbacks required by zoning ordinanceLocation and size of existing structures and description of any demolition or proposed structuresLocation and dimensions of walkways, drives, and parking areasLocation of existing utilitiesExisting and new contour lines and finish gradesExisting plant materialsExisting water featuresProposed landscape featuresReferences to related drawings and details
  • residential
  • Commercial fire house
  • The 3 areas (sleeping, eating, living)Kitchen trianglePlumbing lines, near closets
  • Serves 50 peopleKitchen 750sq ft -cooking area -storage area -refrigerator -prep area -dishwashing areaWall sizesPlumbing linesEntrance seatingADA -hall is 5 feet -bathrooms size -chairs can be taken out to acuminate wheelchairs.
  • This is knowledge that I will take with me to college next yearI have developed my own artistic ideas. This includes what I like as well as what I don’t like.As a future architect, I need my own artistic ideas to become successful
  • Transcript

    • 1. Architecture Diagnosed<br />Alex Trumpler<br />Senior Graduation Project<br />April 21, 2010<br />
    • 2. Thesis<br />When considering the broad topic of architecture, the two major categories (residential and commercial) share many common physical attributes, but the defining difference between them is a question of intended purpose and theoretical use.<br />
    • 3. Inspiration for Topic<br />Always had a passion for architecture<br />Enrolled at Philadelphia University for a Bachelor of Architecture<br />
    • 4. Why is architecture important?<br />
    • 5. Presentation Overview<br />Introduction to Architecture<br />Residential vs. Commercial<br />Elements of Design<br />Residential Criteria<br />Commercial Requirements<br />Floor plans and examples<br />Creative Activity<br />
    • 6. What is Architecture?<br />“The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings.”<br />New Oxford American Dictionary<br />“The art or science of building.”<br />Merriam-Webster<br />So basically…<br />Architecture is the art of designing a building<br />
    • 7. Getting the Ideas<br />The Art of Architecture<br />Ability to Exist in Current Market<br />Functionality of Design<br />The Design Process<br />Sopot, Poland<br />(Hepler, 20)<br />
    • 8. Elements of Design<br />Form<br />General shape of building<br />Space<br />The 3-dimentional area<br />Light and shadow<br />Texture<br />feel, appearance, or<br />consistency of a surface<br />Line<br />Color<br />(Hepler, 21)<br />
    • 9. Principles of Design<br />Unity<br />Sense of wholeness in a design<br />Repetition<br />Rhythm<br />When lines, planes, and surface treatments are repeated in a regular sequence<br />Variety<br />Use of elements within a style<br />Emphasis<br />Building upon a single point of interest<br />Balance<br />Achievement of equilibrium in design<br />(Hepler, 22)<br />
    • 10. Architectural Divisions<br />Architecture can be divided into two main divisions<br />Residential: Architecture that is restricted for personal use<br />i.e.: houses, apartment buildings, etc<br />Commercial: Architecture for public use<br />i.e.: offices, factories, movie theaters, etc <br />Commercial does not necessarily refer to a place of commerce, but any space occupied by the general public<br />(Hornung)<br />
    • 11. Residential<br />
    • 12. Living Room<br />Function<br />Entertainment center<br />Recreation center<br />Library<br />Music room<br />Tv center<br />Reception room<br />Social room<br />Study<br />Dining room (occasionally)<br />Guest bedroom (if a small home)<br />(Hepler, 38)<br />
    • 13. Living Room<br />Location<br />Centrally located<br />Adjacent to entrance<br />Away from sleeping and service areas<br />Close to dining room<br />Size<br />Wall space<br />(Hepler, 38)<br />
    • 14. Living room<br />(Hepler, 38)<br />
    • 15. Living room<br />(Hepler, 38)<br />
    • 16. Dining Room<br />Function<br />Location<br />Kitchen<br />Living room<br />Size<br />(Hepler, 48)<br />
    • 17. Kitchen<br />Function<br />Efficiency<br />Location<br />(Hepler, 92)<br />
    • 18. Bedroom<br />Function<br />Number of bedrooms<br />Storage<br />Ventilation<br />Wall space<br />(Hornung)<br />
    • 19. Bedrooms<br />Furniture sizes<br />King bed – 72” x 84”<br />Queen bed – 60” x 80”<br />Full bed – 54” x 75”<br />Twin bed 39” x 75”<br />Cot – 30” x 74”<br />Crib – 27” x 56”<br />Dressing table – 3’-4’ x 18”-22”<br />Chest of drawers – 3’-4’ x 18”-20”<br />Dresser – 4’-9’ x 18”-22”<br />(Hornung)<br />
