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Soldiers in the post-9/11 era train in groups and hone their mastery ofindividual skills in environments simulating what they will encounterin the Middle East. The images on these four pages were taken duringrigorous training exercises at domestic bases. Night images with ﬂareswere taken during the Army’s 10th annual Best Warrior Competition inFort Lee, Virginia, October 21, 2010.
DEATH OF A TERRORIST:SEAL TEAM 6 AND OSAMA BIN LADEN On May 2, 2011, the United States Naval Special WarfareDevelopment Group (DevGru) brought down the most-wanted terroristin the world: Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda and mastermind of9/11 and other deadly attacks against the United States. DevGru (more commonly known by its former name, SEAL Team6) is the top unit of the Navy’s elite Sea, Air and Land Forces—theSEALs. Formally established in 1962 at the behest of President JohnF. Kennedy, the SEALs are specially trained to handle unconventionalwarfare. There are currently nine operational SEAL teams with about3,000 members overall; of these, it is believe that about 300 are inTeam 6. from SEAL Team 6, working with CIA paramilitary operatives, dropped The initial SEAL training may be the most physically and mentally into Bin Laden’s compound, located at the end of a dirt road anddemanding of any special force in the world, with a drop-out rate surrounded by 12-foot-high concrete walls and two security fences.around 80 percent. Candidates embark on a year of intense physical Of the 22 inhabitants of the compound, ﬁve were killed. Among themconditioning, combat diving, land-warfare training, parachute jump was bin Laden himself, shot in the head and chest.school, and ﬁnal qualiﬁcation training, followed by another 18 months Moving quickly, the team took photos, collected computersof specialized and pre-deployment training. Not surprisingly, the and other evidence, removed bin Laden’s body, and left the scene,SEALs’ motto is “The Only Easy Day Was Yesterday.” destroying a damaged helicopter as they left. The entire raid took less SEALs are intensively trained in a maritime environment, but in the than 40 minutes.War on Terror their operations have been almost exclusively land- In a December 1998 interview with Time magazine, Osama binbased. Their activities include counter-terrorism, the rescue of hostages, Laden proudly stated, “If the instigation for jihad against the Jews andspecial reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, unconventional Americans . . . is considered a crime, then let history be a witness thatwarfare (e.g., guerilla warfare and intelligence activities), and direct I am a criminal.” On a moonless May night nearly 10 years after theaction—approaching a target in secret, striking it with fearsome World Trade Center attack and the death of almost 3,000 Americans,precision and force, and then withdrawing from the site as secretly SEAL Team 6 brought him to justice.as possible. Direct action by SEAL Team 6 was the method chosen tocapture or kill Osama bin Laden. The ultra-elite SEAL Team 6 was developed in response to the failed1980 attempt to rescue American hostages in Iran. This mission failurehighlighted the need for a superbly skilled counter-terrorism forcecapable of operating in secrecy. At the time, there were only two otherSEAL teams; the number 6 is thought to have been chosen to confuseSoviet intelligence about how many teams existed. When the teamwas dismantled in the mid-1980s and DevGru was developed in itsplace, the name “SEAL Team 6” stuck. Members of Team 6 began training for the assault on Osamabin Laden in March 2011, holding “dry runs” in U.S. facilities builtto resemble the layout of the terrorist’s compound in Abottabad,Pakistan. In April their practice runs were made in a more thorough,one-acre model of the compound, housed on the Bagram militarybase in Afghanistan. The night of May 2 was chosen for the assault because there wouldbe no moon, and the helicopters could ﬂy in below Pakistani radarwith less chance of being seen. A team of two dozen commandos
✯ 37T he response of the United States to the 9/11 terrorist attacks has been a concerted and multi-layered “Global War on Terror.” Its military actionsencompass the entire world, with particular emphasis on Afghanistan andIraq. The military buildup started before the sun set on that fateful day.At ﬁrst, it was called “Operation Inﬁnite Justice.” That name, with itsreligious overtones, was soon changed to Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF)—on the diplomatic side, operation planners knew it would becounterproductive to paint the anti-terrorism ﬁght as a modern-day bat-tle of Christianity versus Islam. (President George W. Bush, in the earlydays of the operation, was criticized for using the word “crusade” duringimpromptu remarks to the press.) Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeldannounced the name change on September 25, 2001, two weeks afterthe 9/11 attacks. He emphasized that Enduring Freedom referred tothe nation’s military response, while the comprehensive strategy wouldinclude economic, diplomatic, and political tactics as well. In addition to Afghanistan, Operation Enduring Freedom also includesaction in the Philippines, the Horn of Africa, and the Sahara/Sahel regionof Africa.O peration ObjectivesOn September 20, 2001, President Bush addressed a joint session of Con-gress and laid out the operation’s initial military objectives. (Later, onOctober 7—the day OEF commenced—he would address the nation asa whole, continuing that process of education.) The goals in Afghanistanwere to destroy terrorist training camps and infrastructure; to capture leaders of al-Qaeda; and
A sailor in his berthing space aboard the USS Carl Vinson is surroundedby cards of thanks and support sent by school children from acrossAmerica.Marines with the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit, the ﬁrst conventionalforce deployed to Afghanistan, raise the ﬁrst American ﬂag in thatcountry after seizing a forward operating base. The helicopter ﬂightfrom the ship to Dolangi, where they would secure their target, wasapproximately 400 miles long—the longest-distance amphibious and airdeployment in U.S. Marines history.
