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  1. 1. Designing Minnesota, 1783-1858: Lessons for the Community Enterprise in the 21st Century 2007 Rural Summit: Thriving By Design Jim Ramstrom, Land Management Information Center (LMIC) MN Department of Administration May 10, 2007 … a Sesquicentennial Story
  2. 2. References <ul><li>Minnesota: The land of Sky Tinted Waters- A History of the State and its People </li></ul><ul><li>Three time Governor of Minnesota 1925- </li></ul><ul><li>1931 </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper editor from western Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote five volume history of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Served in U.S. House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs courtesy of the </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Historical Society, Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Resources Database </li></ul><ul><li>Maps from the Turning Points, Wisconsin Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Maps from the American Studies Group, University of </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia </li></ul>
  3. 3. 10 Lessons for the Community or Business Enterprise <ul><li>The importance of preparation - Benjamin Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Timing makes the difference – Jedidiah Morse, James Doty </li></ul><ul><li>No Room for intolerance – Lewis Cass </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate sustainability – Native American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>No niche is to small - Lord Selkirk, James J. Hill, Norman Kittson </li></ul><ul><li>Build a constituency and develop a champion – Henry Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>Turning a negative into a positive – Henry Hastings Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in education – Henry Sibley and Stephen Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent environmental conditions constrain success - Mother Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a transition plan – Fur Traders, The Western Outfit </li></ul>
  4. 4. Minnesota’s Spatial History 1783 to 1858 <ul><li>Viewed as a geographic area, not a </li></ul><ul><li>territory or state. </li></ul><ul><li>Background on Minnesota’s </li></ul><ul><li>geographic lineage </li></ul>
  5. 5. Eco-Regions: USGS, Bailey- Provinces Ecological Provinces in the Midwest, Minnesota in 3 Zones Great Plains Steppe Great Plains Dry Steppe Coniferous Forest Broadleaf Deciduous Tall Grass Prairie
  6. 6. American Studies Group. University of Virginia Major Socio-Political Zones of the U.S. 1800, - Minnesota located in three zones
  7. 7. Land Ordinance of 1775 Federal government had no power to tax Goal was to raise money by selling unmapped lands west of the original 13 colonies Establish basis for Public Land survey System (PLS) Section 16 set aside for public education Did not define how land would become states or how it would be governed
  8. 8. Northwest Ordinance 1787 Laid out the process for U.S expansion westward Established the first U.S. territory and rules of governance U.S. Expansion would proceed by admitting new states Banned slavery in the new territory Set dividing line between free and slave states
  9. 9. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota part of… Northwest Territory of Ohio, 1787 Indiana Territory, 1800
  10. 10. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Illinois Territory… central Minnesota part of the Louisiana Purchase
  11. 11. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Michigan Territory… and totally with the U.S.
  12. 12. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Michigan Territory and Indian Land
  13. 13. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as part of… Wisconsin and Iowa Territories
  14. 14. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as a… Minnesota Territory, 1849
  15. 15. ASG, University of Virginia Minnesota as a state… Minnesota Statehood, 1858
  16. 16. Minnesota’s Geographic Lineage Original thirteen colonies (1609 Virginia claim) British control of the Red River Basin until 1818 French control until 1803 (Louisiana purchase) 1787 Territory Northwest of the Ohio River 1800 Indiana Territory 1809 Illinois Territory 1812 Missouri Territory 1818 Michigan Territory 1836 Wisconsin Territory 1838 Iowa Territory 1849 Minnesota Territory 1858 State of Minnesota