    • 20. Bedrooms<br />Noise control<br />Away from the street<br />Carpeting<br />Soft cork walls<br />Floor to ceiling drapes<br />Acoustical tile in the ceiling<br />Trees and shrubbery outside<br />Placement of closets<br />(Hornung)<br />
    • 21. Bathrooms<br />Function<br />Bathrooms per bedroom<br />Ventilation<br />Lighting<br />Heating<br />Plumbing lines<br />(Hornung)<br />
    • 22. Layout Planning<br />Eating areas<br />Living areas<br />Sleeping areas<br />(Hornung, 93)<br />
    • 23. COMMERCIAL<br />
    • 24. Kitchen<br />Function<br />15 square feet per person<br />Refrigeration<br />dry storage<br />Dishwashing<br />prep area<br />Cooking<br />serving<br />(Wixson)<br />
    • 25. Dinning Area<br />Function<br />Size<br />Fine dinning<br />16-20 sq ft for a 28-36 sq ft restaurant <br />Casual dinning<br />14-16 sq ft for a 24-32 sq ft restaurant<br />(Cannon)<br />
    • 26. Bathrooms<br />Counter<br />Stalls<br />Americans with disabilities act (ADA)<br />(answers.com)<br />
    • 27. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />Wheelchair Passage Width<br />Counters and Bars<br />Dining Areas<br />(ADAAG)<br />
    • 28. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />(ADAAG)<br />
    • 29. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />(ADAAG)<br />
    • 30. Layout<br />Considerations for layout options:<br />Size of Room<br />Size of Furniture<br />Traffic Flow<br />(allfoodbusiness.com)<br />
    • 31. ZONING<br />
    • 32. What is Zoning?<br />Definition<br />“Divide a town or stretch of land into areas subject to particular planning restrictions.”<br />New Oxford American Dictionary<br />
    • 33. Zoning Basics<br />Residential Zoning<br />Front yard<br />Side yard<br />Rear yard<br />Building coverage<br />Commercial Zoning<br />Front yard<br />Side yards<br />Rear yard<br />Maximum height<br />Building coverage<br />(Upper Merion Township, Chapter 165 Article VI / XVIII)<br />
    • 34. Plot Plans<br />
    • 35. Plot Plans<br />Drawing that represents everything outside of the structure<br />Basics:<br />Property ownership<br />Builder Company<br />Landscaping<br />Land survey / scale<br />Shrubbery<br />Construction<br />Existing and expansion/new construction<br />(Ching)<br />
    • 36. (Ching)<br />
    • 37. (Ching)<br />
    • 38. Moving Past the Slides<br />
    • 39. Residential<br />
    • 40. Commercial<br />
    • 41. So let’s try it<br />
    • 42. Class Activity<br />Design a one story residential house to the following specifications<br />Master bedroom<br />Guest bedroom<br />2 bathrooms<br />Living room<br />Dining room<br />kitchen<br />
    • 43. Approximate Room Sizes <br />Living room – 15’ x 15’<br />Kitchen – 10’ x 10’<br />Dining room – 13’ x 13’<br />Master bedroom – 12’ x 12’<br />Bedroom – 9’ x 12’<br />Hall – 3’<br />Door – 2.5’<br />Entrance door – 3’<br />Closet – 2’ x 2’<br />Bathroom – 5’ x 8’<br />(Patton)<br />
    • 44. So what does it all mean?<br />The difference between Residential and Commercial Architecture is the intended purpose and theoretical use.<br />While abiding by the standards and laws, an Architect can design whatever they please, but the designation of architectural type depends on the application.<br />
    • 45. What I learned:<br />The basics<br />My own style<br />Importance of artistic expression<br />
    • 46. Creative designs with unexpected uses<br />
    • 47. Kansas City, Missouri<br />
    • 48. Dubai, United Arab Emirates<br />
    • 49. Madrid, Spain<br />
    • 50. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania<br />
    • 51. Quebec, Canada<br />
    • 52. Rotterdam, Netherlands<br />
    • 53. Works Cited<br />"4_1t." Dimensions of people and equipment. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.accesscode.info/general/4_1t.htm>.<br />"architecture cartoon." Ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman Cartoons. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://members.pioneer.net/~mchumor/history_Roman_toons.html>.<br />"cubic-houses." Gallery. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.shirleyphoto.btinternet.co.uk/gallery.htm>.<br />"dining_room." interior designer - enlarging small dining room. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.interiordesigner.in/dining-rooms/enlarging-small-dining-room.html>.<br />"f0036_plot_plan." www.alaskarim.com. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.alaskarim.com/alaskarim/page.html?page_id=146>.<br />"falling water fall house." Fallingwater pictures. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.wright-house.com/frank-lloyd-wright/fallingwater-pictures/falling-water-fall-house.html>.<br />"Light and Shadow." Light and Shadow. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.maufoto.com/page_1196708300936.html>.<br />
