Hinduism

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Hinduism

  1. 1. Hinduism A Brief Introduction
  2. 2. Scriptures <ul><li>Hundreds of scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>oldest scriptures: the four Vedas </li></ul><ul><li>all scriptures divided into two broad categories: shruti and smriti </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular scripture: Bhagavad Gita </li></ul>
  3. 3. What “ism” is Hinduism? <ul><li>Everything from Atheism to Polytheism </li></ul><ul><li>Different interpretations of the same scriptures led to differences in belief </li></ul><ul><li>Sanatana Dharma Eternal Philosophy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concept of God <ul><li>Nirguna Brahman - God without attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Saguna Brahman - God with attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Saguna Brahman can be worshipped in any shape or form, human or otherwise </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hindu Trinity <ul><li>Brahma - the Creator </li></ul><ul><li>Vishnu - the Preserver </li></ul><ul><li>Shiva - the Destroyer </li></ul><ul><li>Three aspects/powers of the same divine being </li></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Beliefs <ul><li>Karma - the law of cause and effect; “you reap what you sow” </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation - eternal soul traverses through different bodies till it finds liberation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symbolism in Hinduism
  8. 8. Holy Cow! <ul><li>Hindus have always had great respect for Mother Nature and its creatures </li></ul><ul><li>Cow is especially significant because it symbolizes gentleness </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four Goals of Human Life <ul><li>Kama – fulfillment of desires </li></ul><ul><li>Artha – accumulation of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Dharma – performance of social and religious duties </li></ul><ul><li>Moksha – freedom from want </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four Paths to Moksha <ul><li>Karma Yoga - Path of righteous action </li></ul><ul><li>Bhakti Yoga - Path of selfless devotion </li></ul><ul><li>Jnana Yoga - Path of rational inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Raja Yoga - Path of renunciation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Temple Worship <ul><li>Temples provide an atmosphere conducive for spiritual progress </li></ul><ul><li>Centers of social and cultural activities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a place for collective worship and prayers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Six Philosophical Schools <ul><li>Sankhya - Sage Kapila </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga - Sage Patanjali </li></ul><ul><li>Mimamsa - SageJaimini </li></ul><ul><li>Vedanta – Sage Vyasa </li></ul><ul><li>Nyaya - Sage Gautama </li></ul><ul><li>Vaisheshika - Sage Kanada </li></ul>
  13. 13. History of Hinduism <ul><li>Originated between 4000 and 2000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>No single founder </li></ul><ul><li>Vedas: the oldest scriptures of Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Veda means “to know” </li></ul><ul><li>Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Veda </li></ul><ul><li>Upanishads explain the philosophical ideas in story and dialogue form </li></ul>
  14. 14. Veda Vyasa <ul><li>1500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>classified the Vedas into the four traditional collections </li></ul><ul><li>composed the 18 Puranas </li></ul><ul><li>composed his great poetic work, the Mahabharata in a period of two and a half years </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sankara <ul><li>Advaitha philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>7 th century AD </li></ul><ul><li>traveled all over India having public debates with other philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>true happiness can be attained by removing </li></ul><ul><li>avidya (ignorance) and maya (self deception) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ramanuja <ul><li>10 th Century AD </li></ul><ul><li>Vishistadvaitha </li></ul><ul><li>wanted everybody irrespective of social standing to enjoy the eternal bliss of Lord Narayana </li></ul><ul><li>Bhakti - complete surrender to the Lord </li></ul>
  17. 17. Madhva <ul><li>Dwaitha philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>12 th Century AD </li></ul><ul><li>the world is not an illusion. </li></ul><ul><li>solitary study of the scriptures, performing one's duty without self-interest, practical acts of devotion </li></ul>
  18. 18. Vivekananda <ul><li>First Hindu leader to visit America </li></ul><ul><li>Famous address at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago on September 11,1893 </li></ul><ul><li>Spent three years preaching the Vedanta philosophy in America and England </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Ramakrishna Mission </li></ul>
  19. 19. Contemporary Hindu Leaders in America <ul><li>David Frawley </li></ul><ul><li>Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami </li></ul><ul><li>Mahesh Yogi </li></ul><ul><li>Satchidananda </li></ul><ul><li>Mata Amritanandamayi </li></ul>
  20. 20. Festivals <ul><li>Hinduism is a celebratory religion </li></ul><ul><li>The motive: Festivals keep us close to Gods, </li></ul><ul><li>invigorate our household and renew our </li></ul><ul><li>personal life. </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals signify victory of good over evil. </li></ul><ul><li>Every month of Hindu calendar has atleast one </li></ul><ul><li>significant festival. Each festival has regional </li></ul><ul><li>significance also. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of diversity. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Yugaadi/Ugaadi: </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of the year according to </li></ul><ul><li>the National Calendar of India.  </li></ul><ul><li>The day falls in the beginning of spring </li></ul><ul><li>- Vasanta Ritu – When the Goddess of </li></ul><ul><li>Nature gets bedecked as a divine </li></ul><ul><li>bride. </li></ul>April/May
  22. 22. Birthday of Lord Rama, the prince of Ayodhya, and his coronation as a king. Sri Ramanavami Mahavir Jayanti Birthday of Mahavira, the founder of Jainism Buddha Jayanti Birthday of Buddha , the founder of Buddhism
  23. 23. May/June <ul><li>Lord Muruga </li></ul><ul><li>Worshipped mostly in </li></ul><ul><li>South India </li></ul><ul><li>Guru: One’s teacher. The day </li></ul><ul><li>commemorates the birthday of </li></ul><ul><li>Veda Vyasa. </li></ul><ul><li>Time to remember and felicitate </li></ul><ul><li>one’s teachers. </li></ul>Guru Purnima
  24. 24. July/August Raksha Bandhan Symbolizes the love between brother and sister. Krishnashtami Birthday of Lord Krishna, favorite lovable God of many :)
  25. 25. August/September Ganesh Chaturthi Birthday of the elephant God, Ganesha Durga Pooja/Navaratri A nine day celebration signifying the victory of Mother Durga over the evil demon King Mahishasura.
  26. 26. October/November Deepavali: The festival of lights Mother Lakshmi <ul><li>Mother Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity is worshipped </li></ul><ul><li>on this day. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the Hindu financial year. </li></ul>
  27. 27. December/January Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti Birthday of Guru Gobind Singh, one of the Sikh Gurus Sankranti/Pongal Celebration of the harvest festival
  28. 28. February/March Mahashivaratri Birthday of Lord Shiva Holi Holi, the festival of colors commemorating the victory of Lord Krishna over the demon Holika

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