  17. 17. 10 Lessons for the Community or Business Enterprise <ul><li>The importance of preparation - Benjamin Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Timing is makes the difference – Jedidiah Morse, James Doty </li></ul><ul><li>No Room for intolerance – Lewis Cass </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate sustainability – Native American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>No niche is to small - Lord Selkirk, James J. Hill, Norman Kittson </li></ul><ul><li>Build a constituency and develop a champion – Henry Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>Turning a negative into a positive – Henry Hastings Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in education – Henry Sibley and Stephen Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent environmental conditions constrain success - Mother Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a transition plan – Fur Traders and the Western Outfit </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lesson #1 The Importance of Preparation The Treaty of Paris, 1783 Benjamin Franklin <ul><li>Established the northern boundary of the U.S with the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Created Northwest Angle in MN by accident </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in minerals led to inclusion of MN’s arrowhead in the U.S. </li></ul>
  19. 19. U.S. Digital Map Library U.S./ Britain Proposed Boundary
  20. 20. Mitchell Map is the common name used to refer to a map made by John Mitchell and all the various reprints made during the late 18th century . The Mitchell Map was used as a primary map source during the Treaty of Paris (1783) for defining the boundaries of the newly independent United States . The map remains important today for resolving border disputes between the United States and Canada and between states within the United States. The Mitchell Map is the most comprehensive map of eastern North America made during the colonial era. Its size is about 6.5 feet wide by 4.5 feet high. Map of British and French Dominions, John Mitchell,1757, U.S. Library of Congress Inaccuracies in Mitchell’s Map Lead to creation of Minnesota’s Northwest Angle
  21. 21. Native American Indians mined Copper for thousands of years. Copper Arrowheads (shown above) were traded throughout the region. Jonathan Carver boasted of seeing Native American copper mines during his early trip in the region (1767). Carver’s Map, 1767
  22. 22. U.S. Digital Map Library U.S. / Britain Proposed Boundary Franklin’s Proposal Corrected Line
  23. 23. Lesson # 2 Timing Makes the Difference James Doty, Governor Wisconsin Territory Lewis Cass, Governor Michigan Territory Jedidiah Morse, Clergyman and Geographer, 1761-1826 … a proposal for an all Indian state
  24. 24. Published geographic textbooks, periodicals and atlases that were widely used in schools, colleges, libraries and homes. Foremost in the field for of geography several decades. Clergyman from New England, concerned with treatment of Native Americans Hired by the War Department in 1820 to visit Native Americans and develop an enlightened Indian policy. Report to the Secretary of War in 1822 Jedidiah Morse “ Father of American Geography”
  25. 25. United States from Morse’s School Atlas, 1820
  26. 26. 1820- Cass, Doty and Schoolcraft Reconnaissance of Michigan Territory
  27. 27. Generalized Area Covering Proposed Indian Settlement 1841-1842 H.H. Sibley- Rhoda Gilman, MHS
  28. 28. Proposed Doty Treaty 1841-1842 <ul><li>Governor of Wisconsin Territory </li></ul><ul><li>put together the treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of 30,000 acres in </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota and Dakota </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an “all Indian Territory </li></ul><ul><li>and eventually a state” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Settled living” and full </li></ul><ul><li>citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Support from traders and </li></ul><ul><li>politicians (H.H. Sibley) </li></ul>Opposition The champion and architect of westward expansion Connections to John C. Fremont and Joseph Nicollet August 29, 1842 Senate refused to ratify treaty on vote of 26-2
  29. 29. The Great American Desert … an 1820’s concept Concept for the area west of the Mississippi in the early 19 th Century, devoid of wood, limited water and uninhabitable by man. The early explorer’s view... … was Minnesota included?
  30. 30. The concept of Manifest Destiny was, advertised publicized and argued by politicians throughout the nation American Progress by John Gast “ We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? “ John L. O’Sullivan on Manifest Destiny, 1839
  31. 31. Lesson #3 No Room for Intolerance “… should [Indians] stay the march of cultivation and improvement, and hold in a state of perpetual unproductiveness, immense regions formed by Providence to support millions of human beings?” Lewis Cass, Governor Michigan Territory Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. As a social construct, it is open to interpretation. Some define intolerance as an expressed, negative or hostile attitude toward another's views, even if no action is taken against them. - Wikipedia Lewis Cass 1782-1866
  32. 32. “ Like the bear, the deer and the buffalo of his own forests an Indian lives as his father lived, and dies as his father died. He never attempts to imitate the arts of his civilized neighbor. Lewis Cass, Governor Michigan Territory Lesson #4 Incorporate Sustainability What did Governor Cass fail to consider?