    • 54. Works Cited<br />"Restaurant Layout and Design." N.p., 2008. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.allfoodbusiness.com/restaurant_layout.php>.<br />"Retro Half Circle: L Shape Booths, Corner Booths." BarsandBooths.com Inc, 2005. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.barsandbooths.com/bandbhalfcircleandL.htm>.<br />"Revive-DiningRoom." Modern Dining Room | Dining Room | Interier Dining Room | Dining Room Furniture. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://moderndiningroomfurnitures.blogspot.com/2010/01/interier-dining-room.html>.<br />"Rhythm." knorr architecture blog. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://knorrarchitecture.blogspot.com/2009_10_07_archive.html>.<br />"US_Mattress_Sizes." US Mattress Sizes. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Mattress_Sizes.jpg>.<br />"Wokcano_Floor_Plan." L.A. Muse Co.. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://lamuseinterior.com/services>.<br />Ching, Francis D.K. Building Construction Illustrated. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ, U.S.A.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008. Print.<br />
    • 55. Works Cited<br />EdificioMirador. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.strangebuildings.com/edificio-mirador-madrid-spain/>.<br />Garen, . "Your Restaurant's Layout." Hubpages Inc., 2010. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://hubpages.com/hub/restaurant_layout>.<br />Goldston, Eli, and James H. Scheuer. "Zoning of Planned Residential Developments." Harvard Law Review Association 73.2 (1959): 241-67. Web. 22 Nov 2009. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1338249>.<br />Hepler, Donald E., and Paul I. Wallach. Architecture: Drafting and Design. 3rd ed. U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1977. Print.<br />Hornung, William J. Architectural Drafting. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971. Print.<br />kansas city public library parking garage. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.strangebuildings.com/kansas-city-public-library-parking-garage-kansas-city-usa/>.<br />Kittens, Sylvia. "Planning Your Restaurant Layout." Ezine Articles, 02 Sep 2008. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://ezinearticles.com/?Planning-Your-Restaurant-Layout&id=1461950>.<br />
    • 56. Works Cited<br />Longstreth, Richard. "Compositional Types in American Commercial Architecture." Vernacular Architecture Forum 2. (1986): 12-23. Web. 22 Nov 2009. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3514312>.<br />Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010. Merriam-Webster Online. 5 April 2010
<http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/architecture><br />Nelson, Michael E. "House Plans Online, House Floor Plans, House Design Plans." Nelson Design Group. Web. 2 Dec 2009. <http://www.nelsondesigngroup.com/>.<br />Petersen, Kurt. "Tables: What Size Do You Need?." Petersen Furniture, Inc., 2010. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.kpetersen.com/tableswhatsize.htm>.<br />Petersen, Kurt. "Upholstered Restaurant Booths FAQ's." Petersen Furniture, Inc., 2010. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.kpetersen.com/uphboothsfaqs.htm>.<br />Rotating Tower. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.strangebuildings.com/rotating-tower-dubai-uae/>.<br />United States of America. ADA Accessibility Guidelines. , 2002. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/>.<br />
    • 57. Works Cited<br />Upper Merion Area Township. Upper Merion Township Code Book. E-Code, 2008. Web. 1 Dec 2009. <http://www.umtownship.org/>.<br />Wixson, Jim. "Food Service Equipment & Supplies." All Experts, 31 Mar 2006. Web. 17 Apr 2010. <http://en.allexperts.com/q/Food-Service-Equipment-2480/kitchen-size-layout.htm>.<br />

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