HISTORY, CIVICS AND GEOGRAPHY
Paper 2 (Geography)
Class: X Duration: Two hours
Maximum Marks: 80
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first I5 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the
Attempt seven questions in all.
Part I is compulsory. All questions from Part I are to be attempted
A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II: three questions
Section A and two questions from Section B.
To be supplied with this Paper: Survey of India Map Sheet No. 45D/10.
(i) In all Map Work, by a wise use of arrows to indicate positions of
countries, cities and other insertions that you make, you will be able to
avoid overcrowding parts of the map.
(ii) The extract of Survey of India Map Sheet No. 45D/10 must not be taken
out of the examination hall. It must be handed over to the Supervising
Examiner on the completion of the Paper.
(iii) The Map given at the end of this question paper must be fastened with
your answer booklet.
(iv)All sub-sections of each question must be answered in the correct order.
(v) All working including rough work, should be done on the same answer
sheet as the rest of the answer.
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
Study the extract of the Survey of India Map sheet No. 45D/10 and answer
the following questions:-
(a) Give the six figure grid reference of :-
(i) The temple in village Rampur
(ii) ● 306 
(b) What do the following indicate?
(i) 4r in grid square 0218
RELATIVE HEIGHT IS 4 MTS.
(ii) The word Sheet Rock in grid square 0826 
EXPOSED BASE ROCK
(c) (i) In which grid do you find the presence of contours in the south
eastern part of the map extract?
(ii) State the significance of the red lines in the map extract. 
(d) Name the type of rainfall experienced in the region shown in the map
extract. Give a reason to support your answer. 
SCANTY AS THE RIVER SOURCES ARE PERINIAL.
(e) How does the settlement pattern in grid square 0323 differ from the
settlement pattern in grid square 0819? 
(f) (i) What is the pattern of settlement in grid square 1904?
(ii) Name the settlement that has a post office. 
(g) Name two physical features represented in grid square 0624. 
ROCK OUTCROP, OPEN SCRUB, PLAIN LAND (ANY 2)
(h) Mention two main modes of transport used by the people during the
rainy season in the area shown in the map extract. 
RIVER AND BULLOCK CART
(i) State two reasons for the absence of human habitation in the north
eastern region of the map extract. 
OPEN SCRUB, SHEET ROCK, DRY LAND
On the outline map provided on the last page of your question paper:-
a) Label the river Sutlej. 
b) Label the river Godavari. 
c) Mark with a bold line and name the Aravali Range. 
d) Mark and label the Khyber pass. 
e) Mark and name the largest commercial city of Pakistan. 
f) Mark and label Bangalore. 
g) Mark and label the Tropic of Cancer. 
h) Mark and name the winds which bring rain to Bangladesh in July and
i) Mark and label the Konkan Coast. 
j) Shade and label one region of winter rainfall in India. 
Part II [50 marks]
SECTION A [30 Marks]
Attempt any three questions from this section.
a. What is a land locked country? Name two landlocked SAARC countries.
A LANDLOCKED COUNTRY IS COMMONLY DEFINED AS ONE
ENCLOSED OR NEARLY ENCLOSED BY LAND. BHUTAN AND
b. What are Tarai? Where exactly are they located? 
THE WORD TARAI, A TERM PRESUMED TO BE DERIVED FROM
PERSIAN, MEANS "DAMP," AND IT APPROPRIATELY DESCRIBES
THE REGION'S HUMID AND HOT CLIMATE. THE REGION WAS
FORMED AND IS FED BY MAJOR RIVERS.
c. Distinguish between an East-flowing and a West-flowing river. 
1. EAST FLOWING
THE MAIN EAST FLOWING RIVER SYSTEMS ARE THE GANGES
RIVER, THE INDUS AND THE BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER SYSTEMS.
THE EAST FLOWING RIVERS FORM LARGE BASINS. MANY
RIVERS PASS THROUGH THE HIMALAYAS. THESE DEEP VALLEYS
WITH STEEP ROCK SIDES WERE FORMED BY THE DOWN - CUTTING
OF THE RIVER DURING THE PERIOD OF THE HIMALAYAN UPLIFT.
THEY PERFORM INTENSE EROSIONAL ACTIVITY UP THE STREAMS
AND CARRY HUGE LOAD OF SAND AND SILT. IN THE PLAINS, THEY
FORM LARGE MEANDERS, AND A VARIETY OF DEPOSITIONAL
FEATURES LIKE FLOOD PLAINS, RIVER CLIFFS AND LEVEES.THESE
RIVERS ARE PERENNIAL AS THEY GET WATER FROM THE RAINFALL
AS WELL AS THE MELTING OF ICE. NEARLY ALL OF THEM CREATE
HUGE PLAINS AND ARE NAVIGABLE OVER LONG DISTANCES OF
THEIR COURSE. THESE RIVERS ARE ALSO HARNESSED IN THEIR
UPSTREAM CATCHMENT AREA TO GENERATE HYDROELECTRICITY.