  33. 33. “ Man is a blind, witless, low brow, anthropocentric clod who inflicts lesions upon the earth.” Ian McHarg Landscape Architect
  34. 34. Lesson #5 “No Niche is to Small” <ul><li>Wished to improve the lives of Scottish farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1811, purchased a huge tract of land in the middle of North America. </li></ul><ul><li>An area of 116,000 sq. miles was granted from </li></ul><ul><li>the Hudson Bay Company to start an agricultural settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>A small colony of settlers struggled through starvation, hostile attacks from traders, floods, epidemics, locusts and crop failures. </li></ul>Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, Scotland
  35. 35. <ul><li>1819 Grasshopper plague, had to import seed (wheat, barley, peas) from Prairie du Chien </li></ul><ul><li>1821 Alexis Bailly drove cattle up the St. Peter and along the Red River to Pembina. </li></ul><ul><li>On the return trip he brought the Swiss settlers back that were allowed to squat on the military reservation. </li></ul><ul><li>1826 saw a great flood that washed away homes, 240 of the Selkirk settlers came south. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1834, it grew to 2,751 </li></ul>Selkirk Settlement
  36. 36. <ul><li>Norman Kittson, 1814-1888 </li></ul><ul><li>Early fur trader, expanded trade by using ox-cart with Metis </li></ul><ul><li>Helped break the monopoly of HBC </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Red River steamboat trade </li></ul>James J. Hill, 1838-1916 <ul><li>Handled land freight by ox cart routes </li></ul><ul><li>Partnered with Kittson to form the </li></ul><ul><li>North-West Transportation company </li></ul>
  37. 37. Legacy of Selkirk’s Settlement <ul><li>Minnesota’s first settlers immigrated to </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Snelling in 1826 </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced natural disasters that would </li></ul><ul><li>later inflict Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>Established Minnesota’s direction for </li></ul><ul><li>future trade and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Gave birth to future transportation </li></ul><ul><li>corridors with ox cart trials, steamboats </li></ul><ul><li>roads and interstate highway. </li></ul><ul><li>Once established, provided huge export </li></ul><ul><li>market for agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>Established prairie town that grew to </li></ul><ul><li>grew to 250,000 by 1926 </li></ul>1890 Advertisement
  38. 38. Lesson # 6 Build a Constituency and Develop a Champion … becoming a territory Métis- his constituency Stephen Douglas, the Champion Library of Congress U.S. Senate Historical Office Photo Courtesy MHS Central figure- H.H. Sibley
  39. 39. Henry Hastings Sibley Extensive relations with fur trade business and politicians First a clerk, then partner in American Fur company at Mendota Delegate in Congress from Wisconsin Territory in 1848 First Governor of Minnesota and General during U.S. Dakota War of 1862 How did Sibley build early political influence? <ul><li>1848 was first public sale of lands west of the St. Croix River </li></ul><ul><li>Sibley, long time trader, represented claimants who were technically squatters </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-emption rights held in an extra-legal organizations called “claiming clubs” </li></ul><ul><li>Sibley was a representative for 14 men with claims in St. Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidation discouraged “bidding” against Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadians (Métis) held Sibley in such high esteem- he held their deeds. </li></ul><ul><li>In up coming election, the St. Paul vote was solidly behind Sibley </li></ul>
  40. 40. Influence and Power … becoming a territory Stephen A. Douglas “ The Little Giant” <ul><li>Held powerful and influential position of Chairmen of the Committee on Territories </li></ul><ul><li>Part of a group of Congressmen who knew development couldn’t stop on the edge of the great plains. </li></ul><ul><li>Envisioned the need to have all the land along a central rail road route under territorial jurisdiction control </li></ul>
  41. 41. The champion at work… … becoming a territory <ul><li>Measuring the political landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching the delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Seating the delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting the case in the best light! </li></ul><ul><li>Playing hardball- threaten Interior bill that the House wanted </li></ul><ul><li>President Polk signed territorial bill, March 3, 1849 </li></ul>Stephen A. Douglas “ The Little Giant”
  42. 42. 1851 Map of the Minnesota Territory, Cowperthwait
  43. 44. Lesson # 7 Turning a Negative into a Positive Henry Hastings Sibley “ Minnesota’s land was considered a desert country, that its cold winters made it unsuitable for habitation, and its land would therefore never have much value.” - Christianson … the general opinion about Minnesota in 1849 by Easterners… Becoming a territory…
  44. 45. Long/Keating Map 1824 (Whittaker, London) Geographic Knowledge Was Poor in 1820’s
  45. 46. The Great American Desert Concept for the area west of the Mississippi in the early 19 th Century, devoid of wood, limited water and uninhabitable by man. The early explorer’s view... … was Minnesota included?
