A	
  reflec'on	
  on	
  the	
  past,	
  the	
  present	
  
and	
  the	
  future	
  of	
  scholarly	
  
technologies	
  and	...
Credit	
  where	
  it	
  is	
  due	
  
•  Drawing	
  this	
  aEernoon	
  on	
  three	
  strands	
  of	
  
thought:	
  
–  ...
Outline	
  
• 
• 
• 
• 

Personal	
  context	
  
Some	
  werkhypothesen	
  
Func'ons	
  of	
  scholarly	
  communica'on	
 ...
CC-­‐BY-­‐SA	
  @atreloar	
  

4	
  
Some	
  personal	
  background	
  
•  Educa'on	
  
– 
– 
– 
– 

• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

BA	
  (Germanic	
  Languages	
  &	
  Lingu...
Generations of scholarly
communication
•  Republic of Letters
•  System of Journals
•  Web of Objects

January	
  27,	
  2...
1.  All	
  knowledge	
  is	
  important	
  [to	
  
someone]	
  
•  Implica'ons:	
  The	
  processes,	
  structures	
  
and...
2.	
  The	
  process	
  of	
  genera;ng	
  
knowledge	
  ma<ers	
  
•  Hopefully	
  self-­‐evident?	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA	
  @...
3.	
  Uncommunicated	
  knowledge	
  can	
  
have	
  no	
  effect	
  
•  Implica'ons:	
  
–  Primary	
  -­‐	
  we	
  need	
...
4.	
  The	
  integrity	
  of	
  what	
  is	
  
communicated	
  is	
  cri;cal	
  
•  Implica'ons:	
  All	
  elements	
  tha...
Genera'ons	
  of	
  Scholarly	
  
Communica'on	
  
•  Google	
  doc	
  in	
  progress	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA	
  @atreloar	
  

...
5.	
  The	
  genera;on	
  of	
  knowledge	
  is	
  becoming	
  
more	
  dependent	
  on	
  data	
  and	
  models	
  

•  I...
6.	
  Scholarly	
  communica;on	
  thus	
  needs	
  to	
  
include	
  publica;on	
  of/access	
  to	
  data/models	
  

• ...
7.	
  Data	
  and	
  models	
  should	
  be	
  first	
  
class	
  communica;on	
  objects	
  
•  Implica'on:	
  We	
  need	...
8.	
  The	
  rela;onship	
  between	
  first	
  class	
  
objects	
  is	
  itself	
  of	
  value	
  
•  Implica'on:	
  We	
...
Functions of Research Communication
Rosendaal and Geurts (1997)
•  Registration: Allows claims of precedence for a
scholar...
System of Journals
•  Registration
–  submission of manuscript

•  Certification
–  peer-review (pre-publication)
–  comme...
Pointers to the future
“the future is already here – it’s
just not very evenly distributed”
William Gibson, NPR interview
...
Registration: BioRxiv

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Registration: ideacite

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Registration: Github

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Registration: WikiPathways

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Registration: NeuroLex

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Registration: Nanopublications

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Registration: Observations
• 
• 
• 
• 

Decoupling registration from certification
Timestamping, versioning
Registration o...
Certification: PubPeer

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Certification: ZooUniverse

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Certification: Slideshare

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Certification: Project FeederWatch

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Certification: Observations
• 
• 
• 
• 

Peer-review decoupled from publication process
Certification of various types of ...
Awareness: NARCIS

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Awareness: myExperiment

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Awareness: eLabNotebook RSS

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Awareness: Twitter

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Awareness: CrossRef Prospect

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Awareness: Observations
• 
• 
• 
• 

Awareness for various types of objects
Real time awareness
Awareness support targeted...
Archiving: CLOCKSS

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Archiving: DANS Easy

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Archiving: perma.cc

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Archiving: EU Trusted Digital Repositories

January	
  27,	
  2014	
  

CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,	
  @atreloar	
  and	
  @hvdsomp	
  