A major part of the U.S. military’s presence in Afghanistan is the comprehensivetraining of Afghan security forces. At far left, women from the ﬁrst graduating classof the Afghan National Army (ANA) Female Ofﬁcer Candidate School stand for theplaying of the national anthem during their graduation ceremony. The 29 Afghanwomen completed 8 weeks of basic training and 12 weeks of advanced trainingin logistics and ﬁnance. At top center, Captain Kevin Mercer observes as an ANAtrainer adjusts the site on an M-16 riﬂe in Kandahar. The trainers will qualify withthe M-16 riﬂe, then assist with the issue of M-16s to Afghan soldiers of the 205thCorps. Above, Private First Class Ryan L. Carson and an Afghan police ofﬁcersearch a hillside at the Shege East Afghan National Police (ANP) Checkpoint inthe Kunar province prior to a ﬁreﬁght. Below, Senior Airman Phillip Borde teachesANA soldiers how to take vital signs in the ﬁeld.
* 75W hile the War in Afghanistan was a relatively sudden event, beginning only a month after the 9/11 attacks, the War in Iraq was a muchslower development, with roots stretching back to the First Gulf War underPresident George H.W. Bush. Since that ﬁrst war, the United Nationsrequired Iraq to submit to weapons testing to ensure it was not rebuildingits stock of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) or developing new ones.Inspections were frequently halted, however, as Iraqi president SaddamHussein alleged that inspectors were foreign spies. After 9/11, suspicion of Iraq reached new heights. Many Americanssuspected that Saddam Hussein was connected in some way to Osamabin Laden and al-Qaeda terrorist activity. Others were concerned thatSaddam was hiding a program for developing WMDs, and that that waswhy he was not allowing UN weapons inspections. And nearly everyonedeplored his totalitarian Baathist regime’s suppression of ethnic and reli-gious minorities, with steady abuses toward the Kurds in the north as wellas the Shiite majority of the population. In September 2002, President George W. Bush addressed the UNGeneral Assembly to list Iraq’s violations and continued deﬁance of pre-vious UN resolutions. After a period of international negotiation anddebate the UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1441in November 2002; the resolution “afford[s] Iraq . . . a ﬁnal opportunityto comply with” previous UN rulings and presaged that “the Council hasrepeatedly warned Iraq that it will face serious consequences as a resultof its continued violations of its obligations.” Meanwhile, Congress inOctober authorized President Bush to use whatever force was deemednecessary in Iraq. Inspections did indeed resume, but they were not entirely satisfactory
On the opposite page, at top, a Stryker vehicle known as the General Leelies on its side after surviving a deeply buried IED blast in 2007. (“The Gen-eral” was repaired and went on to protect its soldiers on more missions, untilanother bomb ﬁnally put it out of action.) The cell phone shown at bottom leftwas rigged as an IED detonator. It was recovered, undamaged, after it beingsuccessfully jammed by electronic warfare personnel using Counter Radio-Controlled IED Electronic Warfare equipment. Training to deal with the wildly varied forms of IED is intensive. On thispage, at left, Sergeant Evan Cameron sets out to detonate an IED during aVanguard Focus training exercise at Fort Stewart. Below, a soldier recon-nects a simulated tripwire after learning how it works and how to spot it.