2. WEST FLOWING RIVER
THE MAIN WEST FLOWING RIVER SYSTEMS INCLUDE THE
NARMADA, THE TAPI, THE GODAVARI, THE KRISHNA, THE
KAVERI AND THE MAHANADI RIVER SYSTEMS.
THE WEST FLOWING RIVERS FLOW THROUGH SHALLOW VALLEYS.
A LARGE NUMBER OF THEM ARE SEASONAL AS THEIR FLOW IS
DEPENDENT ON RAINFALL. THE INTENSITY OF EROSIONAL
ACTIVITIES IS ALSO COMPARATIVELY LOW BECAUSE OF THE
GENTLER SLOPE. THE HARD ROCK BED AND LACK OF SILT AND SAND
DOES NOT ALLOW ANY SIGNIFICANT MEANDERING. MANY RIVERS
THEREFORE HAVE STRAIGHT AND LINEAR COURSES. THESE RIVERS
PROVIDE HUGE OPPORTUNITIES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER.
d. Which are the States in India that receive winter rain? How is this rain
economically beneficial? 
TAMIL NADU COAST. ABOUT 60-70% OF THE RAINFALL
OCCURS DURING THIS TIME. IMPORTANT FOR RAVI CROPS,
RECHARGE OF NON PERINIAL RIVERS ETC.
(a) Mention two favourable effects of the Himalayas on the economy of
ACTS AS A BARRIER TO THE COLD DRY WINDS THUS PLAYS A MOJOR
IN THE SUCCESS OF SW MONSOON, HELPS INDIRECTLY IN HELPING
FORM THE NORTHERN FERTILE PLAINS ETC.
(b) Why is Pakistan often described as the 'Gift of the Indus'? Give two
WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF THIS RIVER PAKISTAN WOULD HAVE
BEEN A DESERT REGION. THE LONGITUDINAL EXTENT OF THE RIVER
PROVIDES LIVELIHOOD TO THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN.
(c) Mention three differences between the Western Ghats and the Eastern
1. WESTERN GHATS :- IT RUNS PARRELL TO THE WEST
COAST.AVERAGE ELEVATION IS 900-1100 MTS. IT IS A CONTINUOUS
WALL.SOURCE OF THREE LARGEST PENINSULAR RIVERS. LIES
ALMOST PERPENDICULAR TO SOUTH EAST MONSOON.
2. EASTERN GHATS :- IT RUNS PARRELL TO THE EAST COAST.
AVERAGE ELEVATION IS 600 MTS. IT IS A BROKEN WALL.DISECTED
BY PENINSULAR RIVERS. LIES ALMOST PARALLEL TO SOUTH EAST
MONSOON ORIGINATING FROM BAY OF BENGAL.
(d) Give three reasons why Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated
countries in the world. 
Bangladesh is one of most thickly populated small river delta. Very
fertile land, easy to plough and grow food grain makes its population
extremely reliant on agriculture for years.
(a) What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of Pakistan? 
240N TO 370 N LATITUDE AND 610E TO 750E LONGITUDE
(b) Name the hills that make up the Purvanchal Ranges in India. 
GARO, KHASI, JAINTIA, LUSHAI,MIZO, NAGA AND MANIPUR
(c) Mention three benefits of the long coastline of India. 
ABUNDANT MONAZITE DEPOSIT AND PETROLEUM
(d) Give reasons for the following: 
(i) The Deccan plateau is a highly dissected one.
THE PLATEAU IS DISSECTED BY MANY RIVERS. THE REGION
ISHIGHLY ERODED WITH DEEP RAVINES SCARRING THE
(ii) Most of the rivers in South India flow into the Bay of Bengal.
DUE TO THE SLOPE OF THE PENINSULA FROM WEST TO EAST.
(iii) The Rann of Kutch is not cultivated.
IT’S A MARSHY LAND.
(a) Mention two differences between the cyclonic rain in Bangladesh and the
cyclonic rain in Pakistan. 
BANGLADESH:- OCCURS IN SUMMER, OCCURS BECAUSE OF
PAKISTAN :- :- OCCURS IN WINTER, OCCURS BECAUSE OF WESTERN
(b) Name the source of winter rain in Tamil Nadu. How does Tamil Nadu
benefit from it? 
NE MONSOON. MAXIMUM RAINFALL OCCURS DURING THIS PERIOD,
IT HELPS IN RAISING THE WATER TABLE, AGRICULTURE ETC.
(c) Give a reason for each of the following: 
(i) Patna gets a heavier rainfall than Varanasi.