Archiving: Observations
• 
• 
• 
• 

Archiving for various types of objects
Distributed archives
Archival consortia
Audit ...
Characterising the future
Hidden

Research Process

Visible

Fixed

Nature of object

Varying

Atomic

Atomicity of object...
Conclusions	
  
•  The	
  world	
  is	
  changing,	
  but…	
  
•  Changes	
  in	
  scholarly	
  prac'ce	
  require:	
  
– ...
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Past, present, and future of scholarly technology and practices

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Thoughts about past, the present and the future of scholarly technologies and scholarly practices. Based on work done with @hvdsomp at #DANS, as well as discussions with @scharnhorsta

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Past, present, and future of scholarly technology and practices

  1. 1. A  reflec'on  on  the  past,  the  present   and  the  future  of  scholarly   technologies  and  scholarly  prac'ces   Meertens  eHumani'es  talk   23/1/2014   @atreloar  
  2. 2. Credit  where  it  is  due   •  Drawing  this  aEernoon  on  three  strands  of   thought:   –  Doctoral  ac'vity  (from  a  long  'me  ago!)   –  Work  with  @hvdsomp  (over  last  two  weeks)   –  Thinking  with  @scharnhorsta  (since  September)   •  Thanks  to  last  two  go  to  @pkdoorn  from   DANS   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   2  
  3. 3. Outline   •  •  •  •  Personal  context   Some  werkhypothesen   Func'ons  of  scholarly  communica'on   Pointers  to  the  future   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   3  
  4. 4. CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   4  
  5. 5. Some  personal  background   •  Educa'on   –  –  –  –  •  •  •  •  •  BA  (Germanic  Languages  &  Linguis'cs)   MA  (English  Literature)   Grad.  Dip.  (Compu'ng  Studies)   PhD  (Scholarly  Communica'on)   Academic  career:  1983-­‐1999   Health  informa'on  network  career:  1988-­‐1990   IT  Opera'ons  career:  1999-­‐2005   e-­‐Research  infrastructure  career:  2003-­‐present   More  gory  details   –  andrew.treloar.net/personal/     –  andrew.treloar.net/research/   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   5  
  6. 6. Generations of scholarly communication •  Republic of Letters •  System of Journals •  Web of Objects January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  7. 7. 1.  All  knowledge  is  important  [to   someone]   •  Implica'ons:  The  processes,  structures   and  systems  associated  with  the   genera'on  and  communica'on  of   knowledge  are  thus  also  important.   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   7  
  8. 8. 2.  The  process  of  genera;ng   knowledge  ma<ers   •  Hopefully  self-­‐evident?   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   8  
  9. 9. 3.  Uncommunicated  knowledge  can   have  no  effect   •  Implica'ons:   –  Primary  -­‐  we  need  a  system  to  communicate  the   outputs  of  research   –  Secondary  -­‐  it  is  desirable  if  this  system  has  a   broad  a  public  as  possible   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   9  
  10. 10. 4.  The  integrity  of  what  is   communicated  is  cri;cal   •  Implica'ons:  All  elements  that  lead  to   the  genera'on  of  the  new  knowledge  are   thus  also  within  scope   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   10  
  11. 11. Genera'ons  of  Scholarly   Communica'on   •  Google  doc  in  progress   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   11  
  12. 12. 5.  The  genera;on  of  knowledge  is  becoming   more  dependent  on  data  and  models   •  Implica'ons:  Data  and  models  also  need   to  be  archived  and  communicated   •  NOTE:  This  varies  by  discipline,  and  thus   may  be  easier  to  falsify  for  some   disciplines   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   12  
  13. 13. 6.  Scholarly  communica;on  thus  needs  to   include  publica;on  of/access  to  data/models   •  Implica'ons:  We  need  to  provide  ways  of   publishing  (in  the  sense  of  making  public)   data  and  models,  along  with  journal   ar'cles  and  monographs  (and  working   papers,  etc)   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   13  
  14. 14. 7.  Data  and  models  should  be  first   class  communica;on  objects   •  Implica'on:  We  need  ways  to  refer  to/ cite/access  data  and  models  on  their   own,  not  just  as  linked  en''es  hanging   off  a  publica'on   •  Notes:     –  Rather  than  data  and  models  just  being  ways  to  produce   publica'ons,  they  can  have  value  in  their  own  rights.     –  In  some  cases  (e.g.  Human  Genome  database)  the  data   itself  is  much  more  important  than  any  single  associated   publica'on.   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   14  