  46. 47. Lesson # 8 Invest in Education Sections 16 and 36 contained valuable stands of timber and minerals to support schools Minnesota’s 1849 Territorial Act left its mark on the landscape
  47. 48. Source: MN DNR, Land and Minerals School trust lands still make an important contribution to Minnesota education <ul><li>Sections 16 and 36 reserved 2.9 million acres of land for the public school trust </li></ul><ul><li>Quick sale of southern Minnesota’s lands before 1900 to private interests with varying results </li></ul><ul><li>By 1901, management policies changed and permanent school trust funds were created. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Source: Datanet Online, Census 2000 Mapped as a % of MCD
  49. 50. Source: Datanet Online, Census 2000 Mapped as % of the MCD
  50. 51. Source: Datanet Online, Census 2000 Mapped as % of the MCD
  51. 52. Becoming a state… <ul><li>Between 1849 and 1858, the Minnesota Territory added </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 in population. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers the Pioneer and the Chronicle were </li></ul><ul><li>established almost immediately </li></ul><ul><li>By 1856 railroads were on our door step at La Crosse, </li></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin, ready to push north and west. </li></ul><ul><li>256 post offices covered the territory in 1856 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1858 we had major institutions of a State Capitol, </li></ul><ul><li>a penitentiary, and a fledgling University </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota admitted May 11, 1858 (President Buchanan) </li></ul>
  52. 53. Henry Rodgers and Alexander Johnston, National Map 1857
  53. 54. <ul><li>&quot;Johnson's New Railroad and Township Copper plate Map of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota & Nebraska From The Latest and Best Authorities.&quot; New York: A.J. Johnson and Chicago: P. Wyckoff, 1858. 27 x 31. Lithograph transfer from copper plate engraving. Original hand color and elaborate decorative border. Full margins. Some minor staining and chipping at margins. Separated at old folds; expertly joined and conserved. Overall, very good condition and appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>A very rare, large scale map of a group of mid-western states. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Samuel Mitchell Map of Minnesota, 1860
  55. 56. Lesson # 9 Inherent Environmental Conditions Determine your Success <ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Season </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul>GIS examines the interrelationships
  56. 57. Minnesota’s Glacial history Minnesota Geological Survey Glaciers deposited an unsorted mixture of rocks, sand and clay known as till. Glaciers also created for many surface features such as moraines, kames, drumlins, and eskers.
  57. 59. Minnesota Elevation Elevation- Shaded Relief Vegetation, 1847-1907
  58. 60. Pioneer Settlement Lacked Knowledge about the Land 1977 Forest Cover Normal Temperature Digital Composite Map + =
  59. 61. Date of Public Land Survey 1847-1907
  60. 62. 1851 Survey and Vegetation Before Settlement 1851 Survey Coniferous Forest
  61. 63. We exploited resources… … Courtesy MHS … the quality was magnificent
  62. 64. … the harvest increased Courtesy MHS
  63. 65. The number of lumberjacks increased to 20,000 in the 1890’s Courtesy of MHS … the quantity seemed endless
  64. 66. … railroads and steam power increased efficiency Courtesy of MHS
  65. 67. Natural systems were pushed to their limit… Taylor Falls log jam of 150 million feet Courtesy of MHS
  66. 68. Courtesy of MHS ...it took one lifetime to remove centuries of growth
  67. 69. Learning to manage our resources meant a lot of trial and error… Courtesy of MHS
  68. 70. Courtesy of MHS
  69. 71. World’s Largest Load Hauled, 1909 World’s Largest Load in MN or Wisconsin, 1909 Courtesy of MHS
  70. 72. … the plow flows the axe Courtesy of MHS
  71. 73. Reduction of the Big Woods 1850’s 1977
  72. 74. … land clearing, Hubbard County, MN, 1913 Courtesy of MHS
  73. 75. … little thought to reforestation Courtesy of MHS
  74. 76. Forest fires gave rise to environmental problems … Courtesy of MHS
  75. 77. Slashing after government logging… Courtesy of MHS … we lacked the social institutions to manage forests
  76. 78. Courtesy of MHS Many wildfires threatened our communities… 42 lives lost, 150,000 acres
  77. 79. Chisholm, 1908
  78. 80. Cloquet Fire, 1918 Courtesy of MHS … Loss of 500 lives and $20 Million of property
  79. 81. Moose Lake Wildfire 1918 ..the bakery Courtesy of MHS
  80. 82. ...hospital Courtesy of MHS
  81. 83. … a homestead Courtesy of MHS
  82. 84. Resource management issues were not confined to forestry…. Contour plowing, Wabasha County, 1937 Courtesy of MHS
  83. 85. Intensive Agriculture started in Southeast MN Wheat, 1879 Wheat,1920 Wheat, 1974 Wheat, 2002