AMOUNT OF RAINFALL DECREASES AS MONSOON WINDS MOVES
WESTWARD. THESE GET DRIER AND DRIER AS THE DISTANCE FROM
(ii) The Arabian Sea branch of the South West Monsoon does not shed any
moisture in Western Rajasthan.
AS IT LIES IN THE LEEWARD SIDE
(iii) India has varied climatic conditions.
India has varied climatic conditions because of its vastness and
varied physiographic divisions.
(d) Study the climatic data provided below and answer the questions that
Months Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan
e (°C) 24.4 25.4 26.7 29.3 30 29.9 29.8 27.8 26.9 26.3 25.1 24.8
(cm) 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.6 3.8 26.6 29.6 30.5 26.5 11.9 1.1 0.2
e (°C) 8.1 8.9 15.6 20.1 25.2 24.3 24.1 22.7 20.6 18.4 14.1 9.6
(cm) 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.1 1.3 3.2 7.7 10.3 5.8 0.7 0.4 0.3
(i)Calculate the annual range of temperature of Station A. Suggest reason
why the range is a small one.
5.60C. IT IS BEING INFLUENCED BY THE SEA.
(ii)Which of the two Stations has the lower temperature? Why?
(iii) Calculate the annual rainfall of Station B.
Part II [50 marks]
SECTION B [20 Marks]
Attempt any two questions from this section.
(a) Why is South Asia considered a region of great physical diversity?
Give two examples.
DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF THAR DESERT, DECCAN PLATEAU,
HIMALAYAS, COASTAL PLAINS, RIVER PLAINS ETC.
(b) In reference to the Malwa Plateau: 
(i) Where is it located?
(ii) Name the rivers that drain it.
(iii) What is it made up of?
MALWA PLATEAU IS LOCATED BETWEEN THE ARAVALLIS AND THE
VINDHYAS. THE ARAVALLIS LIE TO ITS WEST AND THE VINDHYAS
LIE TO ITS SOUTH.
CHAMBAL, SIND AND BETWA ARE THE RIVERS THAT DRAIN IT.
THEY WERE FORMED BY SOLIDIFIED MOLTEN LAVA. THE FLAT TOP
IS FORESTED AND BROKEN BY RAVINES.
(b) Mention two reasons to justify the need to include Myanmar and
Afghanistan as extensions of SAARC countries. 
SHARE COMMON RANGES
SIMILAR CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
SHARE SAME HISTORY, POLITY AND CULTURE
(c) Into how many drainage systems can the rivers of Peninsular India
be grouped? Which is the longest river here and where does it
RIVERS OF PENINSULAR INDIA CAN BE GROUPED INTO EAST
FLOWING TOWARDS BAY OF BENGAL AND WEST FLOWING
TOWARDS ARABIAN, TOWARDS GANGA, I.E. FLOWING
NORTH FROM THE VINDHYAS, GODAVARI, RISING IN THE
(a) State the climatic significance of the Himalayas to the people of South
EFFECT ON CLIMATE: THESE ACT AS A GUARD AGAINST THE
NORTHERN COLD WINDS. THE HIMALAYAS ACT LIKE A NATURAL
WALL THAT KEEPS THE FERTILE INDO-GANGETIC PLAINS SAFE
FROM THE COLD, BLEAK WINDS FROM THE NORTH.
THE HIMALAYAS CAUSE THE MONSOON WINDS TO SHOWER LIFE
GIVING RAINS ON THE VALLEYS AND THE PLAINS TO THEIR SOUTH.
SOURCE OF RIVERS: THESE ARE THE SOURCE OF IMPORTANT
RIVERS LIKE THE GANGA, THE INDUS, ETC.
FOREST WEALTH: THE HIMALAYAS ARE COVERED BY THICK FORESTS
WHICH ARE THE SOURCE OF NUMEROUS RAW MATERIAL.
(b) Name the area in India which receives rainfall from the Western
Disturbances. State the importance of this rainfall. 
THE DISTURBANCES BROUGHT BY THE EASTERLY AND WESTERLY
JET STREAMS ARE KNOWN AS THE WESTERN DISTURBANCES. THESE
ARE EXPERIENCED IN THE NORTH AND NORTH-WESTERN PART OF
INDIA. THEY ARE ESSENTIAL FOR RAVI CROP AND REPLISHMENT
(c) Give reasons for the following: 
(i) Sri Lanka receives rainfall throughout the year.
AS IT LIES IN THE PATH OF BOTH SW AND NE MONSOON.
(ii) Pakistan does not receive much rainfall from the South West Monsoon.
AS IT IS LOCATED ON THE WESTERN LIMITS OF THE MONSOON
REGION, MONSOONS PROGRESSIVELY LOOSE MOISTURE AND DRY
WHEN THEY ARRIVE AT THE SUTLEJ VALLEY OF INDUS.
(iii) Though Mangalore and Mysore are on the same latitude, Mangalore
experiences more rainfall than Mysore.
