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HFC Architecture Voice Switch Data Router/ IP Switch Video DFB Laser Optical Node Coax RG6 Headend Home RF MUX RF RF RF RF RF RF RF RF Optical Distribution Node 100 - 2000 Households Passed 4 coaxial branches typical l 4-20 spare fibers “ extra fiber simplifies node splitting” 6kft max Distribution Coaxial Cable P/S
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Frequency [MHz] Return 5 - 42 MHz Analog Forward Digital Forward FM 266 digital channels (8 SDTV per 6Mhz avg.) 77 - 6Mhz analog TV channels (NTSC) Multiple digital and analog carriers of mixed size Basic 550Mhz system Basic 750Mhz system Return for both systems MSO 750 MHz Spectrum
Subdivision of existing optical nodes. “Node split”.
Stat mux digital channels . “Switched Digital Video” .
Movement of analog channels to digital. “Spectrum re-use”.
Increase the upper RF spectrum to 1Ghz. “Spectrum expansion”
Use RF spectrum above 1Ghz. “Spectrum overlay”.
0 Hz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz 25 MHz 30 MHz 35 MHz 40 MHz 42 MHz 45 MHz 90 MHz Status Monitor Set top control Typically not used Cable Modem “ Typical” Cable Telephone “ Typical” Typically not used Typical N.A.Diplex Filter Cutoff Both platforms are generally able to use this space MSO Upstream Spectrum Useable with mid-band split future
Standard adopted by the cable industry in the late 1990’s
DOCSIS is an IP over ethernet standard
Layer 3 based architecture
Broadcom chips in the serving office (Cable Modem Termination System) and the Cable Modem
Cisco routed core network (Cisco dominates the CMTS business)
All future CATV IP services run over DOCSIS
PacketCable-VOIP standard, uses NCS (MGCP) moving to SIP
PacketCable Multimedia-extends control plane to all multimedia services
DOCSIS is a global standard
Certification waves for vendors across the globe
Testing labs in Europe and Asia
DOCSIS Version Overview  Assumes 750MHz of available downstream spectrum (125 channels)  Aggregation of four 6MHz channels. With 256QAM = 160 Mbps  Assumes ~25MHz of useable upstream spectrum  Assumes ~35MHz of useable upstream spectrum  Aggregation of 4 6MHz channels Upstream Bandwidth Downstream Bandwidth Consumer Devices Services X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Cable Modem VoIP Phone (MTA) Residential Gateway Video Phone Mobile Devices IP Set-top Box X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Broadband Internet Tiered Services VoIP Video Conferencing Commercial Services Entertainment Video 120 m i n i m u m  170  30 170  10 80  10 80  Mbps/channel Mbps/node 160 minimum  5  40 5  40 5  40 5  Mbps/channel Gbps/node DOCSIS 3.0 DOCSIS 2.0 DOCSIS 1.1 DOCSIS 1.0 DOCSIS Version
US: 360Mbps /192 subs ~ 1.8Mbps even distribution.
Case2 (Bandwidth Expansion):
DS: 5.64Gbps /192 subs ~ 29.3Mbps even distribution.
US: 360Mbps /192 subs ~ 1.8Mbps even distribution.
Case3 (Deep Fiber) :
DS: 4Gbps /192 subs ~ 20Mbps even distribution.
US: 4Gbps /192 subs ~ 20Mbps even distribution.
Case 4 (Spectrum Overlay):
DS: 4.6Gbps /192 subs ~ 23Mbps even distribution.
US: 2.4Gbps /192 subs ~ 12Mbps even distribution.
DOCSIS 2.0 (3.0):
DS: 40 (160Mbps) peak.
US: 30 (120Mbps) peak
In order for the HFC network to meet or exceed FTTN “Committed” Information Rate capabilities, enhancement via one or more of the several techniques mentioned above will be required.
In order for the HFC network to meet or exceed the VDSL (FTTN) “Peak” Information Rate capabilities, DOCSIS3.0 Modems and upgraded CMTS will be required.
In order for the HFC network to exceed the FTTN “Committed + Peak” Bandwidth capabilities both A) and B) would be necessary. However; a) or b) alone could have an interim marketing advantage over FTTN.
P2P is well suited for serving enterprise customers
Designed to support transport and the dedicated facilities that enterprise customers demand
Enterprise customers take responsibility for security, on-premises networking, VLAN management, etc.
P2P is suitable for residential customers beyond the reach of PON
Remote Residential P2P Switch Enterprise IP Services IP Video VOIP ISP Video Headend
Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) Businesses Homes MDUs ODN – Optical Distribution Network Voice Switch Internet IP Video RF Video Central Office / Remote Terminal OLT OLT – Optical Line Termination ONT – Optical Network Termination
Most operators in Minnesota deploying FTTH are in low growth areas Independent Telcos have led the way rebuilding their ILEC areas with FTTH and through CLEC activity. Over half in Minnesota now deploying FTTH
High growth Twin Cities suburbs have recently deployed copper plant; not yet depreciated No Verizon type overbuilding of copper plant, except in greater Minnesota by IOC CLECs and some innovators, such as Hiawatha Broadband and Jaguar
Most new housing growth in Minnesota is in Qwest territory; Qwest is the only major operator in the U.S. still not deploying FTTH for new residential developments Expect to see more activity in 2008. Committed $300 Million for FTTN deployments over the next two years, probably includes FTTH for some greenfields
Minnesota has few large master planned communities Large sunbelt states projects can demand FTTH
Minnesota law restricts HOAs from signing long term exclusive contracts with FTTH service providers; limits FTTP deployments in new developments Sunbelt states benefiting from new FTTH service providers
Residential Technology Summary No 13 Mbps at 5 kft 30 Mbps at 3 kft VDSL2 (copper) Yes 78 Mbps 1 Gbps at subscriber interface GPON (fiber) No 5 Mbps at 12 kft 13 Mbps at 5 kft ADSL2+ (copper) Yes 1 Mbps 160 Mbps DOCSIS 3.0 (HFC) Support for RF Video Average Downstream Bandwidth Peak Downstream Bandwidth