Opening Focus Assignments 1/9 “Faults of WWI Peace Treaty” 1/10 “WWI and changing values” 1/11 “Views of the War” 1/14 “Lost Generation” 1/15 “Dawes Plan” 1/18 “Path to Revolution”
Russian Government BeforeRevolution Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar) Until 1905 the Tsars powers were unlimited. Russia had no constitution, no political party system to check the Tsars power A strong secret police which terrorized the people.
Royal Background Nicholas II• Created the first secret police in Russia, brutal leader, response to revolt of army officers in 1825
Czar Alexander II• He implemented important reforms, notably the abolition of serfdom,• In 1867, he sold Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the United States.• Killed by the Revolutionary Group: The People’s Will
Czar Alexander III• Alexander IIIs reign was during an industrial revolution in Russia .• His reign was harsh, against revolutionaries and other liberal movements.
Czar Nicholas II (1894) Last Czar of Russia Nicholas II was a harsh and weak ruler The Russian economy was bankrupt because of the Russo-Japanese War and WWI Russia’s entry into WWI became very unpopular.
Czar Nicholas II and Family
Russo-Japanese War (1904)Dispute over Manchuria withJapanShook national confidence in theirprogress and rule of Czar.
Bloody Sunday (1905)
Russia and World War I Russia declares war on Austria- Hungary War becomes unpopular Rationing leads to starvation Nicholas II leaves St. Petersburg to war front
Rasputin with Admirers
March Revolution (1917) 1917- protests spread through St. Petersburg and the Royal palace is taken over. Czar abdicates Provisional government (Duma) takes control lead by Alexander Keresnky Provisional government unpopular after decision to stay in WWI
October (Bolshevik) Revolution-1917 Lead by VI Lenin “Peace, Land, and Bread” Won support of people (especially peasants)
1918 1918 March The Bolsheviks accept the peace of Brest‑Litovsk, ending WWI with Germany.
1919-1920 1919 White Armies (Royal and Menshevik troops) attack the Reds (Bolsheviks) from all directions. 1920- Reds defeat Whites
Rule of Lenin 1920-1924 Economic Reforms included the New Economic Plan (NEP) -moderate mix of capitalism and socialism Political Reforms -Bolshevik party became Communist Party -Russia becomes the United Soviet Socialist Republics
Communism A Form of Socialism Central Planning of the Economy by the State Gov’t (Communist Party) makes decisions on individual jobs and pay
1924 Lenin Dies Power Vaccuum Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin Stalin takes control Now must decide how he will maintain power Decides to create a totalitarian state
Characteristics of a TotalitarianState Dictatorship- Absolute Authority Dynamic Leader- Vision for the nation State Control Over All Sectors of Society Business, Family Life, Labor, youth groups, housing, religion, education, the arts State Control Over the Individual Obedience Denies basic liberties Organized Violence Uses force to crush opposition
Stalin’s Totalitarian State State Control of the Economy 5 year plan, collective farms Police Terror Great Purge, crush opposition Religious Persecution Control of the individual Propaganda (socialist realism) Molding peoples minds Education Controlled by the government