AS MANGALORE LIES IN WINDWARD SIDE AND MYSORE IN THE
LEEWARD SIDE OF THE WESTERN GHATS.
(d) (i) Name the countries which have a land borders with Bhutan.
INDIA AND CHINA
(ii) Explain why none of the rivers of Bhutan are navigable but have a great
potential for hydro - electric power.
THE TERRAIN OF BHUTAN IS MOST RUGGED IN THE WORLD. THE
ELEVATION FROM SEA LEVEL VARIES FROM 150M TO MORE THAN
7,000 M IN LESS THAN 100 KM OF DISTANCE. SO RIVERS PASS
THROUGH RAPIDS, WATERFALLS AND STEEP NARROW VALLEYS.
(a) Name the source of the river Ganga. Where does this river enter the
GANGA ORIGINATES AS BHAGIRATHI FROM THE GANGOTRI GLACIER
IN UTTAR KASHI DISTRICT OF UTTARKHAND. IT ENTERS
(b) What is a Delta? Name two deltas in South Asia. 
A DELTA IS A LANDFORM THAT IS CREATED AT THE MOUTH OF A
RIVER WHERE THAT RIVER FLOWS INTO AN OCEAN, SEA, ESTUARY,
LAKE, RESERVOIR, FLAT ARID AREA, OR ANOTHER RIVER. DELTAS
ARE FORMED FROM THE DEPOSITION OF THE SEDIMENT CARRIED
BY THE RIVER AS THE FLOW LEAVES THE MOUTH OF THE RIVER.
OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME, THIS DEPOSITION BUILDS THE
CHARACTERISTIC GEOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF A RIVER DELTA.
SUNDERBAN AND INDUS RIVER DELTA.
(c) State three reasons for the importance of the Peninsular Plateau. 
THE PENINSUALR PLATEAU IS RICH IN USEFUL MINERALS LIKE
MANGANESE, IRON ORE, BAUXITE AND GOLD , ETC
ITS BLACK SOIL IS USEFUL FOR GROWING COTTON AND
SUGARCANE WHILE LATERITE SOIL PROVE USEFUL FOR TEA,
RUBBER, AND COFFEE PLANTATIONS.
VALUABLE VARIETIES OF WOOD IS PROVIDED BY THE WESTERN
THE HILL STATIONS LIKE OOTY, PANCHMARHI, ARE THE SOURCE OF
ATTRACTION FOR TOURISTS
(d) State three reasons why Myanmar and Afghanistan can be considered
extensions of South Asia. 
SHARE COMMON RANGES
SIMILAR CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
SHARE SAME HISTORY, POLITY AND CULTURE
(a) Name any two states that receive rain in January-February. What
causes this winter rain? 
PUNJAB AND HARYANA. THEY ARE CAUSED BY THE SHALLOW
CYCLONIC DISTURBANCES ALSO KNOW AS THE WESTERN
DISTURBANCES. THEY ORIGINATE FROM MEDITERRANEAN SEA
AND TRAVEL EASTWARDS.
(b) What is meant by Kal Baisakhi? 
“KAL BAISAKHI” LITERALLY MEANING THE CALAMITY OF THE
MONTH OF BAISAKH. THEY ARE ACCOMPANIED BY THUNDERSTORMS
AND OCCUR IN THE MONTH OF APRIL- MAY AND IS GOOD FOR TEA
JUTE AND RICE.
(c) Mention three features of Indian monsoon. 
FEATURES OF MONSOON RAINFALL ARE :- I) IT GIVES WATER IN
GLUT TO THE ENTIRE TERRITORIES OF INDIA EXCEPT SOME
LEEWARD SIDES, RAIN SHADOW REGIONS AND DESERTS. II) EARLY
IN THE SEASON, THE WINDWARD SIDE OF THE WESTERN GHATS
RECEIVES HEAVY RAINFALL I.E. MORE THAN 250 CM. III)THE RAIN
SHADOW AREAS OF DECCAN PLATEAUE AND PARTS OF MADHYA
PRADESH ALSO RECEIVE SCANTY RAINFALL. IV)THE MAXIMUM
RAINFALL IS RECORDED IN THE NORTH EASTERN PART OF THE
COUNTRY. V)THE FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS DETERMINE THE AMOUNT AND DURATION OF
(d) Give three reasons to justify that the Himalayas act as a Climatic divide.
THE HIMALAYAS' LOFTY PEAKS ACT AS AN EFFECTIVE CLIMATIC
DIVIDE.THESE PROTECT INDIA FROM COLD AND CHILLY WINDS
ORIGINATING NEAR THE ARCTIC CIRCLE. THESE COMPEL THE
RAINBEARING CLOUDS TO POUR IN INDIA. THE HIMALAYAS GIVE
INDIA, A TOUCH OF TROPICAL CLIMATES, HOT SUMMERS AND DRY