GENERAL DAVID PETRAEUSDavid Petraeus was born November 7, 1952, in Cornwall-on-Hudson, U.S. Central Command. From this position overseeing all U.S. militaryNew York. Petraeus attended the U.S. Military Academy at West operations in the Middle East and Central Asia, he again urged for thePoint and quickly distinguished himself as a scholar and a soldier. He adoption of counterinsurgency and community-building strategies. Ingraduated in the top 5% of the Class of 1974, won the George C. Marshall June 2010, he was named commander of U.S. Forces in Afghanistan,Award in 1983 as the top graduate from the U.S. Army Command and bringing his powerful strategic vision to Operation Enduring Freedom.General Staff College, and earned a Ph.D. in international relations In his Tactical Directive for U.S. forces in Afghanistan, he emphasized,from Princeton University in 1987 with a dissertation entitled, “The “We must never forget that the center of gravity in this struggle is theAmerican Military and the Lessons of Vietnam: A Study of Military Afghan people; it is they who will ultimately determine the future ofInﬂuence and the Use of Force in the Post-Vietnam Era.” Afghanistan.” This focus on partnership, and not just ﬁrepower, will When the invasion of Iraq began in 2003, Major General Petraeus forever be the hallmark of General Petraeus’s legacy.commanded the 10First Airborne Division and was responsible forcapturing and holding territory in northern Iraq. During the invasion,embedded reporters recorded Petraeus as frequently asking, “Tell me General David Petraeus, prospective com-how this ends?” He was cited as one of the ﬁrst commanders to realize manding general of U.S. Central Commandthat the task of securing Iraq after the invasion would be radically (CENTCOM), listens to Secretary of Defensedifferent from the task of ousting Saddam’s regime and taking the Robert M. Gates during the CENTCOM assumption-of-command ceremony oncountry in the ﬁrst place. MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida, In 2003 and 2004, Petraeus was in control of the large northern October 31, 2008.city of Mosul, where he ﬁrst began employing his counterinsurgencymethods. Signs posted inside bases in the region asked, “What haveyou done to win Iraqi hearts and minds today?” The 10First was atthe forefront of American troops working hard to build relationshipswith local citizens: distributing money, holding elections, and engagingin community projects such as rebuilding factories, schools, andinfrastructure systems. Petraeus said that he didn’t want Iraqis to lookat their current situation and see it as worse than under Saddam: “Wedon’t want to have a situation a month from now when people aresaying . . . ‘Saddam didn’t allow us to speak our mind but at least therewas gas at the gas station.’” After leaving Mosul, Petraeus continued to work on developing hiscounterinsurgency methods, encouraging military leadership to adoptthem as ofﬁcial policy. In 2007, when President Bush announcedthe beginning of the surge strategy, it seemed natural to appointPetraeus to be the commander of the U.S. troops in Iraq, as the newstrategy adopted the very counterinsurgency techniques Petraeus hadchampioned for several years. A major change Petraeus instituted involved troop deployment inBaghdad, the most important city in the country and the key to securingIraq. Instead of stationing soldiers at a central base and patrollingthe city in high-tech vehicles, Petraeus set up smaller joint-securitystations all around Baghdad in each neighborhood. Iraqi troops andU.S. personnel lived and worked together, so that there was a constantU.S. presence as well as a clear environment of cooperation. Ratherthan simply neutralizing enemies, Petraeus focused on rebuildingcommunities throughout Iraq. The surge and Petraeus’s counterinsurgency strategy yieldedincredible results. He was a runner-up for the T ime Person of the Yearfor 2007, and in October 2008 he was named commander in chief of
✯ 115T he modern U.S. military carries on a long national tradition of provid- ing humanitarian relief to people in need around the world. LieutenantGeneral Ken Keen (U.S. Army Commander, Joint Task Force–Haiti) dis-cussed this important non-combat role in March 2010, two months aftera devastating earthquake hit Haiti. “When an international humanitar-ian crisis occurs,” he said, “the U.S. military is often called upon to bea ﬁrst responder with its capacity to provide robust logistics, manpowerresources, and life-saving aid.” The general went on to describe the cycle common to most natural-disaster responses. The humanitarian situation begins with an immediatecrisis response, and then transitions to sustained relief and long-termreconstruction. “I can tell you, without hesitation, the skills our sol-diers, sailors, airmen, Marines, coastguardsmen, and civilians bring to thishumanitarian assistance mission are still useful [months after the initialHaiti response],” he said, while noting that the U.S. military’s active role“should transition to other humanitarian and United Nations organiza-tions for long-term relief and recovery.” Without the U.S. military serving as a ﬁrst responder—and as a projectmanager for administering long-term recovery to the broader interna-tional community—death and suffering would be even greater for manydisaster-stricken communities.Here are some of the ways the modernU.S. military is making a humanitarian difference around the world.
