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  1. 1. An Examination of Beginning Teachers’ Self-Presentation Styles and Strategies Hayuta Yinon Faculty of Education, University of Haifa Israel
  2. 2. <ul><li>Goffman claims that we always act in front of others in order to make sure that they will get a desirable impression about us. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Image source:
  4. 4. <ul><li>impression management or self-presentation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>the ways by which we attempt to control the impressions of others about us </li></ul>=
  5. 5. Schütz’s taxonomy of self-presentation styles <ul><li>Four styles of self-presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive </li></ul><ul><li>Protective </li></ul><ul><li>defensive </li></ul>
  6. 6. The assertive style <ul><li>people try to look good by presenting a favorable image of themselves . </li></ul><ul><li>Common strategies: ingratiation, exemplification and self-promotion. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Video: Hillary Clinton “I’m your girl” http:// =6V9JBItfTZI
  8. 8. The offensive style <ul><li>people try to look good by making others look bad . </li></ul><ul><li>Common strategies: criticizing and making ironic statements. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Video: Michell Obama takes a shot at Hillary Clinton http:// =sN1qZMBE9Gc
  10. 10. The protective style <ul><li>people try not to look bad by avoiding the conveyance of negative impressions . </li></ul><ul><li>Common strategies: avoiding public attention, minimal self-disclosure and a passive interaction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Video: Sarkozy walks out… http:// =xkapbaK32PM
  12. 12. The defensive style <ul><li>people try not to look bad by fighting off negative typifications . </li></ul><ul><li>Common strategies: denial, justification and making excuses. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Video: Bill Clinton “That Woman” http:// =_5GDrYiK02U
  14. 14. Uniqueness of the research <ul><li>Filling a gap in the literature: impression management styles and strategies have only few applications in educational research and in teacher education. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to examine how teachers operate impression management mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Opening a window into their inner cognitive world, to which research has only a limited access. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Research questions <ul><li>What impressions interns make through their self-reported cases? </li></ul><ul><li>2) How do interns construct those impressions? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research context Internship period in Israel At school At the university Mentor Group workshop
  17. 17. Participants X 51 Workshop 1: 17 interns Workshop 2: 17 interns Workshop 3: 17 interns Beginning teachers
  18. 18. Background details <ul><li>Gender - 37 women, 14 men. </li></ul><ul><li>Sector – 26 Arabs, 25 Jewish. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching level – 21 high-school teachers, 14 elementary school teachers, 7 middle-school teachers, 7 middle & high-school teachers, 2 other. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-matter – 19 language teachers, 9 special education teachers, 7 humanistic studies teachers, 6 environmental studies teachers, 4 exact sciences teachers, 6 other. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Data collection <ul><li>Written detailed description of an event or a dilemma, which the interns were concerned about, and for which they needed the group’s support. </li></ul><ul><li>Running of a virtual forum regarding the case throughout the year. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2 cases 9 cases 9 cases 8 cases 11 cases 3 cases 6 cases 2 cases
  21. 21. Data analysis <ul><li>Qualitative content analysis in stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1: Identifying what kinds of impressions the interns made through their case descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Sorting the descriptions of the cases into Schüt z's four self-presentation styles, and to their sub-categories . </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: determining the frequency of each style and strategy, and examining the relationships between styles and strategies. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Initial findings <ul><li>Interns used all Sch ü tz's four self-presentation styles , with the protective style being used less dominantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Interns usually used a combination of a few self-presentation styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Interns used the cases to present themselves as competent and serious teachers, as well as to encourage the group to support them. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Illustration: Shiraz’s case (pseudonym)
  24. 24. A competent and serious teacher <ul><li>Offensive self-presentation: making the class look bad (in general) </li></ul><ul><li>Background details: a major subject, a final exam is coming up this year, not a very strong class. </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable conditions for learning: only 17 pupils in the class, a private school. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Statement: unawareness of the need to invest a lot in the major subject. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Strengthening the statement by giving examples: constant complains about homework, about the amount of material required to study, and about lack of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive self-presentation: making the class look bad (the exam) </li></ul><ul><li>Complains about scheduling an exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to avoid the exam by approaching the homeroom teacher. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The pupils actions while handing out the exam: only two pupils took the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>The pupils actions the day before: planning not to take the exam by phone calls and MSN. </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive self-presentation: building a favorable image of Shiraz </li></ul><ul><li>Mentioning that she has no serious discipline problems with the class. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Shiraz’s actions in response to the pupils' complaint: narrowing down the material to only two chapters; rescheduling the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Shiraz’s response to the homeroom request: no apologies and giving in, standing up for herself and explaining the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation with the subject-matter coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>Shiraz’s actions while realizing most of the pupils didn’t take the exam: investigation of the case and coming back with results. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Defensive self-presentation: everyone is backing me up </li></ul><ul><li>The subject-matter coordinator perceives the same problem concerning this class. </li></ul><ul><li>The homeroom teacher left the decision whether to postpone the exam or not to her and also informed the pupils of it. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject-matter coordinator's response for the situation: asking Shiraz not to postpone the exam. </li></ul>
  29. 29. In sum <ul><li>Shiraz succeeds in establishing the impression that she is competent and serious by using offensive, assertive and defensive self-presentations. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Discussion <ul><li>Interns made an impression of competence through their self-presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>This impression is well associated with a novice state, which is characterized by a tendency to be concerned about how other people see them as teachers. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The study exhibits the potential of using self-presentation styles and strategies for beginning teachers’ research: </li></ul><ul><li>A possible explanation for the almost 50% attrition rate of beginning teachers from the profession throughout the first five years of teaching. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The study also exhibits the potential of using self-presentation styles and strategies for improving beginning teachers’ practice: </li></ul><ul><li>I ntroducing self-presentation styles and strategies to teachers as an interpretive lens for analyzing their own practice ---> teachers can learn to manage the impressions they make, and perform accordingly. </li></ul>
  33. 33. References <ul><li>Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Doubleday Anchor Books, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Schütz, A. (1998). Assertive, Offensive, Protective, and Defensive Styles of Self-Presentation: A Taxonomy. The Journal of Psychology , Vol. 132, No. 6, pp. 611-628. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thank you for listening
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