30 1 revolutions-in_russia

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  • 1. Revolutions in Russia Chapter 30, Section 1
  • 2. Introduction The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. The explosion came in 1917, yet the fuse had been burning for nearly a century. The cruel, oppressive rule of most 19th-century czars caused widespread social unrest for decades. Army officers revolted in 1825. Secret revolutionary groups plotted to overthrow the government.
  • 3.  In 1881, revolutionaries angry over the slow pace of political change assassinated the reform-minded czar, Alexander II. Russia was heading toward a full-scale revolution.
  • 4. Czars Resist Change
  • 5. End to Reform  In 1881, Alexander III becomes czar and ends the reforms of his father, Alexander II.  Alexander III institutes autocratic rule , suppressing all opposition and decent.
  • 6. Czars Continue Autocratic Rule Government censors written criticism; secret police monitor schools Non-Russians living in Russia are treated harshly
  • 7. Anti-Jewish Pogroms Jews become target of government backed pogroms (organized persecutions) Alexander III encourages Jewish emigration to the United States during this time. The musical Fiddler on the Roof is set in this era.
  • 8.  In 1894, Nicholas II becomes czar and continues autocratic ways
  • 9. Russia Industrializes
  • 10. Rapid Industrialization Number of factories doubles between 1863 and 1900, but Russia still lags behind other European countries. In late 1800s, new plan boosts steel production and a major railway begins
  • 11. The Revolutionary Movement Grows Industrialization breeds discontent over working conditions and wages. Growing popularity of Marxist idea that proletariat (workers) will rule Bolsheviks—Marxists who favor revolution by a small committed group
  • 12. Lenin Lenin—Bolshevik leader—an excellent organizer and inspiring leader
  • 13. Crisis at Home and Abroad
  • 14. The Russo-Japanese War Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in the early 1900s causes unrest in Russia.
  • 15. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905 In 1905, 200,000 workers march on the czar’s palace to demand reforms The army fires into the crowd, killing many Massacre leads to widespread unrest; Nicholas if forced to make reforms
  • 16. The short lived Duma  The Duma, Russia’s first parliament, meets in 1906  Czar is unwilling to share power, dissolves the Duma after only 10 weeks
  • 17. World War I: The Final Blow Heavy losses in World War I reveal government’s weakness Nicholas goes to war front; Czarina Alexandra runs government in his absence
  • 18.  Czarina falls under the influence of Rasputin—a mysterious “holy man”— who she believes has the power to heal her son. Nobles fear Rasputin’s influence and murder him Army losing effectiveness; people at home are hungry and unhappy
  • 19. The March Revolution
  • 20. First Steps In March 1917, strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire on workers. Most of the tension is caused by Nicholas II personally taking command of the military in World War I, and the war going so badly.
  • 21. The Czar Steps Down March Revolution—protests become uprising; Nicholas abdicates throne Duma establishes provisional, or temporary government Soviets—committees of Socialist revolutionaries—control many cities
  • 22. Lenin Returns to Russia In April 1917, Germans aid Lenin in returning from exile to Russia (pictured in disguise with his goatee shaved and wearing a wig).
  • 23. The Bolshevik Revolution
  • 24. The Provisional Government Topples In November 1917, workers take control of the government
  • 25. Bolsheviks in Power Lenin gives land to peasants, puts workers in control of factories Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany; Russia pulls out of World War I
  • 26. Civil War Rages in Russia Civil War between Bolsheviks’ Red Army and loosely allied White Army Red Army wins three-year war that leaves 14 million dead
  • 27. Comparing World Revolutions Russian and French Revolutions are similar—both attempt to remake society and use violence against citizens who resist these changes.
  • 28. Lenin Restores Order
  • 29. New Economic Policy In March 1921, Lenin launches New Economic Policy; has some capitalism NEP and peace restore economy shattered by war and revolution By 1928, Russia’s farms and factories are producing again
  • 30. Political Reforms Lenin creates self-governing republics under national government In 1922, country renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) Communist Party—new name taken by Bolsheviks from the writings of Marx
  • 31. Stalin Becomes Dictator
  • 32. A New Leader  Trotsky and Stalin compete to replace Lenin after Lenin’s death  Joseph Stalin— LeonTrotsky cold, hard Communist Party general secretary in 1922 Joseph Stalin
  • 33.  Stalin gains power from 1922 to 1927 Lenin dies in 1924 Stalin gains complete power in 1928; Room where Trotsky is forced into Trotsky was murdered exile. (above); Trotsky’s Trotsky is murdered murderer, in Mexico City in 1940 NKVD agent, Romón by an NKVD agent. Mercader (right).