  84. 86. Crops turned to dust… … a combination of cut worms and heat destroyed crops, east of Appleton, Swift County, 1936 Courtesy of MHS Area most affected by 1930’s drought July Annual Precipatation, 1941-1970 High Low Low High
  85. 87. Dust storms turned day into night… NOAA Photo “ The soil is the one indestructible, immutable asset that the nation possess. It is the one resource that can not be exhausted” Federal Bureau of Soils, 1878 “… on Minnesota highways motorists had to operate their cars with lights turned on in the middle of the day.” T. Christianson
  86. 88. … the drought brought men to their knees South of Beardsley, Big Stone County, 1936 Courtesy of MHS
  87. 89. Dust covered the fence poles… Swift County, MN 1935 Courtesy of MHS
  88. 90. Farmsteads were abandoned … Near Breckenridge, MN. 1936 Courtesy of MHS
  89. 91. Rivers and wells ran dry... … the St. Croix River, 1931 Courtesy of MHS
  90. 92. Wet Prairie at Time of Settlement Source: Marschner, MN Environmental Atlas
  91. 93. DNR estimates that 90% of the prairie biome wetlands have been drained Source: MSU/ Tester Natural Heritage Photo’s Courtesy MHS Marietta, Lac qui Parle County, 1910
  92. 94. In summary, it would be very easy to criticize the management of our resources during our pioneer days. Our mistakes had exceptional visual impacts on the landscape. The challenges today may be even greater. As Art Mehrhoff’s book points out, “ One of the most fatal flaws in the new global economic system is its inability to recognize that it consumes the very source of its existence.” We do not see or pay for the environmental damage that occurs half way around the world.
  93. 95. Lesson # 10 Develop a Transition Strategy “ No enterprise will last forever” Whether it is your business or community, it will go through a natural life cycle. As your enterprise reaches maturity and begins to decline you need develop a transition plan. A community may find ways to renew itself or a business may re-invent itself, but one thing is for sure… … story of the Western Outfit MHS Treaty Story U.S. Bureau of Ethnology … the fur trade lasted 200 years in Minnesota
  94. 96. The Fur Trade… <ul><li>In the Fall, credit would be extended to Indian trappers </li></ul><ul><li>Indians would receive guns, ammunition, traps and provisions </li></ul><ul><li>In the spring, Indians would return with furs to repay credits </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to repay meant “bad debts” were carried on the companies </li></ul><ul><li>books </li></ul><ul><li>Neither the costs of the supplies nor the future value of the furs </li></ul><ul><li>were always clear to the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Hardship (illness or death), bad luck, poor hunting or a declining </li></ul><ul><li>market price were charged to the growing Indian debt </li></ul>
  95. 97. <ul><li>By 1835, Minnesota fur trade was in decline </li></ul><ul><li>The fur resources of mid-west were over hunted </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition was more difficult, more costly and lower quality </li></ul><ul><li>Traders faced outside competition and changing tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Indentured labor force was disappearing </li></ul>The decline….
  96. 98. The transition plan … 1837 Treaty with the Ojibwe- Fur traders received 75% of the money. The American Fur Co. received $3,500 of the $4,700 given to the Ojibwe . 1842 Proposed Treat Failed - American Fur company closed 12 days later (departments sold) Western Outfit (created from AMC) involved Hercules Dousman, Henry Sibley, et al were partners in the company. Also, major players in the treaty negotiations. 1851 Treaty- One more attempt to bail out the failing fur trade. Traders were needed to convince Indians to sign. Traders needed to recover losses on their books. The highest level partners in the fur trade could pursue new ventures in land speculation, timber or politics.
  97. 99. 10 Lessons for the Community or Business Enterprise <ul><li>The importance of preparation - Benjamin Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Timing makes the difference– Jedidiah Morse, James Doty </li></ul><ul><li>No Room for intolerance – Lewis Cass </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate sustainability – Native American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>No niche is to small - Lord Selkirk, James J. Hill, Norman Kittson </li></ul><ul><li>Build a constituency and develop a champion – Henry Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>Turning a negative into a positive – Henry Hastings Sibley </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in education – Henry Sibley and Stephen Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent environmental conditions constrain success - Mother Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a transition plan – Fur traders, The Western Outfit </li></ul>