Support in Japan’s Triple CrisisAs if the world hadn’t seen enough of disaster and suffering in recentyears, on March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake struck off the cost ofJapan. Registering 8.9 on the Richter scale, the quake was the most pow-erful ever to have hit the island nation—but it was only the beginningof an unprecedented disaster. A devastating tsunami followed in its wake,rolling over coastal areas in the north and leveling entire towns. By March31, the ofﬁcial death toll was more than 11,500; with another 16,000 ormore missing, the ﬁnal number was predicted to be around 20,000. As rescue assistance and supplies poured in from around the world,yet another disaster was emerging: two nuclear power plants in the earth-quake zone had been damaged. Partial meltdowns were taking place attwo reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi power station, and four otherreactors were beginning to overheat. U.S. military assistance, termed Operation Tomodachi (Japanese for“friendship”), was swift. Fourteen U.S. Navy ships, more than 100 aircraft,and thousands of U.S. service members assisted or stood at the ready toassist the Japanese people. Even as Naval bases in the area were riding outthe aftershocks, evacuating family members, assessing structural damage, The child of a U.S. Navy sailor waits for transportation out of Yokosuka, Japan, with the rest of her family. Navy families voluntarily returning to the United States spent the afternoon waiting in line to register for travel.
T he men and women whose names appear on this list all died in the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Multiple available lists were compared in the hope of creating as complete and accurate a listing as possible as of press time. Names in italics were removed from some lists because no proof could be found of their death; because so many victims’ remains were never recovered, we chose to keep them on this listing. There were likely others who had no one to report their disappearance. We have referred to them collectively as “Unknown Hero, Jane,” and “Unknown Hero, John,” that in some way they might be remembered for their sacriﬁce.Aamoth, Gordon M., Jr. Adams, Patrick Aguiar, Joao A.D., Jr. Alegre-Cua, GraceAbad, Edelmiro Adams, Shannon Lewis Ahearn, Lt. Brian G. Alger, David D.Abad, Maria Rose Adams, Stephen George Ahern, Jeremiah Joseph Alikakos, ErnestAbate, Andrew Anthony Adanga, Ignatius Udo Ahladiotis, Joanne Marie Allegretto, Edward L.Abate,Vincent Addamo, Christy A. Ahmed, Shabbir Allen, EricAbel, Laurence Christopher Adderley, Terence E., Jr. Aiken, Terrance Andre Allen, Joseph RyanAbraham, Alona Addo, Sophia B. Ajala, Godwin Allen, Richard DennisAbrahamson, William F. Adler, Lee Alagero, Gertrude M. Allen, Richard LanardAceto, Richard Anthony Afﬂitto, Daniel Thomas Alameno, Andrew Allingham, Christopher EdwardAcevedo-Rescand, Jesus Afuakwah, Emmanuel Alario, Margaret Ann Allison, Anna WilliamsAckermann, Heinrich Bernhard Agarwal, Alok Albero, Gary M. Alonso, Janet M.Acquaviva, Paul Andrew Agarwala, Mukul Albert, Jon Leslie Alva-Moreno, ArturoAdams, Christian Agnello, Joseph Alderman, Peter Craig Alvarado, AnthonyAdams, Donald LaRoy Agnes, David Scott Aldridge, Jacquelyn Delaine Alvarez, Antonio Javier