  15. 15. 8.  The  rela;onship  between  first  class   objects  is  itself  of  value   •  Implica'on:  We  need  ways  of   represen'ng  this  rela'onship  that  are   both  human  and  machine-­‐readable   •  Notes:   –  Obviously  OAI-­‐ORE  is  directly  relevant  here   –  As  are    Verrijkte  Publica'es    (although  these  are   very  publica'on-­‐centric)   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA  @atreloar   15  
  16. 16. Functions of Research Communication Rosendaal and Geurts (1997) •  Registration: Allows claims of precedence for a scholarly finding •  Certification: Establishes validity of claim •  Awareness: Allows actors in the system to remain aware of new claims •  Archiving: Preserves the scholarly record January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  17. 17. System of Journals •  Registration –  submission of manuscript •  Certification –  peer-review (pre-publication) –  commentary (post-publication) •  Awareness –  discovery services •  Archiving –  libraries (print) –  publishers (electronic) –  special purpose organisations (e.g. Portico) January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  18. 18. Pointers to the future “the future is already here – it’s just not very evenly distributed” William Gibson, NPR interview January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  19. 19. Registration: BioRxiv January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  20. 20. Registration: ideacite January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  21. 21. Registration: Github January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  22. 22. Registration: WikiPathways January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  23. 23. Registration: NeuroLex January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  24. 24. Registration: Nanopublications January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  25. 25. Registration: Observations •  •  •  •  Decoupling registration from certification Timestamping, versioning Registration of various types of objects Machines as creators and contributors January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  26. 26. Certification: PubPeer January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  27. 27. Certification: ZooUniverse January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  28. 28. Certification: Slideshare January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  29. 29. Certification: Project FeederWatch January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  30. 30. Certification: Observations •  •  •  •  Peer-review decoupled from publication process Certification of various types of objects Machines validating Social endorsement January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  31. 31. Awareness: NARCIS January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  32. 32. Awareness: myExperiment January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  33. 33. Awareness: eLabNotebook RSS January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  34. 34. Awareness: Twitter January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  35. 35. Awareness: CrossRef Prospect January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  36. 36. Awareness: Observations •  •  •  •  Awareness for various types of objects Real time awareness Awareness support targeted at machines Awareness through social media January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  37. 37. Archiving: CLOCKSS January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  38. 38. Archiving: DANS Easy January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  39. 39. Archiving: perma.cc January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  40. 40. Archiving: EU Trusted Digital Repositories January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  41. 41. Archiving: Observations •  •  •  •  Archiving for various types of objects Distributed archives Archival consortia Audit for trustworthiness January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  42. 42. Characterising the future Hidden Research Process Visible Fixed Nature of object Varying Atomic Atomicity of object Compound Discrete Process of making public Continuous Delayed Speed of communication Publication +data proxies Communicated object Formal Nature of process Instant Publication + linked data + linked models Informal January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
  43. 43. Conclusions   •  The  world  is  changing,  but…   •  Changes  in  scholarly  prac'ce  require:   –  drivers  for  altered  behaviours     –  infrastructure  to  support/enable  altered   behaviours   •  Not  clear  what  final  implica'ons  will  be  yet   •  Exci'ng  'me  to  be  a  scholar!   January  27,  2014   CC-­‐BY-­‐SA,  @atreloar  and  @hvdsomp  
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